6th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)
|6th Armoured Division|
Shoulder sleeve insignia of the 6th Armoured Division.
|Size||Second World War|
343 tanks[nb 1][nb 2]
|Sir John Crocker|
Sir Gerald Templer
The 6th Armoured Division was an armoured division of the British Army, created in September 1940 during the Second World War. In October 1940, armoured regiments within the Division, such as the 2nd Lothian and Border Horse, were supplied with Matilda MkI.I tanks, then in May 1942 Crusader MkII tanks, in August 1942 Valentine Mk.V tanks and finally in October Crusader MKIIIs. In North Africa tankers were finally put on an almost equal footing to their Panzer counterparts when the M4A2 Sherman medium tank was added to their inventory by March 1943. In November/December 1942 The division participated in the Operation Torch assault landings in Bone, closest to the Axis Forces in all the Torch landings that stretched from Morocco to the Tunisian border. In November 1942 they saw their first action as part of V Corps of the British First Army, First Allied Army in the Tunisia Campaign. In March 1943, around the same time when most of the units had been supplied with American M4A2 Shermans, the Sixth Division came under IX Corp. After Tunisia, the Division participated in the Italian Campaign as part of the British Eighth Army and ended the war in Austria, again under the command of V Corps.
The division was formed in the United Kingdom under Northern Command on 12 September 1940, commanded by Major-General John Crocker, an officer of the Royal Tank Regiment who had recently fought in the Battle of France. The division initially had the 20th and 26th Armoured Brigades under command, as well as the 6th Support Group. In late April 1942, the 20th Armoured Brigade was transferred from the division and replaced by the 38th (Irish) Infantry Brigade and the 6th Support Group was disbanded in June. The 6th Armoured Division, now commanded by Major General Charles Keightley, taking over from Major General Charles Gairdner, soon began intensive training in preparation for service overseas.
Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the joint Anglo-American invasion of French North Africa during the Second World War in the North African Campaign, starting on 8 November 1942. On 22 November, the North African Agreement finally placed Vichy French North Africa on the side of the Allied powers, allowing the Allied garrison troops to be sent forward to the front. By this time the Axis powers had been able to build up their forces and outnumber the Allies. The Allies had only two brigade groups, one of which was the 26th Armoured Brigade, and some additional armour and artillery for an attack on Tunisia. The Allies believed if they moved quickly, before the newly arrived Axis forces were fully organised, they would still be able to capture the capital Tunis at relatively little cost. The plan called for the Allies to advance along the two roads and take Bizerte and Tunis. Once Bizerte was taken Torch would come to an end. Attacking in the north towards Bizerte would be the British 36th Infantry Brigade, supported by Hart Force, a small armoured group from the British 6th Armoured Division.
To the south, the British 11th Infantry Brigade supported on their left by 'Blade Force', an armoured regimental group commanded by Colonel Richard Hull, which included the tanks of the 17/21st Lancers of the 26th Armoured Brigade, a US light tank battalion plus motorised infantry, paratroops, artillery, anti-tank and anti-aircraft guns and engineers. Both infantry brigades were from the British 78th (Battleaxe) Infantry Division, whose commander, Major-General Vyvyan Evelegh, was in command of the offensive. (Evelegh was later to command the 6th Armoured Division.) The operation narrowly failed with the modest attacking forces getting to within 10 mi (16 km) of Tunis before the Axis troops, which had mainly been flown in, were able to organise their defences and stop the Allied advance. By the end of 1942, a stalemate had set in as both sides built up their forces.
On 30 January 1943, the German 21st Panzer Division (veterans of the Afrika Korps under Generalfeldmarschall Erwin Rommel) and three Italian divisions met elements of the French forces near Faïd, the main pass from the eastern arm of the mountains into the coastal plains. The French were overrun and two US units near them were surrounded. Several counter-attacks were organised, including a number by the US 1st Armored Division but these were beaten off with ease. After three days, the Allied forces had been forced to pull back and were withdrawn into the interior, to make a new forward defensive line at the small town of Sbeitla.
The Germans and Italians started forward once again the following week to take Sbeitla. They were held up for two days but eventually the defence started to collapse on the night of 16 February 1943 and the town lay empty by midday on 17 February (see also the Battle of Sidi Bou Zid). The entirety of the interior plains in Axis hands and the remaining Allied forces retreated further, to the two passes on the western arm of the mountains into Algeria, at Sbiba and Kasserine. It was during this time that the 38th (Irish) Brigade left the division, to be replaced by the 1st Guards Brigade from the 78th (Battleaxe) Division.
The Axis offensive stopped, even as the US II Corps (Major General Lloyd Fredendall) retreated in disarray. Eventually Rommel decided his next course of action was to simply take the American supplies on the Algerian side of the western arm of the mountains. Although doing little for his own situation, it would seriously upset any possible American actions from that direction.
On 19 February 1943, Rommel launched what would become the Battle of Kasserine Pass. After two days of advances through the American defences, the Afrika Korps and the Italians had suffered few casualties, while the American forces lost 16,000 men and two-thirds of their tanks. During the battle the Italian 131st Centauro Armoured Division captured more than 3,000 American soldiers. On the night of 21 February 1943, the 6th Armoured and 46th Infantry Divisions, arrived to bolster the American defence, having been pulled from the British lines facing the Germans at Sbiba. Counter-attacks by Italian troops were also ordered on the British and Americans. Two battalions of experienced Bersaglieri soldiers are recorded by the 23rd Field Regiment, Royal Artillery as having made a daylight counter-attack through the Ousseltia Plain, which was repelled. Next day opened with another German counter-attack against the Americans, until the arrival of four US artillery battalions made offensive operations difficult.
Faced with stiffening defences and the news that the Eighth Army had reached Medenine, only a few kilometres from the Mareth Line, Rommel decided to call off the attack and withdraw on the night of 22 February 1943 to support the Mareth defences, hoping that the Kasserine attack had caused enough damage to deter any offensive action from the west for the moment. The Axis forces from Kasserine reached the Mareth line on 25 February. It was after the battle of Kasserine Pass that the 6th Armoured Division was reorganised and equipped with the M4 Sherman tank. In March 1943 the division was assigned to the recently arrived IX Corps (Lieutenant-General John Crocker) the former first GOC of the division, who was later wounded in a training accident and replaced by Lieutenant-General Brian Horrocks. The division was the spearhead of the final assault by the First Army in May 1943, breaking through to Tunis. The 6th Armoured Division went on to take the surrender of the famous 90th Light Division and participated in the round up and capitulation of all Axis forces in North Africa in May 1943.
Italy was to prove different from North Africa. There was no more mobile warfare in wide open spaces. The division would spend much of its time supporting the infantry as the Allies came across defensive line after defensive line.
The Battle of Monte Cassino (also known as the Battle for Rome and the Battle for Cassino) was a costly series of four battles. In the beginning of 1944, the western half of the Gustav Line was being anchored by Germans holding the Rapido, Liri and Garigliano valleys and certain surrounding peaks and ridges. The venerable abbey of Monte Cassino, founded in AD 524 by St. Benedict was not occupied, although the Germans manned defensive positions set into the steep slopes below the abbey walls. On 15 February the monastery, high on a peak overlooking the town of Cassino, was destroyed by American B-17, B-25 and B-26 bombers. The bombing was based on the fear that the abbey was being used as a lookout post for the Axis defenders (this position evolved over time to admit that Axis military was not garrisoned there). Two days after the bombing, Fallschirmjäger (German paratroopers) poured into the ruins to defend it. From 17 January to 18 May, the Gustav defences were assaulted four times by Allied troops. These operations resulted in casualties of 55,000 Allied and 20,000 German soldiers.
Operation Diadem was the final battle at Cassino, during which the Division was a part of the British XIII Corps (Lieutenant General Sidney Kirkman). The plan was that the US II Corps on the left would attack up the coast along the line of Route 7 towards Rome. The French Corps on its right would attack from the bridgehead across the Garigliano originally created by X Corps in the first battle in January into the Aurunci Mountains, which formed a barrier between the coastal plain and the Liri Valley; XIII Corps in the centre right of the front would attack along the Liri valley, whilst, on the right, the 2nd Polish Corps would attempt to isolate the monastery and push round behind it into the Liri valley to link with the XIII Corps thrust and pinch out the Cassino position. The division took part in the advance north through central Italy under command variously of XIII Corps.
The next major engagements were along the Gothic Line defences. The 6th Armoured Division, now under Major General Gerald Templer (replaced by Major General Horatius Murray after Templer was injured in early August), was now part of XIII Corps, which had been assigned to the US Fifth Army (Lieutenant General Mark W. Clark) to form its right flank and fight in the high Apennine Mountains during Operation Olive in August and September 1944. The Gothic Line, also known as Linea Gotica, formed Generalfeldmarschall Albert Kesselring's last major line of defence in the final stages of the Second World War during the fighting retreat of the German forces in Italy. The 6th Armoured Division captured the San Godenzo Pass on Route 67 to Forlì on 18 September.
Spring 1945 Offensive
In the fertile plains of Northern Italy, the mountains gave way to ditches, canals and flood banks. As the wet winter weather, which had turned the rivers into torrents and swamped the ground receded, the Fifth and Eighth Armies were able to launch their final offensive in Italy in March 1945. The 6th Armoured Division had re-joined the Eighth Army as part of V Corps. On the right wing of the armies, V Corps attacked across the Senio river and then the Santerno river. Elements of the 56th (London) Infantry Division and the 78th (Battleaxe) Infantry Division then drove on towards the town of Argenta where the dry land narrowed to a front of only 3 mi (4.8 km) bounded on the right by Lake Comacchio, a huge lagoon running to the Adriatic coast and on the left by marshland. By 19 April, the Argenta Gap had been forced and 6th Armoured was released through the left wing of the advancing 78th Division, to swing left to race north west along the line of the river Reno to Bondeno and link up with units of the Fifth Army advancing north from west of Bologna, to complete the encirclement of the German divisions defending Bologna. On all fronts the German defence continued to be determined and effective but Bondeno was captured on 23 April. The 6th Armoured Division linked with the 10th Mountain Division (US IV Corps) the next day at Finale. The IV Corps had broken through onto the plains on 19 April, bypassing Bologna on their right. Bologna was entered by the Poles advancing up the line of Route 9 on 21 April, followed two hours later by the US II Corps from the south.
IV Corps had continued its northwards advance and reached the river Po at San Benedetto on 22 April. The river was crossed the next day and it advanced north to Verona, which was entered on 26 April. XIII Corps crossed the Po at Ficarolo on 22 April, while further east V Corps was crossing the Po by 25 April, heading towards the Venetian Line, a defensive line built behind the line of the river Adige. V Corps, met by lessening resistance, traversed the Venetian Line and entered Padua in the early hours of 29 April, to find that partisans had locked up the German garrison of 5,000 men. As April came to an end, Army Group C, the Axis forces in Italy, retreating on all fronts and having lost most of its fighting powers, was left with little option but to surrender. General Heinrich von Vietinghoff, who had taken command of the army group sent a representative to sign the instrument of surrender on behalf of the German armies in Italy on 29 April, formally bringing hostilities in Italy to an end on 2 May 1945.
The Division was reformed in May 1951 in the UK and later assigned to the British Army of the Rhine in Germany. It consisted of the 20th Armoured Brigade and 61st Lorried Infantry Brigade. It was disbanded in June 1958.
General Officer Commanding
|Appointed||General Officer Commanding|
|27 September 1940||Major-General John Crocker|
|9 January 1941||Brigadier Evelyn Fanshawe (acting)|
|22 February 1941||Major-General John Crocker|
|15 October 1941||Major-General Herbert Lumsden|
|29 October 1941||Major-General Charles Gairdner|
|19 May 1942||Major-General Charles Keightley|
|19 December 1943||Major-General Vyvyan Evelegh|
|15 February 1944||Brigadier William Edward Gordon Hemming (acting)|
|19 March 1944||Major-General Vyvyan Evelegh|
|24 July 1944||Major-General Gerald Templer (wounded 5 August 1944)|
|5 August 1944||Brigadier C.A.M.D. Scott (acting)|
|13 August 1944||Brigadier Francis Mitchell (acting)|
|21 August 1944||Major-General Horatius Murray|
|27 July 1945||Brigadier Adrian Clements Gore|
|Appointed||General Officer Commanding|
|1951||Major-General George Prior-Palmer|
|October 1953||Major-General Francis Mitchell|
|1955||Major-General Roderick McLeod|
|1957||Major-General Denis O'Connor|
Order of battle
6th Armoured Division was constituted as follows during the war:
20th Armoured Brigade (from 16 October 1940, left 23 April 1942)
- 1st Royal Gloucestershire Hussars
- 1st Northamptonshire Yeomanry
- 2nd Northamptonshire Yeomanry
- 2nd Battalion, The Rangers (became 10th Battalion, King's Royal Rifle Corps 21 March 1941)
26th Armoured Brigade (from 9 November 1940)
- 16th/5th Lancers (detached 9 January 1944, rejoined 29 March 1944)
- 17th/21st Lancers
- 2nd Lothians and Border Horse (left 17 July 1945)
- 4th Queen's Own Hussars (from 28 July 1945)
- 2nd Battalion, Tower Hamlets Rifles (from 16 October 1940, became 10th Battalion, Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own) 15 January 1941, left 29 May 1944)
- 1st Battalion, King's Royal Rifle Corps (from 22 July 1945)
6th Support Group (from 1 November 1940, disbanded 1 June 1942)
- 12th Regiment, Royal Horse Artillery (Honourable Artillery Company) (left 31 May 1942)
- 72nd Anti-Tank Regiment, Royal Artillery (left 31 May 1942)
- 51st Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery (left 31 May 1942)
- 9th Battalion, Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment (left 24 April 1942)
- 2nd Battalion, London Irish Rifles
- 1st Battalion, Royal Irish Fusiliers
- 6th Battalion, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers
1st Guards Brigade (from 24 March 1943, left 29 May 1944)
- 2nd Battalion, Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own)
- 7th Battalion, Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own)
- 10th Battalion, Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own) (from 30 May 1944, disbanded 20 March 1945)
- 1st Battalion, King's Royal Rifle Corps (from 8 March 1945, left 22 July 1945)
- 1st Battalion, Welch Regiment (from 29 June 1945)
- 2nd Battalion, Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders (from 19 July 1945)
- 1st Battalion, Royal Sussex Regiment (from 19 July 1945)
- 1st Derbyshire Yeomanry (Reconnaissance Regiment, from 10 November 1940)
- 12th Regiment, Royal Horse Artillery (Honourable Artillery Company)
- 152nd (Ayrshire Yeomanry) Field Regiment, Royal Artillery
- 72nd Anti-Tank Regiment, Royal Artillery
- 51st Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery
- 5th Field Squadron, Royal Engineers (from 19 November 1940, left 6 March 1944)
- 8th Field Squadron, Royal Engineers (from 15 December 1940)
- 625th Field Squadron, Royal Engineers (from 7 March 1944)
- 144th Field Park Squadron, Royal Engineers (from 19 November 1940)
- 6th Bridging Troop, Royal Engineers (from 25 December 1943, left 21 August 1945)
- 6th Armoured Divisional Signals Regiment, Royal Corps of Signals
The following brigades were, at various points in time, attached to the 6th Armoured Division.
- 63 light tanks, 205 medium tanks, 24 close support tanks, 25 anti-aircraft tanks, and 8 artillery observation tanks.
- These two figures are the war establishment, the paper strength of the division for 1944–1945; for information on how the division size changed over the war please see British Army during the Second World War and British Armoured formations of World War II.
- Joslen, p. 129
- Joslen, p. 9
- "17th/21st Lancers". BritishEmpire.co.uk website.
- Doherty, Richard (2013). British Armoured Divisions and their Commanders, 1939-1945. Pen & Sword. p. 102. ISBN 978-1848848382.
- Grehan, John; Mace, Martin (2014). Operations in North Africa and the Middle East 1942-1944: El Alamein, Tunisia, Algeria and Operation Torch. Pen and Sword. p. 136. ISBN 978-1783461943.
- Ford (1999), p.15
- Watson (2007), p.61
- Buckton, Henry (2014). An Illustrated Introduction to the Second World War. Amberley Publishing. ISBN 978-1445638485.
- Playfair et al. 2004, p. 293.
- Rolf, David (2001). The Bloody Road to Tunis: Destruction of the Axis Forces in North Africa November 1942-May 1943. Greenhill Books. ISBN 978-1853674457.
- Watson (2007), p. 80
- BBC Peoples War website
- Walker 2006, pp. 186–187
- Ffrench Blake, R.L.V. (1993). The 17/21st Lancers: 1759-1993. Pen and Sword. p. 99. ISBN 978-1783832064.
- "Breaking the Gustav Line". History.net. 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
- Axelrod, Alan (2008). Real History of World War II: A New Look at the Past. New York: Sterling Publishing Co Inc. p. 208. ISBN 978-1-4027-4090-9.
- Doherty, Richard (2007). Eighth Army in Italy, 1943-45: The Long Hard Slog. Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-1844156375.
- Friedrich, Karsten (2011). The Cruel Slaughter of Adolf Hitler. ISBN 978-1446795705.
- Blaxland, p. 271
- Blaxland, p. 277
- Blaxland, p. 277
- Watson and Rinaldi, p. 24
- Army Comnmands Archived 5 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- Joslen, p. 17
- 'PRIOR-PALMER, Maj.-Gen. George Erroll', in Who Was Who 1971–1980 (London: A. & C. Black, 1989 reprint, ISBN 0-7136-3227-5)
- Joslen, p. 166.
- Joslen, pp. 176–177.
- Joslen, p. 217.
- Joslen, p. 373.
- Joslen, pp. 225–226.
- Joslen, p. 297.
- Blaxland, Gregory (1979). Alexander's Generals (the Italian Campaign 1944–1945). London: William Kimber. ISBN 978-0-7183-0386-0.
- Ford, Ken (1999). Battleaxe Division. Stroud: Sutton. ISBN 978-0-7509-1893-0.
- Joslen, H. F. (2003) . Orders of Battle: Second World War, 1939–1945. Uckfield: Naval and Military Press. ISBN 978-1-84342-474-1.
- Playfair, I. S. O.; Molony, C. J. C.; Flynn, F. C. & Gleave, T. P. (2004) [HMSO 1966]. Butler, J. R. M. (ed.). The Mediterranean and Middle East: The Destruction of the Axis Forces in Africa. History of the Second World War United Kingdom Military Series. IV. Uckfield, UK: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-84574-068-8.
- Walker, Ian (2006). Iron Hulls, Iron Hearts: Mussolini's Elite Armoured Divisions in North Africa. Ramsbury: Crowood Press. ISBN 978-1-86126-839-6.
- Watson, Bruce Allen (2007) . Exit Rommel: The Tunisian Campaign, 1942–43. Stackpole Military History Series. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-3381-6.
- Watson, Graham; Rinaldi, Richard A. (2005). The British Army in Germany: An Organizational History 1947-2004. General Data. ISBN 978-0972029698.