309 BC

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Millennium: 1st millennium BC
309 BC in various calendars
Gregorian calendar309 BC
Ab urbe condita445
Ancient Egypt eraXXXIII dynasty, 15
- PharaohPtolemy I Soter, 15
Ancient Greek era117th Olympiad, year 4
Assyrian calendar4442
Balinese saka calendarN/A
Bengali calendar−901
Berber calendar642
Buddhist calendar236
Burmese calendar−946
Byzantine calendar5200–5201
Chinese calendar辛亥年 (Metal Pig)
2388 or 2328
    — to —
壬子年 (Water Rat)
2389 or 2329
Coptic calendar−592 – −591
Discordian calendar858
Ethiopian calendar−316 – −315
Hebrew calendar3452–3453
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat−252 – −251
 - Shaka SamvatN/A
 - Kali Yuga2792–2793
Holocene calendar9692
Iranian calendar930 BP – 929 BP
Islamic calendar959 BH – 958 BH
Javanese calendarN/A
Julian calendarN/A
Korean calendar2025
Minguo calendar2220 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−1776
Seleucid era3/4 AG
Thai solar calendar234–235
Tibetan calendar阴金猪年
(female Iron-Pig)
−182 or −563 or −1335
    — to —
(male Water-Rat)
−181 or −562 or −1334

Year 309 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Dictatorship of Cursor (or, less frequently, year 445 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 309 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


By place[edit]

Asia Minor[edit]


  • Cassander, who has held Roxana, widow of Alexander the Great, in prison for a number of years, has her put to death along with her young son Alexander, the nominal King Alexander IV of Macedon.
  • Antigonus attempts to renew his alliance with the Macedonian general and former regent Polyperchon, who still controls part of the Peloponnesus. He sends Heracles, the illegitimate son of Alexander the Great, to Polyperchon to be treated as a pretender to the throne of Macedonia.
  • Polyperchon manages to form an army consisting of 20,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry and challenges Cassander's army. Instead of fighting, Cassander starts negotiations with Polyperchon. By offering to make him a general of his own army and placing him as governor of Peloponnesus, he convinces Polyperchon to change allegiance to him instead of Heracles. As a result, Polyperchon murders Heracles and his mother Barsine.
  • Areus I succeeds his grandfather Cleomenes II as king of Sparta.
  • A census is carried out in Athens. 21,000 citizens, 10,000 foreign residents and 400,000 others – women, children and slaves – are living in the city.


  • Since 480 BC, an aristocratic Council of Elders has effectively ruled Carthage. The titular king of Carthage, Bomilcar, attempts a coup to restore the monarchy to full power. His attempt fails, which leads to Carthage becoming, in name as well as in fact, a republic.
  • Leaving his brother Antander to continue the defence of Syracuse, Agathocles lands in North Africa with the aim of distracting the Carthaginians from their siege of Syracuse. Agathocles concludes a treaty with Ophellas, ruler of Cyrenaica. He then takes advantage of the civil unrest in Carthage and nearly succeeds in conquering the city.

Roman Republic[edit]


  • Soon after the State of Qin has conquered the State of Shu (in modern-day Sichuan province), they employ the Shu engineer Bi Ling to create the Guanxian irrigation system, which will eventually provide for over five million people in an area of 40 to 50 square miles (130 km2), still in use today.