|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|316 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||316 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||438|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXXIII dynasty, 8|
|- Pharaoh||Ptolemy I Soter, 8|
|Ancient Greek era||116th Olympiad (victor)¹|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||甲辰年 (Wood Dragon)|
2381 or 2321
— to —
乙巳年 (Wood Snake)
2382 or 2322
|Coptic calendar||−599 – −598|
|Ethiopian calendar||−323 – −322|
|- Vikram Samvat||−259 – −258|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2785–2786|
|Iranian calendar||937 BP – 936 BP|
|Islamic calendar||966 BH – 965 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2227 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||227–228|
−189 or −570 or −1342
— to —
−188 or −569 or −1341
Year 316 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Rutilus and Laenas (or, less frequently, year 438 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 316 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Eumenes and Antigonus, rivals to Cassander for control of Macedonia, meet in the Battle of Gabiene in Media to the northeast of Susa. Antigonus defeats Eumenes, with the aid of Seleucus and Peithon (the satraps of Babylonia and Media, respectively). The result is inconclusive. However, some of Eumenes' soldiers take matters into their own hands. Learning that Antigonus has captured many of their wives, children and the cumulative plunder of nearly 40 years of continuous warfare, they secretly open negotiations with Antigonus for their safe return. They hand over Eumenes and his senior officers to Antigonus in return for their baggage and families. Eumenes is put to death by Antigonus after a week's captivity.
- Cassander returns from the Peloponnesus and defeats Macedonia's regent Polyperchon in battle. Cassander blockades Olympias, mother of the late Alexander the Great, in Pydna, where she surrenders. Cassander takes Roxana and her son Alexander IV of Macedon into his custody.
- Olympias is condemned to death by Cassander, but his soldiers refuse to carry out the sentence. She is eventually killed by relatives of those she has previously had executed.
- Cassander marries Thessaloniki, half-sister of Alexander the Great. He has Alexander's widow, Roxana and son, Alexander IV of Macedon, imprisoned at Amphipolis in Thrace. They are never to be seen alive again.
- Cassander founded on Pallenê a city called Cassandreia
- Thebes, which has been destroyed by Alexander the Great, begins to get rebuilt by Cassander with the help of the citizens of Athens.
- Rhodes (city), a Major flood occurs at least five hundred people died and many houses collapsed. 
- The Romans, with an eye to capturing Apulia, send an army (led by dictator Quintus Fabius Maximus Rullianus) to seize the town of Lucera from the Samnites. They are badly beaten in the Battle of Lautulae and the Samnites go on to reach within 32 kilometres of Rome.
- King Hui of Qin decides on the advice of General Sima Cuo to invade and annex the ancient states of Ba and Shu in Sichuan to increase Qin's agricultural output and obtain a strategic platform to defeat the state of Chu.
- Arsinoe II, Queen of Thrace and later co-ruler of Egypt with her brother and husband Ptolemy II of Egypt (d. 270 BC)
- Olympias, Epirote princess, wife of Macedonian king Philip II and the mother of Alexander the Great (b. c. 376 BC)
- Eumenes, Greek general and diadochi (b. c. (362 BC)
- Antigenes (general), Greek general
- Eudemus (general), Greek general
- Sun Bin, Chinese military strategist and general from the State of Qi
- Siculus, Diodorus. Library. IX.
- S.N. Consolo Langher. 2000. Agatocle: Da capoparte a monarca fondatore di un regno tra Cartagine e i Diadochi. Messana: Di.Sc.A.M. 79-96