Anarky

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Anarky
Anarky01.jpg
Cover of Anarky (Vol. 2) #1.
Art by Norm Breyfogle.
Publication information
PublisherDC Comics
First appearanceDetective Comics #608
(Nov. 1989)
Created byAlan Grant
Norm Breyfogle
In-story information
Alter egoLonnie Machin
Notable aliasesMoneyspider
AbilitiesArtificially enhanced intelligence;
Advanced grey hat hacker;
Master inventor;
Hybrid martial artist;
Access to gadgets and weapons.

Anarky (Lonnie Machin) is a comic book character published by DC Comics. Co-created by Alan Grant and Norm Breyfogle, he first appeared in Detective Comics #608 (November 1989) as an adversary of Batman. Originally intended to only be used in the debut story in which he appeared, Anarky was created to be a violent but highly intelligent youth who rationalized murder in the name of a higher cause. At the request of Dennis O'Neil, this early interpretation was altered before publication, and Anarky was instead portrayed as violent but non-lethal – a characterization that has remained consistent ever since.[1] Following positive reception by readers, Grant briefly considered, in secret, transforming Anarky into a new Robin, to replace the then recently deceased Jason Todd. However, this was soon abandoned when he was informed that Tim Drake had already been created to do so.[2]

Stories revolving around Anarky often focus on political and philosophical themes. Named after the philosophy of anarchism, his creation was partially influenced by Alan Moore's character "V" from V for Vendetta.[3] With Grant's transition to the philosophy of neo-tech, Anarky was transformed from a vehicle for socialist and populist philosophy, to rationalist, atheist, and free market based thought.[4]

The character experienced a brief surge in media exposure during the late '90s, beginning when Norm Breyfogle convinced Alan Grant to produce a limited series based on the character. The 1997 spin-off series, Anarky, was received with positive reviews and sales, and later declared by Grant to be among his "career highlights".[5] Batman: Anarky, a trade paperback collection of stories featuring the character, soon followed. This popular acclaim culminated, however, in a financially and critically unsuccessful ongoing solo series. The 1999 Anarky series, in which even Alan Grant has expressed his distaste,[1][3] was quickly canceled after eight issues, but not before sparking a minor controversy by suggesting Anarky was the biological son of the Joker.[3]

Following the cancellation of the Anarky series, and Alan Grant's departure from DC Comics, Anarky experienced a prolonged period of absence from DC publications, despite professional and fan interest in his return.[6][7] This period, which lasted nearly ten years, was briefly interrupted in 2005, with the character's cameo appearance in an issue of Green Arrow, and again in 2008 with an appearance in an issue of Robin.

Publication history

Creation

Originally inspired by his personal political leanings, Alan Grant entertained the idea of interjecting anarchist philosophy into Batman comic books. In an attempt to emulate the success of Chopper, a rebellious youth in Judge Dredd, he conceptualized a character as a twelve-year-old anarchist vigilante.[8] His only instructions to his partner, illustrator Norm Breyfogle, were that Anarky be designed as a cross between V and the black spy from Mad magazine's Spy vs. Spy.[9] Grant also briefly considered incorporating Krazy Kat as a third design suggestion, but decided against the idea.[8] In response to deadline pressures, and not recognizing the character's potential, Breyfogle "made no preliminary sketches, simply draping him in long red sheets". The character was also intended to wear a costume that disguised his youth, and so was fitted with a crude "head extender" that elongated his neck, creating a jarring appearance. While both of these design elements have since been dropped, more enduring aspects of the character have been his golden face mask, "priestly" hat, and his golden staff.[10]

Anarky's debut, in Detective Comics #608. Art by Norm Breyfogle.

The first Anarky story, "Anarky in Gotham City, Part 1: Letters to the Editor", appeared in Detective Comics #608, in November 1989. In Grant's earliest script for the character, Anarky was designed to be far more vicious, and to have killed his first victim. Dennis O'Neil, then editor of Detective Comics, requested that Grant "tone down" the script, as he felt Anarky becoming a murderer at such a young age was morally reprehensible. Grant consented to the request and the script was rewritten.[3] In a 2004 interview, Grant explained the motivation behind this early decision. "I wanted to play it that way because it created incredible tension in Anarky himself. Other heroes might kill — Batman used to, in the early days — but for a teenager to rationally decide to take lives...well, it hadn't been handled in comics before. But Denny was boss, and I respected his opinion and toned things down."[1]

Although Grant had not created the character to be used beyond the two-part debut story, positive reactions from reader letters and his editor caused him to change his mind. He then decided to make Lonnie Machin the third Robin, following Jason Todd, desiring a new sidekick who would act as a foil to Batman, and not have the same motivations for vengeance. This was abandoned when he learned that Tim Drake had already been created to fill the role by Marv Wolfman.[2] Quickly rebounding from this decision, Grant instead used the second appearance of Anarky as the antagonist for Tim Drake's first solo detective case.[11]

Anarky was only rarely incorporated into Batman stories by Grant, being reserved for stories in which he felt the need to make a philosophical point.[8] As the character was based on a theme of ideas, he had been given no personal, tragic past; a common motivator in comic books. This was to contrast with Batman, who fought crime due to personal tragedy, while Anarky would do so in the name of ideals and beliefs.[8] As the character was further developed, he was also intended to contrast with common teenage superheroes. Referring to the tradition established by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby of saddling teenagers with personal problems, Alan Grant purposely gave Anarky none, nor did he develop a girlfriend or social life for the character. This was intended to convey the idea that Anarky was single minded in his goals.[8] On two occasions Grant nearly went against O'Neil's early wish that Anarky not be a killer. These events include his appearance during the Knightfall saga, in which Grant briefly portrayed Anarky as preparing to kill both the Scarecrow and Batman-Azrael.[12] Grant also implied Anarky was a killer in "The Last Batman Story", part of Armageddon 2001 crossover event.[13] Grant later expressed relief that he had not fully committed to portraying Anarky as a killer, as he felt "Anarky would have compromised his own beliefs if he had taken the route of the criminal-killer."[8]

During the Anarky series, much of the character's development was influenced by the nature of Grant and Breyfogle's association. As part of the story writing process, the duo would engage in philosophical discussion carried out entirely over fax-transmissions.[14] These long, in-depth, and occasionally heated debates influenced plot points, as well as the general direction of Anarky's character development. Because of this, Breyfogle personally considers Anarky to be among their few co-creations, whereas he considers other characters they "made" together, such as the Ventriloquist, to be entirely Grant's creations.[6][15]

As Anarky was created while Grant and Breyfogle were operating under "work-for-hire" rules, DC Comics owns all rights to the Anarky character. Following the cancellation of the Anarky series, both men attempted to buy the rights to Anarky from the company, but their offer was declined.[9]

Anarky series

Anarky, not having any super powers, doesn’t have what it takes to bring the fans in month after month. He’s the sort of character you can get away with using in an annual once a year plus his own mini-series once a year and maybe as a guest star every couple of years, but he’s not capable, he’s not strong enough to hold his own monthly title. Very few characters are when it comes down to it.

Alan Grant, 2007.[3]

In May 1997, a four-issue Anarky mini-series, Anarky, was produced. Entitled "Metamorphosis", the story maintained the character's anti-authoritarian sentiments, but was instead based on the philosophy of neo-tech, an offshoot of objectivism.[4] Its success fueled the creation of a trade paperback, Batman: Anarky, which collected several of his appearances. With the continuing success of the character, Darren Vincenzo, then an editorial assistant, suggested continuing the book as an ongoing series to Norm Breyfogle, provided Alan Grant would continue as the writer. Although Grant was concerned that such a series would not be viable, he agreed to write the series at Breyfogle's insistence.[16] Grant's doubts eventually proved correct. The series was panned by critics, failed to catch on among readers, and was canceled after eight issues, however Grant has noted in an interview that it was popular in South America, perhaps owing to a history of political repression in the region.[9]

In the last issue of the Anarky series, the possibility was left open that the Joker might be Anarky's actual father. As the series is now canceled, it is unknown when or if this theory will be addressed. However, Alan Grant has said that a senior DC Comics official told him, "'Anarky will never be the Joker's son. You can write the story, but someone else will write the sequel showing it just can't be.'"[17] Later, in a dual interview with Grant and Breyfogle, the situation behind the decision was explained in greater detail, that it was originally Breyfogle's idea to make Anarky the son of The Joker, and that it was Dennis O'Neil who protested against it.

Denny only let me write that story under protest, he was totally opposed to Joker being Anarky’s father and said under no circumstances would DC allow that ... I talked him into letting me write the script anyway by saying the story would create a lot of interest and then maybe in six months time I would write the rebuttal, which proves that Anarky wasn’t the Joker’s son ... and Denny said OK but of course the monthly title got cancelled long before that point."[3]

Further, Grant and Breyfogle speculate that as Dennis O'Neil is no longer in charge of such decisions at DC Comics, and with the final editorial decision now belonging to Dan DiDio, it is no longer possible to be sure whether a rebuttal will ever be published.[3] There is yet no record of Didio ever commenting on the subject, though the DC Universe timeline chronologically prevents the Joker from being Anarky's biological father, as the character is (currently) approximately sixteen years old, while both Batman and the Joker have only existed for approximately thirteen years.[18]

Political and philosophical themes

Lonni Machin defends his actions in Detective Comics #620. Political elements include the circle-A painted in the background, and an issue of Black Flag being read in the foreground by Tim Drake.[19]

Originally, Alan Grant created Anarky as an anarchist with socialist and populist leanings. In this early incarnation, Anarky was designed as an avatar for Grant's personal meditations on political philosophy, and specifically for his burgeoning sympathy for anarchism. However, according to Grant, anarchists with whom he associated were hostile to his creation of the character, seeing it as an act of recuperation for commercial gain.[3]

Within the books, the nature of the character's political opinions were often expressed through the character's rhetoric, and by heavy use of the circle-A as a character gimmick. Other themes were occasionally used whenever Anarky was a featured character in a comic. During the Anarky limited series, fluttering newspapers were used to bear headlines alluding to social problems.[20][21] Occasionally, the titles of books found in Anarky's room would express the character's philosophical, political, or generally esoteric agenda. In Detective Comics #620, a copy of V For Vendetta can be seen on Lonnie Machin's bookshelf as homage. Other books in his room at different times have included Apostles of Revolution by Max Nomad, The Anarchists by James Joll, books labeled "Proudhon" and "Bakunin", and an issue of Black Flag;[22] various books labeled "Plato", "Aristotle", and "Swedenborg";[23] and Synergetics, by Buckminster Fuller.[24] The character also made references to Universe by Scudder Klyce, an extremely rare book.[25][26] When asked if he was concerned readers would be unable to follow some of the more obscure literary references, Grant responded that he didn't expect many to do so, but was "pleased" that some had.[9]

During the early years of the character's development, virtually no writers other than Alan Grant used Anarky in DC publications. In a rare portrayal by an author other than Grant, writer Kevin Dooly used Anarky in an issue of Green Arrow, producing an explicitly anti-firearm themed story.[27]

Over the course of several years, Grant's political opinions shifted from libertarian socialism to free market based philosophies. This could be detected within stories including the Anarky character. In a story that preceded the Anarky series, Anarky's father comments on the political books in the teenager's room, referring to Bakunin, Marx, and Ayn Rand.[28] By 1997, Grant's philosophy settled on neo-tech, a variant of neo-objectivism, and when given the opportunity to write an Anarky mini-series, he decided to redesign the character accordingly. Alan Grant laid out his reasoning in an interview just before the first issue's publication. "I felt he was the perfect character" to express neo-tech philosophy, Grant explained, "because he's human, he has no special powers, the only power he's got is the power of his own rational consciousness".[4] This new characterization was later carried on in the 1999 Anarky ongoing series.

The limited and ongoing series were both heavily influenced by neo-tech, despite the term never appearing in a single issue. New emphasis was placed on previously unexplored themes, such as the depiction of Anarky as an atheist and a rationalist.[29] Grant expressed a desire to use the comic as a vehicle for his thoughts concerning the mind and consciousness,[1] such as the topic of bicameralism.[30] While the ongoing series led the character away from the philosophy he had espoused previously, the primary theme of the character remained anti-statism. In one issue of the Anarky series, a character asked what the nature of Anarky's politics were. The response was that Anarky was neither right-wing, nor left-wing, and that he "transcends the political divide".[31] Despite taking part in multiple interviews regarding the character, Grant has never specified the nature of Anarky's political categorization, preferring to state which philosophies inspired his characterization. Norm Breyfogle has said that he believes the neo-tech influence allows Anarky to be classified as an "objectivist".[32] While the evolution of Anarky's philosophy mirrored that of Alan Grant's, the character has since seen little exposure in DC publications (as of 2008) and it is not currently possible to judge if the character's philosophy has been permanently altered.

File:Clip - The Batman Chronicles -1 (Summer 1995).jpg
Anarky debates politics with a fellow juvenile detainee in The Batman Chronicles #1.

Following the cancellation of the ongoing series, Roderick T. Long, an anarchist/libertarian political commentator and Senior Scholar at the Ludwig von Mises Institute, praised Anarky as "an impressive voice for liberty in today's comics".[33] Todd Seavey, freelance libertarian writer and editor and author of several issues of Justice League, has considered authoring an Anarky series his "dream comics project".[34]

With the publication in 2005 of an issue of Green Arrow in which Anarky guest-stared, writer James Peatty juxtaposed Anarky's radical philosophy with the liberal progressive beliefs of Green Arrow. "Everyone always goes on about what a radical Ollie is and I wanted to show that maybe that isn’t the case ... especially as Ollie’s radical credentials are pretty antiquated ... Anarky as a character – and as a broader idea – is much more radical than Ollie ..."[35]

In a review of the Anarky mini-series, Anarky was dubbed an "anti-villain", as opposed to "anti-hero", due to his highly principled philosophy, which runs counter to most villains. "In the age of the anti-hero, it only makes sense to have the occasional anti-villain as well. But unlike sociopathic vigilante anti-heroes like the Punisher, an anti-villain like Anarky provides some interesting food for thought. Sure, he breaks the law, but what he really wants is to save the world... and maybe he's right."[36] Greg Burga, of PopCultureShock.com, critiqued Anarky as "one of the more interesting characters of the past fifteen or twenty years ... because of what he wants to accomplish". He also analyzed the appeal of the character, considering the philosophy of anarchy "radical and untenable, yet still noble".[37]

Absence from DC publications

We don’t have any conclusive evidence, but Alan and I can’t help but feel that Anarky’s philosophy grated on somebody’s nerves; somebody got a look at it and didn’t like it ... So I’ve generally gotten the impression that Anarky was nixed because of its philosophy. Especially in this age of post 9/11, Anarky would be a challenge to established authority. He’s very anti-establishment, that’s why he’s named Anarky!

Norm Breyfogle, 2003.[6]

Before 1996, Anarky was a minor figure in the DC universe, having only appeared in a small number of Batman-related titles, as well as Green Arrow[27] and Who's Who in the DC Universe.[38] This changed with the publication of the Anarky limited series in 1997, the Batman: Anarky trade paperback in 1998, and featured appearances in both DCU Heroes Secret Files and Origins #1[39][40][41] and the ongoing Anarky series in 1999. However, immediately after the financial failure of Anarky vol.2, the character was given only minor cameos in the Sins of Youth fifth-week event,[42][43] and Wonder Woman.[44] The character then entered a period of absence from DC publications that lasted several years. Norm Breyfogle attempted to continue using the character in other comics during this time, co-writing an issue of The Spectre with John Marc DeMatteis. When this story was rejected, Breyfogle came to suspect the character's prolonged absence was due in part to censorship.[6]

Since the cancellation of the Anarky series, Alan Grant has disassociated himself from the direction of the character. In a 2004 interview he recalled that he had been asked by James Peatty for a critique of an Anarky/Green Arrow script the latter had written. Peatty desired to know if his presentation of Anarky had been correct. Grant declined to read the story, explaining during the interview, "you have to let these things go".[1] The script was published in 2005 and Anarky made the guest appearance billed as his "return" to DC continuity in Green Arrow #51, Anarky in the USA.[45] Despite this "return", Anarky failed to make any further appearances.

During a panel at WonderCon 2006, multiple requests were made by the audience for Anarky to appear in DC Comic's limited series, 52. In response, Dan DiDio announced two weeks later, at a DC Comics panel during the 2006 New York Comic Con, that the writing team of 52 had decided to create a part for the character.[7] 52 editor, Michael Siglain, later responded to a reader question concerning when Anarky would appear in the series, estimating Anarky would appear in later issues,[46] though 52 concluded without Anarky making an appearance and no explanation given by anyone involved in the production of the series.

On 09-15-2008, DC Comics announced that Anarky will reappear in a December issue of Robin, issue #181.[47]

Fictional character biography

Highlighting their political conflict, the cover of Detective Comics #609 contrasts Anarky as a champion of the oppressed, and Batman as a champion of the law. Art by Norm Breyfogle.

Lonnie Machin is introduced as "Anarky" as early as his first appearance in Detective Comics #608, withholding his origin story for a later point. He is established as an uncommonly philosophical and intelligent twelve-year-old.[48] The debut story of the character failed to provide a back story to explain his behavior, but a narrative from Batman reveals that he is a socially conscious and arrogant child who believes he knows how to solve societies' problems. Convinced that only he can do so, he becomes a vigilante and fashions weapons – a stun baton and smoke bombs – in labs at school.[25] He went to lengths to disguise his age and appearance by creating a costume with a false head to increase his height. This was in fact intended as a ruse on the part of writer Alan Grant to disguise the character's true identity, and to confuse the reader into believing Anarky to be Lonni Machin's father, Mike Machin.[25]

The character made his debut as "Anarky" by responding to compliants in the newspaper and attacking the offending sources, such as the owner of a factory whose byproduct waste is polluting local river water.[48] Anarky and Batman ultimately come to blows, and during their brief fight, Batman deduces that Anarky is actually a young child. During this first confrontation, he is aided by a band of homeless men, including Legs, a homeless cripple who became loyal to him and would assist him in later appearances. After being caught, Lonnie is locked away in a juvenile detention center.

Anarky's next appearance came in Detective Comics #620, approximately a few months after his initial appearance, according to the DC Universe sliding timescale. During his detention, he increases his computer skills to the point of becoming an advanced grey hat computer hacker. He takes on the online user alias "Moneyspider" to steal millions of dollars from western corporations, including Wayne Enterprises, outmaneuvering Batman's own data security in the process. He then uses the money to create bank accounts for poor farmers in third world countries. He is caught by Tim Drake in the latter's first solo detective case.[49]

In the following years, Anarky is portrayed as frequently escaping from the center and peregrinating around Gotham City. At this time Anarky was a lesser known, but established antagonist in the Batman franchise. However, his back-story had still yet to be elaborated upon. Grant provided hints to Anarky's origin in Robin Annual #1, The Anarky Ultimatum, part of Eclipso: The Darkness Within crossover event. Within the story it is revealed that Lonnie Machin was a highly intelligent child who from an early age read prodigiously at local bookstores, but had few friends.[50] It wouldn't be until 1995 that Grant would finally reveal Lonni Machin's history.

In one of his more notable appearances, during the Knightfall saga from Shadow of The Bat #16–18 , he takes on both Scarecrow and Batman-Azrael. Grant made use of Anarky at this time to advance a theory influenced by Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, suggesting that Batman indirectly encourages super-villains to come into existence.[12]

In 1995, Grant began the slow increase in Anarky's abilities that would culminate in the Anarky series. In the Anarky story arc from Batman: Shadow of the Bat #40–41 , Lonnie is released from juvenile detention, and builds a machine that allows him to fuse both hemispheres of his brain, giving him increased intelligence, and what he perceives as enlightenment. Creating an online bookstore, Anarco, to propagate radical literature, he begins to accumulate funds that he donates through another front company, The Anarkist Foundation, to radical organizations, such as eco-warriors and gun protesters, or kept for his own projects. These story devices served to further improve Anarky's skill set, and increase his intelligence and financial independence.[51]

During the Anarky storyline, Alan Grant finally revealed Lonni Machin's origins in full, using a farewell letter to his parents to provide exposition into the character's motivations.[52]

File:Clip - Robin Annual -01 (1992).jpg
Tim Drake investigates Lonni Machin's past in Robin Annual #1. The brief scene provides clues to Anarky's origin story years before it would be fully revealed.

Lonnie Machin is an ordinary child who, while abnormally intelligent, is apolitical and socially unaware. At eleven he gains a foreign pen pal, Xuasus, as part of a school program. Every month they would write to each other about their lives; Lonnie about how wonderful the United States is; Xuasus about the poverty and political repression that made up his nation. After a year of contact, Xuasus stops writing, and all of Lonnie's letters are returned as undeliverable. A year later Lonnie learns of Xuasus' fate. He writes Lonnie a final letter explaining that his father has been arrested, his mother has taken ill, his sister has died of malnutrition, and at age eleven, he is homeless and fending for himself. Driven with worry for his friend, Lonnie fervently learns about Xuasus' country, discovering it to be a Third World dictatorship at war with Marxist guerrillas, with arms dealers from The West making millions in profits from the conflict.[52]

Further studies into war and political violence leads him to hold radical sympathies. He comes to view all wars as being caused by political elites, with common individuals forced or cajoled into fighting on behalf of the former. He also began to read more into esoteric studies regarding science and philosophy, laying the groundwork for his advanced intelligence, and leading to his cover as a straight-A student with a normal job as a paper-boy. Eventually he discovers the extremely rare book, Universe by Scudder Klyce, which attempted to unify all knowledge. Within it he finds several passages that convince him of the need to reshape society. He becomes convinced that if he cannot help Xuasus, he can fight on in his memory and give the oppressed people of Gotham City hope.[52]

During the climax of the Anarky storyline, it is implied that Anarky dies in a large explosion.[52] However, the 1997 mini series Anarky vol.1 #1–4 reveals that he survives the event, but chooses to shed the encumbrance of his double life by faking his death.[53] Anarky works in seclusion to further his goal of achieving a utopian society, briefly hiring Legs and other homeless men to monitor Batman's movements. He has several further brushes with Batman, as well as the likes of Etrigan and Darkseid.[54]

With the success of the Anarky limited series, an ongoing series was given a green light. However, Grant notes that the series was dogged by editorial restrictions. One of the earliest of these was that Grant was ordered to remove Anarky from Gotham City in Anarky vol.2 #1.[3] This was achieved by explaining that following an earthquake in Gotham Lonnie's parents disappear, their house is destroyed, and he is threatened by Batman to leave the city. As one of many refugees who escapes from No Man's Land, he relocates to a new base of operations beneath the Washington Monument.[55]

Despite numerous editorial impositions, the most controversial plot idea was suggested by Breyfogle to Grant as a means to solidify Anarky's role in the Batman franchise.[3] Beginning a search for his missing parents in Anarky vol.2 #1, he comes upon evidence that the Machins are not his biological parents, and attempts to track down his "real" parents. As revealed in Anarky vol.2 #8, his leads point to the possibility that his biological father is the Joker. He first meets his supposed biological mother, but finds that she is clinically unstable and unable to answer his questions. He then breaks into Arkham Asylum to confront the Joker himself, but is betrayed, as the Joker opportunistically attempts to escape from the Asylum without providing any firm answers.[56]

In 2005, James Peatty wrote Anarky's first guest appearance in a comic in 5 years, in Green Arrow vol.3 #51. After a period of obscurity lasting several years, Anarky resurfaces in response to a bombing in Star City that he is framed for. He teams up with Green Arrow to hunt down the guilty parties, but remains a wanted felon by authorities.[45]

Skills, abilities, and resources

Alan Grant developed Anarky as a gadgeteer; a character who relies on inventions and gadgets to compensate for a lack of superpowers. In early incarnations, he was portrayed as inexperienced, lacking in many skills, and surviving only by his ingenuity. In accordance with this, he would often quote the maxim, "the essence of anarchy is surprise".[25] Later, during the two Anarky series, his abilities were increased, and he was portrayed as having enormous talents in both engineering and computer technology, as well as developing skills in martial arts. This was indicated in several comics published just before the Anarky mini-series, and later elaborated upon within the series itself. According to character dialogue, Anarky's lack of superpowers, and the urgency with which he views his cause, has necessitated that he increase his abilities drastically over the years.[57]

This steady evolution in Anarky's abilities was criticized in a review of the Anarky ongoing series, by Fanzing contributor Matt Morrison. Morrison saw it as having overpowered the character, preventing the suspension of disbelief that was previously possible for a character still described as in his mid-teens, and contributing to the failure of the series.[58]

Strategy

The character often utilizes cunning and intelligence as tools for victory. During the Knightfall saga, the character states, "The essence of anarchy is surprise -- spontaneous action... even when it does require a little planning!"[12] On one occasion he defeated Batman in combat by confusing the hero with holographic projections long enough to attack and subdue him.[57] On another occasion he avoided a gang of villains too dangerous to fight, choosing instead to use a flare gun to anonymously signal for Batman to come, and then pitted the two groups against each other.[12] When in need of assistance for intelligence gathering, or a diversion, he would call on the help of the homeless community in Gotham, who had supported him since his first appearance, even going so far as to assail Batman to allow Anarky to get away during their first confrontation.[25]

Equipment

File:Panel scan - Detective Comics -608 (November 1989).jpg
Anarky uses an improvised gas-bomb to knock out a guard in Detective Comics #608.

Early descriptions of the character's gadgets focused on low-tech, improvised tools and munitions, such as flare guns,[12] swing lines,[50] throwing stars,[59] small spherical explosives with wick fuses (mimicking those stereotypically associated with 19th-century anarchists),[48] gas-bombs,[48] smoke bombs,[50] and his primary weapon, a powerful electric stun baton.[48] A grappling hook was later incorporated into the golden rod itself, allowing dual functionality.[53]

The character's tools often incorporate the circle-A into them. The symbol of anarchy is often drawn on the spherical bombs, his throwing stars take the shape of the circle-A, and the flare guns occasionally leave circle-A smoke trails behind. In his earliest incarnations, he would also use red spray-paint to leave the circle-A as his calling card,[48] much in the same way that V would leave a "circle-V" symbol.[60]

Costume

Anarky's costume has undergone two phases in design, both of which were created by Norm Breyfogle, in accordance with suggestions by Alan Grant.

The original costume was composed of a large, flowing red robe, over a matching red jumpsuit. A red, wide brimmed hat baring the circle-a insignia; a golden, metallic face mask; and red hood, completed the outfit. The folds of the robe concealed various weapons and gadgets.[48] This costume was also designed to disguise Anarky's height, and so included a "head extender" under his hood, which elongated his neck. This was also intended to create a subtle awkwardness that the reader would subconsciously suspect as being fake, until the reveal at the end of Anarky's first appearance. Despite the revelation of this false head, which would no longer serve its intended purpose at misdirecting the reader, the head extender was included in several return appearances. Breyfogle finally eliminated this aspect of the character during the 1997 limited series.[10]

Anarky's second costume retained the red jumpsuit, gold mask, and hat, but excised the red robe and head extender. New additions included a red cape, golden utility belt, and a single, large circle-a across the chest, akin to Superman's iconic "S" shield. The golden mask was also redesigned as a reflective, but flexible material that wrapped around Anarky's head, allowing for the display of facial movement and emotion. This had previously been impossible, as the first mask was an inflexible, metal mask. Within the Anarky series, secondary costumes were displayed in Anarky's base of operations. Each was slightly altered in design, but followed the same basic theme. These were designed for use in various situations, but only one, a "universal battle suit", was used during the brief series.[55]

Combat skills

In 1995, Alan Grant described Anarky as having begun to train in martial arts, following the character's time in juvenile hall.[61] By 1997, this ability was described as having progressed remarkably, and to have included training in multiple styles, including Aikido, Karate, Jujutsu, Kung Fu, which he "integrated" into a hybrid fighting style.[57] Following previous modes of behavior, he studied all possible fighting arts, but failed to specialize in any. This largely helped him defend himself against most untrained criminals, but was later described as a decisive weakness whenever he fought opponents who were masters of a particular style.[62]

Logistics, technology, and enhanced intelligence

As a wanted criminal, Anarky's methods and goals were described as leaving him with little logistical support amongst the heroic community, or the public at large, relegating him to underground operation. In his earliest incarnations, he was described as having developed skills as a grey hat computer hacker to steal enormous sums of money from various corporations.[49] This addition to the character's skill set made him the second major hacker in the DC universe, being preceded by Barbara Gordon's debut as Oracle,[63] and was quickly adapted by 1992 to allow the character to gain information on other heroes and villains from police computer networks.[50] By 1997, the skill was further increased to allow him to tap into Batman's supercomputer,[53] and the Justice League Watchtower.[55]

File:Clip - Anarky - v1 - -3 (July 1997).jpg
Anarky tracks Batman's movements in Anarky (vol.1) #3. The scene exemplifies Anarky's reliance on the homeless, technology, and his front corporation, Anarco.

By 1996 he was described as using the Internet to earn money through his online bookstore, Anarco, which he used as a front company to propagate his philosophy, and to communicate emergency messages to the general public warning of impending disaster.[64] A second front organization, The Anarkist Foundation, was also developed to offer grants to radical causes he supports.[65] In one issue of the Anarky series, a brief scene is shown in which Lonnie Machin uses the Internet to hold an instant messaging session with the public in which he debated the need for war, arguing that money and time used on the military research would be better spent on agriculture to solve the global overpopulation crisis.[66]

In 1996 Grant used a Biofeedback Learning Enhancer as a plot device to increase Lonnie's abilities. The device was described as being capable of increasing Anarky's brain functions by a multiple of ten.[67] With this enhanced intelligence, and the increased financial independence described above, Anarky went on to create an on-board AI computer, MAX (Multi-Augmented X-Program);[55] a crude but fully functioning teleportation device capable of summoning a Boom tube, cobbled together from mathematical analysis and "hard lab work";[68] scratch-built a Justice League Teleport Pad;[69] excavated an underground base with his Boom tube, hidden below the Washington Monument;[55] and briefly commanded his own Green Lantern power ring.[70]

Portrayed as an atheist by Alan Grant, Anarky espoused the belief that "science is magic explained",[71] and was shown to use scientific analysis to explain and manipulate esoteric forces of magic and energy, such as the demon Blasphemy,[53] the power of Darkseid,[68] and the spirit of Eclipso.[50]

Alternate versions

Armageddon 2001

In Batman Annual # 15, "The Last Batman Story", part of the Armageddon 2001 crossover event,[72] the time traveler, Waverider, shows Batman a possible future. In the (relatively) not-too-distant year of 2001, an aged Batman is found guilty of murder for the accidental death of The Penguin, and sentenced to death. Anarky, now in his mid-twenties, sympathizes with the fallen hero and breaks into the prison in an attempt to rescue Batman mere hours before the execution is to take place. Believing himself guilty, Batman initially refuses to escape. However, when he discovers evidence that the accident was set up by a third party, he asks Lonnie Machin to switch costumes with him so that he can pursue the true murderer. In contrast to his original counterpart, it is implied that this version of Anarky was willing to kill opponents.

The Tyrant

In Batman: Shadow of the Bat Annual #2, an Elseworlds story entitled "The Tyrant",[73] a corrupt Batman (under the influence of Jonathan Crane) uses his resources to usurp power in the city of Gotham and institute a police state in which he exercises hegemonic control over the city's population. Anarky, armed with a Holo-Costume projector to disguise himself, becomes a resistance leader and attempts to undermine and disrupt Batman's control. When Lonnie uncovers a secret plan to pump tranquilizer gas into the city water supply, drugging the populace to prevent crime, he unites the city's remaining villains to storm the centers of Batman's power and overthrow his tyranny. After Crane's manipulations are exposed, Batman confesses his crimes to the people of Gotham City, who then burn him alive inside Wayne Manor. The story ends with a quote by Mikhail Bakunin: "(For reasons of the state) black becomes white and white becomes black, the horrible becomes humane and the most dastardly felonies and atrocious crimes become meritorious acts."[74]

The Batman Adventures

Anarky, as he appeared in The Batman Adventures #31. Cover art by Dev Madan.

Anarky appeared in The Batman Adventures #31, "Anarky".[75] Anarky begins holding wealthy business elites hostage and places them on public trial, broadcast from a pirate TV show. He charges his victims with such crimes as the creation of land mines that kill or cripple thousands, funding Third World dictators, polluting the air with toxic chemicals, and profiting from wage slavery. He also captures Bruce Wayne, and while conceding that Wayne has ethical business practices, implicates him for "the company he keeps". At each trial, Anarky gives the "defendants" the opportunity to speak for themselves, and then asks the viewing audience to phone in one hundred calls if they find them not guilty, which will deactivate bombs set before the men. As the citizens begin to debate the fate of these men amongst themselves, Robin succeeds in tracking down the broadcast. However, when he fails to prevent the explosions from taking place, it is revealed that the bombs are fake, and the public trials were only intended to expose the men and raise public awareness. Anarky is ultimately apprehended, but Robin is left questioning whether he was right in his charges against the businessmen. As of 2008, this story features the only encounter between any version of Anarky and Dick Grayson.

Bibliography

List of titles

  • Anarky 1–4 (May–Aug, 1997), New York City, NY: DC Comics
A limited series, Anarky was retroactively labeled the "first volume" following the continuation of the series in 1999.
A trade paperback collecting appearances of Anarky in various Batman comics.
  • Anarky v2, 1–8 (May–Dec, 1999), New York City, NY: DC Comics
A financially and critically unsuccessful ongoing series, continuing the Anarky mini-series.

List of significant stories

Anarky begins a campaign of revolt in Gotham City. First appearance of Anarky.
  • "Anarky" Batman: Shadow of the Bat 40–41 (Jul–Aug, 1995), New York City, NY: DC Comics
Anarky battles a terrorist he has mistakenly funded. Reveals Anarky's origin story.
  • "Metamorphosis" Anarky 1–4 (May–Aug, 1997), New York City, NY: DC Comics
Anarky attempts to "deprogram" humanity of all social constraints. Revamps Anarky with new abilities, costume, and philosophy.
The final issue of the Anarky ongoing series. The controversial story suggests the Joker may be Anarky's father. Has been neither confirmed nor refuted by any other DC publication.

See also

Footnotes and citations

  1. ^ a b c d e Cooling, William (2007-04-21). "Getting The 411: Alan Grant". 411Mania.com. Archived from the original (html) on 2005-11-13. Retrieved 2004-08-14. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "fouroneone" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  2. ^ a b Berridge, Edward. "Alan Grant" (html). 2000 AD Review. Retrieved 2007-01-26. The idea of Anarky-as-Robin was briefly raised at the end of the original two-parter in which he was introduced. When Batman briefs Commissioner Gordon over Anarky's capture he admits to admiring his ingenuity and desire to change the world for the better. Gordon expresses concern that Batman may be thinking of having him as a new Robin, but Batman denies this. Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Steve Mitchell (i). "Anarky in Gotham City, Part 2: Facts About Bats" Detective Comics 609 (December 1, 1989), DC Comics
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Best, Daniel (2007-01-06). "Alan Grant & Norm Breyfogle". Adelaide Comics and Books. ACAB Publishing. Archived from the original (html) on 2007-04-27. Retrieved 2007-05-18.
  4. ^ a b c Kraft, Gary S. (1997-04-08). "Holy Penis Collapsor Batman! DC Publishes The First Zonpower Comic Book!?!?!". GoComics.com. Archived from the original (html) on 1998-02-18. Retrieved 1998-02-18. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  5. ^ "The Panel: Why Work In Comics?" (html). Silverbulletcomics.com. 2005-09-20. Retrieved 2007-12-15. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  6. ^ a b c d Best, Daniel (2003). "Norm Breyfogle @ Adelaide Comics and Books" (html). Adelaide Comics and Books. ACAB Publishing. Retrieved 2007-01-24.
  7. ^ a b "NYCC: DCU - Better Than Ever Panel". newsarama.com. Newsarama.com, LLC. Retrieved 2007-01-25. Referring to all the requests for Anarky appearing in 52 that were made two weeks ago at WonderCon, Didio said that since that San Francisco show, the writers have come up with a way to include the character in the story.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Grant, Alan (1999). "Intro by Alan Grant". Batman:Anarky. New York: DC Comics. pp. pp. 3–4. ISBN 1-56389-437-8.CS1 maint: Extra text (link)
  9. ^ a b c d Berridge, Edward (2005-01-12). "Alan Grant" (html). 2000 AD Review. Retrieved 2007-01-26. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "2000AD Review" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  10. ^ a b Breyfogle, Norm. "Anarky Trade Paperback Intro" (html). Normbreyfogle.com. Retrieved 2007-02-11.
  11. ^ Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Steve Mitchell (i). "Rite of Passage Part 3: Make Me a Hero" Detective Comics 620 (August 1, 1990), DC Comics
  12. ^ a b c d e Alan Grant (w), Bret Blevins (p), Mike Manley (i). "The God of Fear, Part One of Three" Shadow of The Bat 16 (September 1, 1993), DC Comics Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "God of Fear one" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  13. ^ Alan Grant, John Wagner (w), Jim Fern (p), Steve Leahloha (i). "The Last Batman Story" Batman Annual 15 ({{{date}}}), DC Comics
  14. ^ Cooling, William (07-04-21). "Getting The 411: Alan Grant". 411Mania.com. Archived from the original (html) on 2005-11-13. Retrieved 2004-08-14. Norm Breyfogle agreed with me in principle, but argued so much in detail that sometimes I wondered who was the writer--I'd get 50-page faxes from him arguing a point I'd made in the script. Great fun. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  15. ^ Jimenez, Phil (2008), "Anarky", in Dougall, Alastair (ed.), The DC Comics Encyclopedia, London: Dorling Kindersley, p. 14, ISBN 0-7566-4119-5
  16. ^ Carey, Edward (2006-10-10). "Catching Up With Norm Breyfogle and Chuck Satterlee" (html). Comic Book Resources. Retrieved 2007-01-24.
  17. ^ "The Panel: Do Fans REALLY Want Change?" (html). Silverbulletcomics.com. 2004-06-08. Retrieved 2007-01-24. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  18. ^ "ANARKY Vol. 2 #8" (html). The Unofficial Guide to the DC Universe. Retrieved 2007-01-24. Greta claims that the Joker is Lonnie's father and recollects when she met him. However, as it is not 16 years since the Joker debuted in the DC Universe Lonnie's age suggests that even if the Joker is his real father the circumstances surrounding his birth had to be different from what Greta tells him.
  19. ^ Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Steve Mitchell (i). "Rite of Passage Part 3: Make Me a Hero" Detective Comics 620: 19/3 (August 1, 1990), DC Comics
  20. ^ Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Josef Rubinstein (i). "Metamorphosis, Part One: Does a Dog Have a Buddha Nature?" Anarky 1: 8, 14 (May 1, 1997), DC Comics
  21. ^ Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Josef Rubinstein (i). "Metamorphosis Part 3: The Economics of The Madhouse" Anarky 3: 1,12,13 (July 1, 1997), DC Comics
  22. ^ Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Steve Mitchell (i). "Rite of Passage Part 3: Make Me a Hero" Detective Comics 620: 19/1, 3, 4 (August 1, 1990), DC Comics
  23. ^ Alan Grant (w), John Paul Leon (p), Ray McCarthy (i). "Anarky, Part One: Prophet of Doom" Batman: Shadow of the Bat 40: 4/1 (July 1, 1995), DC Comics
  24. ^ Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Josef Rubinstein (i). "Metamorphosis Part 4: Fanfare for the Common Man" Anarky 4: 16/2 (August 1, 1997), DC Comics
  25. ^ a b c d e Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Steve Mitchell (i). "Anarky in Gotham City, Part 2: Facts About Bats" Detective Comics 609 (December 1, 1989), DC Comics
  26. ^ Alan Grant (w), John Paul Leon (p), Ray McCarthy (i). "Anarky, Part Two: The Anarkist Manifesto" Batman: Shadow of the Bat 41 (August 1, 1995), DC Comics
  27. ^ a b Kevin Dooley (w), Michael Netzer (p), Rob Leigh (i). "Forgotten Paths" Green Arrow 89 (August 1, 1994), DC Comics
  28. ^ "He's fifteen years old, for pity's sake! Look at these books--! He should be sneaking copies of Playboy around, not Bakunin and Marx and Ayn Rand!" Alan Grant (w), John Paul Leon (p), Ray McCarthy (i). "Anarky, Part Two: The Anarkist Manifesto" Batman: Shadow of the Bat 41: 2/2, 3 (August 1, 1995), DC Comics
  29. ^ Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Josef Rubinstein (i). "Metamorphosis, Part One: Does a Dog Have a Buddha Nature?" Anarky 1: 20/5 (May 1, 1997), DC Comics
  30. ^ Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Josef Rubinstein (i). "Metamorphosis, Part One: Does a Dog Have a Buddha Nature?" Anarky 1: 6 (May 1, 1997), DC Comics
  31. ^ Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Josef Rubinstein (i). "War and Peace, Part III" Anarky v2, 6: 20/5 (October 1, 1999), DC Comics
  32. ^ Best, Daniel (2003). "Norm Breyfogle @ Adelaide Comics and Books" (html). Adelaide Comics and Books. ACAB Publishing. Retrieved 2007-01-24. I had more input on Anarky than many of the other characters we developed because we spent so much time on it and because we were involved in discussions concerning Anarky’s philosophy - which is really Alan Grant’s philosophy. I learned a lot from those discussions and of course I see lots of truth in objectivity (Anarky is an objectivist); I’m a modern western male, after all! Alan was calling his philosophy ‘Neo-tech’ but it’s basically a modernized version of Objectivism, which was Ayn Rand’s philosophy.
  33. ^ Long, Roderick T. "Anarky Page" (html). Anarky Page. Praxeology.net. Retrieved 2008-01-09.
  34. ^ Valerie D'Orazio (2006-05-05). "Anarchists Storm DC Comics!". news@silverbulletcomics. Silver Bullet Comics. Retrieved 2008-03-05.
  35. ^ M. Contino, Jennifer (2005-06-07). "James Peatty Pens Green Arrow". Comicon.com Pulse. Diamond International Galleries. Archived from the original (html) on 2007-10-21. Retrieved 2007-02-10.
  36. ^ VerBeek, Todd. "Anarky" (html). Beek's Books. Retrieved 2007-07-24.(Original emphasis.)
  37. ^ Greg Burga (2006-05-22). "Comics You Should Own #17: Detective Comics #583 - 601". Comics You Should Own. PopCultureShock. Retrieved 2008-03-05.
  38. ^ Who's Who in the DC Universe 14 (November 1, 1991), DC Comics
  39. ^ D. Curtis Johnson (w), Derec Aucoin (p), Claude St. Aubin (i). "Spies Like Us" DCU Heroes – Secret Files and Origins 1: 12/1, 2, 4 (February 1, 1999), DC Comics
  40. ^ Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (a). "An Anarky Primer" DCU Heroes – Secret Files and Origins 1: 50 (February 1, 1999), DC Comics
  41. ^ Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (a). "Profile Page: Anarky" DCU Heroes – Secret Files and Origins 1: 48 (February 1, 1999), DC Comics
  42. ^ Peter David (w), Todd Nauck (p), Lary Wright (i). "Justice for All" Young Justice: Sins of Youth 1: 10, 16, 26, 36 (May 1, 2000), DC Comics
  43. ^ Curtis Johnson (w), Carlo Barberi (p), Wayne Faucher, Juan Vlasco (i). "You Gotta Be Kidding!" Sins Of Youth: JLA, Jr. 1: 5–7 (May 1, 2000), DC Comics
  44. ^ Phil Jimenez (w), Phil Jimenez, Brandon Badeaux (p), Lanning Stucker Marzan Jr., Conrad Alquiza (i). "The Witch and The Warrior, part II: Girl Frenzy" Wonder Woman 175: 20/10 (December 1, 2001), DC Comics
  45. ^ a b James Peatty (w), Eric Battle (p), Jack Purcell (i). "Anarky In the USA" Green Arrow v3, 51 (August 1, 2005), DC Comics
  46. ^ Brady, Matt (2006-12-28). "52 (Reader Questions) About 52" (html). Newsarama.com. Newsarama.com, LLC. Retrieved 2007-05-02.
    [Reader question]: We were told Anarky would be playing a part in 52. Could you please tell us when we can expect his appearances?
    [Michael Sigln]: Check back in the late 40s.

    Reader speculation centered on the prospect of Anarky appearing in issue #48 of the series, as the solicited cover illustration was released to the public several weeks before the issues' publication. On the cover, the circle-A could be seen as a minor element in the background.
  47. ^ "ROBIN #181". dccomics.com. Warner Bros. 2008-09-15. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
  48. ^ a b c d e f g Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Steve Mitchell (i). "Anarky in Gotham City, Part 1: Letters to the Editor" Detective Comics 608 (November 1, 1989), DC Comics
  49. ^ a b Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Steve Mitchell (i). "Rite of Passage Part 3: Make Me a Hero" ''Detective Comics 620 (August 1, 1990), DC Comics Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "six twenty" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  50. ^ a b c d e Alan Grant, John Wagner (w), Tom Lyle (p), Scott Hanna (i). "The Anarky Ultimatum" Robin Annual 1 ({{{date}}}), DC Comics
  51. ^ Alan Grant (w), John Paul Leon (p), Ray McCarthy (i). "Anarky, Part One: Prophet of Doom" Batman: Shadow of the Bat 40: 18/4, 5 (July 1, 1995), DC Comics
  52. ^ a b c d Alan Grant (w), John Paul Leon (p), Ray McCarthy (i). "Anarky, Part Two: The Anarkist Manifesto" Batman: Shadow of the Bat 41: 2/2, 3 (August 1, 1995), DC Comics
  53. ^ a b c d Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Josef Rubinstein (i). "Metamorphosis Part 1: Does a Dog Have a Buddha Nature?" Anarky 1 (May 1, 1997), DC Comics
  54. ^ Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Josef Rubinstein (i). "Metamorphosis Part 1: Does a Dog Have a Buddha Nature?" Anarky 1 (May 1, 1997), DC Comics;
    Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Josef Rubinstein (i). "Metamorphosis, Part 2: Revolution Number 9" Anarky 2 (June 1, 1997), DC Comics;
    Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Josef Rubinstein (i). "Metamorphosis Part 3: The Economics of The Madhouse" Anarky 3 (July 1, 1997), DC Comics;
    Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Josef Rubinstein (i). "Metamorphosis Part 4: Fanfare for the Common Man" Anarky 4 (August 1, 1997), DC Comics.
  55. ^ a b c d e Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Josef Rubinstein (i). "Aberration! Part One: Power Play" Anarky v2, 1 (May 1, 1999), DC Comics
  56. ^ Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Josef Rubinstein (i). "The Sins of the Father" Anarky v2, 8 (December 1, 1999), DC Comics
  57. ^ a b c Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Josef Rubinstein (i). "Metamorphosis Part 3: The Economics of The Madhouse" Anarky 3 (July 1, 1997), DC Comics
  58. ^ Morrison, Matt (2000). "Anarky: Better Dead Than Read!" (html). Fanzing.com. Retrieved 2007-03-10. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  59. ^ Alan Grant (w), John Paul Leon (p), Ray McCarthy (i). "Anarky, Part One: Prophet of Doom" Batman: Shadow of the Bat 40: 18 (July 1, 1995), DC Comics
  60. ^ Alan Moore (w), David Lloyd (a). "Chapter 3: Victims" V for Vendetta: 18/5 (September 1, 1988), DC Comics, 0-930289-52-8
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  62. ^ Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Josef Rubinstein (i). "War and Peace, Part II" Anarky v2, 5 (September 1, 1999), DC Comics
  63. ^ Ostrander, John (2007). Suicide Squad (Vol. 1) #23. DC Comics. ISBN 1401214916.
  64. ^ Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Josef Rubinstein (i). "War and Peace, Part II" Anarky v2, 6: 3/1–5 (October 1, 1999), DC Comics
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  66. ^ Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Josef Rubinstein (i). "War and Peace, Part II" Anarky v2, 6: 19 (October 1, 1999), DC Comics
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  68. ^ a b Anarky (vol.1) #2 (June 1997)
  69. ^ Curtis Johnson (w), Carlo Barberi (p), Wayne Faucher, Juan Vlasco (i). "You Gotta be Kidding!" Justice League Jr. 1 (July 1, 1995), DC Comics
  70. ^ Anarky (vol.2) #1–3 (May 1999 – July 1999)
  71. ^ Alan Grant (w), Norm Breyfogle (p), Josef Rubinstein (i). "Metamorphosis, Part 2: Revolution Number 9" Anarky 2: 22/4 (June 1, 1997), DC Comics
  72. ^ Alan Grant, John Wagner (w), Jim Fern (p), Steve Leahloha (i). "The Last Batman Story" Batman Annual 15 ({{{date}}}), DC Comics
  73. ^ Alan Grant (w), Tom Raney, Joe Staton (p), Tom Raney, Horacio Ottolini (i). "The Tyrant" Batman: Shadow of the Bat Annual 2 ({{{date}}}), DC Comics
  74. ^ Bakunin, Mikhail (09/1868). Federalism, Socialism, Anti-Theologism (Speech). Geneva. Retrieved 2008-03-09. More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help); Check date values in: |date= (help)
  75. ^ Alan Grant (w), Dev Madan (p), Rick Burchett (i). "Anarky" The Batman Adventures 31 (April 1, 1995), DC Comics

External links