Andrea Shundi

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Andrea Shundi
AndreaShundi.PNG
Born November 15, 1934
Tirana, Albania
Residence Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Nationality Albanian and American
Occupation Agronomist
Title PhD

Andrea Shundi (born in 1934) is one of the most notable Albanian agronomists of the 20th and 21st century. His academic research and publications focus mainly on the forage systems as a source feeding of the livestock, on viticulture and viniculture, and also on the history of the Albanian agriculture.

One of the main authors of university level textbooks in Albania and lecturer and then dean at the Faculty of Agriculture of the Agricultural University of Tirana, Shundi has also been an active participant in many international conferences and symposia on forage systems and viticulture. He has lectured in Italian and Greek agricultural universities as a guest. Along Mentor Përmeti he has been the organizer of the first pan Albanian conference on Agriculture scientific work in 1975 and in 1991 he was the organizer of the second and last conference of that level.

Life and works[edit]

Early years and scientific work in Albania[edit]

Andrea Shundi was born on November 15, 1934 in Tirana, Albania.[1] After finishing high school in his native city, he attended the Agricultural University of Tirana, where he pursued studies in Agronomy and graduated in 1956.[1][2] From 1956 to 1960 Shundi was a researcher at the Institute of Agricultural Research in Lushnje.[1] In 1960-1962 he was chief agronomist of the Agricultural Cooperative of Krutje, Lushnje, and in 1962-1964 he was Chief Agronomist of the Agricultural Department of the Lushnje District.[1][2] During the 1956-1964 period he conducted experiments and published studies on the periods, depth, and tillage methods for the main types of the arable lands and for each climatic zone of Albania.[1][2]

During the 1964-1975 period Shundi was director of Livestock Feeds, Field Crops and Scientific Research in the Ministry of Agriculture of Albania.[1][2] In this period Shundi's research work focused on Forage Systems (Albanian: Sisteme foragjere), which are the systems used for a coordinated development of the sources of the forage crop production. The main objective of the forage systems is the natural integration of all the forage sources of feeding the livestock: the annual and perennial plants of the arable lands, the forage crops, the forest and fruit trees, and shrubs. The forage systems were first introduced in the book Bimët Foragjere në Zonën e Ftohtë (English: Forage Crops in Cold Climates), which was published in Tirana in 1974. A much larger republication of the book was done in 1974.

From 1975 to 1976 Shundi was director of the Agriculture Department of the Kukës District, and during the 1976-1980 period he was the director of the Seed Enterprise of Tirana.[2] In 1980-1992 he was a professor first and then dean of the Agricultural Faculty of the Agricultural University of Tirana.[2] During this period the main research of Shundi focused on the coordination of plant cultivation (Albanian: Bashkërendim)[3] and consociation of plant cultivation (Albanian: Bashkëshoqërim)[4] A third concept was introduced by Shundi in the Albanian agriculture, the Coefficient of Land Usage (CLU) (Albanian: Koefiçenti i përdorimit të tokës), which is a measuring indicator that determines the degree of intensity of use of agricultural land through plant cultivation. The CLU includes units of mass, area, money, and time (usually ton per ha/$/days) and is used for both the coordination and the consociation of plant cultivation.

In the 1994-1999 period he was scientific secretary of the Natural and Technical Sciences Section of the Academy of Sciences of Albania.[2]

Migration to the United States[edit]

Shundi left the Academy of Sciences in 1999 and migrated to the United States where he still is a resident. There he continued to write books on the forage systems with the Albanian peculiarities, but also started to focus on the history of the Albanian agriculture on the whole, and the Albanian viticulture and viniculture in particular.

Shundi is important in describing the history of the Albanian agriculture which is a main part of the history of the Albanian people. His book, Bujqësia dhe Veprimi Agronomik në Troje Shqiptare (2001) (English: Agriculture and Agronomic Activity in Albanian lands), was the first historical book ever published on the history of the Albanian agriculture and starts from the Neolithic Age until the 20th century. His second book on the history of the Albanian agriculture, Historia e Bujqësisë dhe Agroindustrisë Shqiptare (2003) (English: History of the Albanian Agriculture and Agroindustry) was co-authored and Shundi's chapters focus on Medieval, Ottoman Albania, and Albanian National Awakening period encompassing a period from the 6th to the 19th centuries. Another chapter of the book written by Shundi covers the history of agricultural education and scientific research in Albania. His third book on the history of the Albanian agriculture, Jetë Agronomike (2004) (English: Agronomic Life), focuses on the history of Albanian agriculture in the second half of the 20th century. Professor Velesin Peçuli, then Rector of the Agricultural University of Tirana prefaced the book where he points out rigorous scientific work of Shundi.[5]

After 10 monographies on the forage crops, in 2004 Shundi published the Bimët Foragjere në Zonën e Ftohtë.(English: Forage Crops in Cold Climates). The book is accompanied by a technical explanatory vocabulary of key words and technical terms.

From 2001 to 2010 Shundi also published 6 books on viticulture and viniculture. Vreshtaria Praktike.(English: Practical Viticulture), published in 2001 was praised by Italian academic Eugenio Sartori as a good omen for the Albanian viticulture, which has a long tradition. The book was followed by another publication in 2004, Vreshtaria dhe Verëtaria Shqiptare, (English: Albanian Viti-Viniculture), which was prefaced by Albanian professor, Moikom Zeqo, who calls the book as a synthesis of both an old and a young mentality for the viticulture and viniculture. In addition he calls the book as a testimony to the Albanian culture on wine, as a subtract of the Mediterranean one.[6] The book is in Albanian with a partial translation into English. In 2006 Shundi published Fjalor Shtjellues për Vreshtarinë dhe Verëtarinë.(English: Explanatory Vocabulary of Viti-Viniculture), prefaced by the Albanian linguist, head of the coordinating group of the Albanian Encyclopaedia, Emil Lafe, who praises the book as a mature work that spans on the linguistic side as well as on the Agricultural one. The book includes terms and proverbs used in Arvanitic, Cham language, and Arbëreshë, but also terms in Gheg Albanian, which are little spread in common use of today Albanian, and thus includes all the linguistic riches of the Albanian language.[7]

In 2008 Shundi published Prodhimi Shtëpiak i Rrushit dhe Verës (English: Homemade production of Grape and Wine), prefaced by well known Albanian professor Aleko Minga, who called the book as a great means of diffusion of the Albanian agricultural culture.[8] In 2010 Shundi published two additional books, Fjalor Enciklopedik per Vreshtarinë dhe Verëtarinë (English: Encyclopedic Dictionary of Viti-Viniculture), prefaced by Prof. Resmi Osmani. The following book, called Vreshta dhe Kantina Shqiptare .(English: Albanian Wineyards and Cellars), includes a description of the most successful Albanian vineyards and cantines in Albanian, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Montenegro.

Shundi is widely cited by his peers such as by Lush Susaj, Professor at the Agricultural University of Tirana, Vineyards Cultivation, Tirana 2009, Kosovan professor and academic Latif Susuri Dictionary: Plants, Parasytes, Pathogens Prishtina 2005, Dictionary of Agricultural and Forestry Plants, and Weeds, Prishtina 2006, Professor Fatmir Voci in his Practices of Viticulture, 2007 (FAO Project), and Velesin Peculi in his Organic Agriculture Tirana 2005.

Agricultural Conferences Organizer[edit]

Shundi has been an organizer and coordinator of 11 national meetings on the agricultural science. Along with academic Mentor Përmeti he organized in 1975 the Albanian National Conference on Agricultural Sciences. Shundi organized a second national conference of this dimension 1991, called Agriculture under the new economical Developments in Albania, and focused on the major economic transformations of the Albanian agriculture following the transitory period of the History of post-Communist Albania. In addition to these major conferences dedicated to the Albanian agriculture as a whole, Shundi also organized every year 9 pan-Albanian conferences on viticulture and viniculture in Albania and Kosovo in the 2001-2010 period.

Participation in International Congresses[edit]

Shundi took papers in the following international congresses and symposia:

  • Five professional delegations of Albania at the FAO's General World or European meetings (in 1973, 1980, 1981, 1985, and 1987).
  • Five international conferences on viticulture and viniculture organized by world's largest grapevine nursery Vivai Cooperativi Rauscedo[9] during the (1997–2007) period (two in Italy, one in Bordeaux, France, one in Athens, Greece, and one in Porto, Portugal.
  • VIth International Congress on forages in Townsville, Australia, 1999.
  • Symposium of the Italian Association of forests and the Ministry of Agriculture of Italy, Verona, Italy, 1996.
  • Vth International Congress on forages Salt Lake City, USA 1995
  • Symposium of the European Network of the FAO on forages. Chania, Greece, 1993.

XVIIth International Congress on pastures Palmerston North, New Zealand 1993.

  • Symposium of the European Network of the FAO Nitra, Slovakia, 1992.
  • International Symposium on forages organized by the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute Bari Italy, 1992.
  • Symposium of the Italian Association of the Agronomy, Potenza Italy, 1991.
  • Symposium of the European Network of the FAO on the forages, Montpellier, France, 1987.

Memberships[edit]

Shundi was Albanian representative of the European Federation for Forage Plants during the 1995–1999 period, a board member of the TEMPUS project for Albania, organized by the EU during the 1991–1992 period. He was elected head of the Albanian association of the agronomists in 1991. A board member of the Committee of Science and Technics in Albania in the 1990–1992 period, a board member in the Albanian National Commission for Scientific Post Doc qualification in the 1990–1992 period.

Earlier he was a board member of the scientific councils of the Agricultural University of Tirana (1987–1992), and president of the Scientific Council of the Faculty of Agronomy (1984–1992). He was also member of the scientific councils of the Fan Noli University (1987–1992), the Institute of Forage Research in Fushë-Krujë, (1984–1992), the Institute of Agricultural Research in Lushnje (1978–1987).

Acknowledgements and awards[edit]

In September 2008 the Ministry of Agriculture of Kosovo recognized the work of Shundi through an acknowledgement of the contributions in the scientific work in the field of viticulture and viniculture. On November 1, 2010 Shundi was awarded the medal of Grand Master of Work from the President of Albania, Bamir Topi with the following motivation:[10]

In December 2010 the Association of the Agricultural Journalists of Albania acknowledged the work of Shundi for "important contributions in research and publications in the field of agronomy of Albania".

List of Publications[edit]

Dr. Shundi has published the following from 1969 through 2010:

Monographies[edit]

  • 2012 Wisdom From Vine And Wine - 600 proverbs and stories on viti-viniculture with technical interpretations. Published on Lulu dot com.
  • 2010 Fjalor Enciklopedik per Vreshtarinë dhe Verëtarinë (English: Encyclopedic Dictionary of Viti-Viniculture)
  • 2010 Vreshta dhe Kantina Shqiptare .(English: Albanian Wineyards and Cellars)
  • 2009 Fjalori Enciklopedik Shqiptar (English: Albanian Encyclopaedia) - author of 15 articles
  • 2008 Prodhimi Shtëpiak i Rrushit dhe Verës (English: Homemade production of Grape and Wine)
  • 2006 Fjalor Shtjellues për Vreshtarinë dhe Verëtarinë''.(English: Explanatory Vocabulary of Viti-Viniculture)
  • 2004 Vreshtaria dhe Verëtaria Shqiptare', (English: Albanian Viti-Viniculture)
  • 2004 (and before published in a shorter form in 1974) Bimët Foragjere në Zonën e Ftohtë.(English: Forage Crops in Cold Climates)
  • 2004 Jetë Agronomike.(English: Agronomic Life)
  • 2003 Historia e Bujqësisë dhe Agroindustrisë Shqiptare (English: History of the Albanian Agriculture and Agroindustry)
  • 2001 Vreshtaria Praktike.(English: Practical Viticulture)
  • 2001 Bujqësia dhe Veprimi Agronomik në Troje Shqiptare (English: Agriculture and Agronomic Activity in Albanian lands)
  • 1990 Shtimi i Bashkëshoqërimeve dhe i Koeficientit të Përdorimit të Tokës me Bimësi Foragjere(English: Increase of consociations and of the Land-use Coefficient with Forage Crops)
  • 1990 Development of Agriculture in Albania
  • 1988 Bashkërendime të Agroteknologjisë me Biologjinë e Selitjes së Bimëve(English: Coordination of Agrotechnology with Plant Biology)
  • 1985 Fjalori Enciklopedik Shqiptar (English: Albanian Encyclopaedia) - author of 8 articles
  • 1984 Agroteknologji dhe Veçori të Prodhimit Foragjer.(English: Agrotechnologies and Forage Crop Production
  • 1981 Përmirësime Agronomike në Prodhimin e Hasëlleve (English: Agronomical Improvement of Forage Crop with Annuals)
  • 1974 Prodhimi Intensiv nga Bimësia Foragjere dhe Blegtoria''.(English: Intensive Forage Crop Production and Livestock Husbandry)
  • 1970 Probleme në Bazën Ushqimore të Blegtorisë''.(English: Problems to improve in the Livestock Feeds)
  • 1969 Prodhimi i Bimësisë Foragjere''.(English: Production of Livestock Feeds)
  • 1969 Doracak për Sistemimin e Tokave''.(English: Guidebook for land systematization)

University textbooks[edit]

  • 1988 Bimët Foragjere (English: Forage Crops)
  • 1984 Bujqësia e Përgjithëshme dhe Bimët Foragjere (English: Agricultural Practices and Forage Crops)
  • 1984 Përgjithësime Ligjësish dhe Parametrash për Selitjen e Bimëve të Arave (English: Generalization of Laws and Parameters of Cultivation of Field Crops)
  • 1983 and 1988 Ligjërata për Prodhimin Foragjer Intensiv (English: Lectures on Intensive Forage Production)
  • 1980 and 1987 Fitoteknia (English: Forage Crops)
  • 1974 and 1982 Bimët e Arave (English: Arable Lands Crops)
  • 1974 Bazat e Bujqësisë (English: Agriculture Fundamentals)

Booklets[edit]

  • 1965–1981 8 booklets on the foraging systems

Scientific articles published in technical journals[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Demneri, p. 75
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Akademia e Shkencave FESH, p. 2644
  3. ^ Coordination of plant cultivation is the sowing of 2-3 types of plants within the same farming plot consecutively and during the same agricultural year, in order to maximize agricultural production through the better use of pedo-climatic characteristics and farming investments
  4. ^ Contemporary cultivation of 2-3 types of plants within the same farming plot and during the same period of the agricultural year. The contemporary cultivation is performed in order to combine the ability of the leguminosae to fixate and release nitrogen, which is used by the gramineae, with the ability of the leguminosae to climb onto the gramineae in order to better use sun rays and aeration.
  5. ^ Peçuli, Velesin (2004), "Preface of "Jete Agronomike" of Andrea Shundi by Velesin Peçuli", Jete Agronomike, Tirana: Albgraf, pp. 5–7, ISBN 99927-773-4-6 
  6. ^ Zeqo, Moikom (2004), "Preface of "Vreshtaria dhe Verëtaria Shqiptare" of Andrea Shundi by Moikom Zeqo", Vreshtaria dhe Verëtaria Shqiptare, Tirana: Albgraf, pp. 5–6 
  7. ^ Lafe, Emil (2006), "Preface of "Fjalor Shtjellues për Vreshtarinë dhe Verëtarinë" of Andrea Shundi by Emil Lafe", Fjalor Shtjellues për Vreshtarinë dhe Verëtarinë, Tirana, pp. 5–10 
  8. ^ Minga, Aleko (2008), "Preface of "Prodhimi Shtëpiak i Rrushit dhe Verës" of Andrea Shundi by Aleko Minga", Prodhimi Shtëpiak i Rrushit dhe Verës, Tirana: Onufri, pp. 11–16, ISBN 978-99943-42-55-6 
  9. ^ Neel, D. (1998). "Vivai Cooperativi Rauscedo". Practical Winery & Vineyard. 19: 65. 
  10. ^ a b President of Albania (1 November 2010). "Presidenti Topi dekoron Prof. Andrea Shundi me Urdhrin "Mjeshtër i Madh.". 

Sources[edit]

  • Akademia e Shkencave e Shqipërisë (2009), Fjalor Enciklopedik Shqiptar (in Albanian), Tirana: Qendra e Enciklopedisë Shqiptare, ISBN 978-9995610326 
  • Blliku, Haxhi (2007), 55 vjet Instituti i Kërkimeve Bujqësore (in Albanian), Tirana: Albgraf 
  • Demneri, Ismail (2005), Tirana, personalitete shkence (in Albanian), Tirana: Shoqata "Tirana", ISBN 99943-793-2-1 
  • Foto, Illo (2009), Shkencëtarët e vërtetë të bujqësisë shqiptare (in Albanian), Tirana: Julvin 2, ISBN 978-99943-929-2-6 
  • Karaj, Selim (2003), Kërkimi shkencor në bimët foragjere (in Albanian), Tirana: Albgraf 
  • Këshilli i Ekspertëve të Agrobiznesit (2003), Historia e bujqësisë dhe agroindustrisë shqiptare (in Albanian), Tirana: KEA, ISBN 99927-873-8-4 
  • Muzaka, Jorgji (2011), Personalitete që adhuroj (in Albanian), Tirana 
  • Peculi, Velesin (2005), Bujqësi biologjike (in Albanian), Tirana: Toena, ISBN 99943-1-021-6