Apedemak or Apademak was a lion-headed warrior god worshiped by the Meroitic peoples inhabiting Nubia. A number of Meroitic temples dedicated to this deity are known from the Western Butana region: Naqa, Meroe, and Musawwarat es-Sufra, which seems to be his chief cult place. In the temple of Naqa built by the rulers of Meroe Apedemak was depicted as a three-headed leonine god with four arms, and as a snake with a lion head. However, he is usually depicted as a man with a lion head.
Apedemak was considered the war god of Kush. The Kushites believed that Apedemak brought victories to their armies and defeated their enemies. When Kushite pharaohs carried out military campaigns, they often claimed the support and companionship of Apedemak.
- Edwards, David (2004). The Nubian Past. Oxon: Routledge. pp. 150–153, 167, 179–180. ISBN 9780415369886.
- Casely-Hayford, Gus (2012). The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. London: Transworld Publishers. pp. 35–36. ISBN 9780593068144.
- Claude., Traunecker, (2001). The gods of Egypt (1st English language ed., enhanced and expanded ed.). Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0801438349. OCLC 46564790.
- Louis V., Žabkar (1975). Apedemak, Lion god of Meroe : a study in Egyptian-Meroitic syncretism. Warminster, Eng.: Aris & Phillips. ISBN 978-0856680274. OCLC 2543227.
- "Ancient Sudan~ Nubia: Religion: Apedemac". www.ancientsudan.org. Retrieved 2018-09-05.
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