The pschent (//; Greek ψχέντ) was the double crown worn by rulers in ancient Egypt. The ancient Egyptians generally referred to it as sekhemty (sḫm.ty), the Two Powerful Ones. It combined the White Hedjet Crown of Upper Egypt and the Red Deshret Crown of Lower Egypt.
The Pschent represented the pharaoh's power over all of unified Egypt. It bore two animal emblems: an Egyptian cobra, known as the uraeus, ready to strike, which symbolized the Lower Egyptian goddess Wadjet; and an Egyptian vulture representing the Upper Egyptian tutelary goddess Nekhbet. These were fastened to the front of the Pschent and referred to as the Two Ladies. Later, the vulture head sometimes was replaced by a second cobra.
The invention of the Pschent is generally attributed to the First Dynasty pharaoh Menes, but the first one to wear a Double Crown was the First Dynasty pharaoh Djet: a rock inscription shows his Horus wearing it.
The king list on the Palermo Stone, which begins with the names of Lower Egyptian pharaohs (nowadays thought to have been mythological demigods), shown wearing the Red Crown, marks the unification of the country by giving the Pschent to all First Dynasty and later pharaohs. The Cairo fragment, on the other hand, shows these prehistoric rulers wearing the Pschent.
As is the case with the Deshret and the Hedjet Crowns, no Pschent has survived. It is known only from statuary, depictions, inscriptions, and ancient tales.
- Atef – Hedjet Crown with feathers identified with Osiris
- Deshret – Red Crown of Lower Egypt
- Hedjet – White Crown of Upper Egypt
- Khepresh – Blue or War Crown also called Royal Crown
- N-red crown (n hieroglyph)
- N-water ripple (n hieroglyph)
- Uraeus – Rearing Cobra
- Griffith, Francis Llewellyn, A Collection of Hieroglyphs: A Contribution to the History of Egyptian Writing, the Egypt Exploration Fund 1898, p.56
- Dunand, Françoise; Christiane Zivie-Coche, Gods and Men in Egypt: 3000 BCE to 395 CE, Cornell University Press 2004, pp.32f.
- Wilkinson, Toby A. H., Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge 1999, p.196
- Trigger, B. G. (1982). "The rise of civilization in Egypt". In Clark, J. Desmond (ed.). The Cambridge History of Africa. Volume 1, From the Earliest Times to c.500 BC. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 521. doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521222150.008. ISBN 9781139054553.
- Kemp, Barry John, Ancient Egypt: Anatomy Of A Civilization, Routledge 2006, p.92
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- The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2005, p. 689