Apolipoprotein D

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Protein APOD PDB 2APD.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases APOD, Apod, apolipoprotein D
External IDs OMIM: 107740 MGI: 88056 HomoloGene: 1246 GeneCards: APOD
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE APOD 201525 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 3: 195.57 – 195.58 Mb Chr 16: 31.3 – 31.31 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
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Apolipoprotein D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOD gene.[3][4][5] Unlike other lipoproteins, which are mainly produced in the liver, apolipoprotein D is mainly produced in the brain and testes.[6]


Apolipoprotein D (Apo-D) is a component of high-density lipoprotein that has no marked similarity to other apolipoprotein sequences. It has a high degree of homology to plasma retinol-binding protein and other members of the alpha 2 microglobulin protein superfamily of carrier proteins, also known as lipocalins. It is a glycoprotein of estimated molecular weight 33 KDa. Apo-D is closely associated with the enzyme lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase - an enzyme involved in lipoprotein metabolism.[5] ApoD has also been shown to be an important link in the transient interaction between HDL and LDL particles and between HDL particles and cells.[7]

Clinical significance[edit]

APOD is a biomarker of androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). APOD is an androgen up-regulated gene in normal scrotal fibroblast cells in comparison to CAIS labia majora cells.[8]

APOD is associated with neurological disorders and nerve injury, especially related to myelin sheath. APOD was shown to be elevated in a rat model of stroke.[6] APOD is elevated in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Alzheimer's disease.[6]


  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ Drayna DT, McLean JW, Wion KL, Trent JM, Drabkin HA, Lawn RM (Aug 1987). "Human apolipoprotein D gene: gene sequence, chromosome localization, and homology to the alpha 2u-globulin superfamily". DNA. 6 (3): 199–204. PMID 2439269. doi:10.1089/dna.1987.6.199. 
  4. ^ Drayna D, Fielding C, McLean J, Baer B, Castro G, Chen E, Comstock L, Henzel W, Kohr W, Rhee L, et al. (Jan 1987). "Cloning and expression of human apolipoprotein D cDNA". J Biol Chem. 261 (35): 16535–9. PMID 3453108. 
  5. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: APOD apolipoprotein D". 
  6. ^ a b c Muffat J, Walker DW (2010). "Apolipoprotein D: an overview of its role in aging and age-related diseases". Cell Cycle (journal). 9 (2): 269–273. PMC 3691099Freely accessible. PMID 20023409. doi:10.4161/cc.9.2.10433. 
  7. ^ Braesch-Andersen S; et al. (December 2014). "ApoD Mediates Binding of HDL to LDL and to Growing T24 Carcinoma". PLOS ONE. 9 (12): e115180. PMC 4267786Freely accessible. PMID 25513803. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115180. 
  8. ^ Appari M, Werner R, Wünsch L, Cario G, Demeter J, Hiort O, Riepe F, Brooks JD, Holterhus PM (June 2009). "Apolipoprotein D (APOD) is a putative biomarker of androgen receptor function in androgen insensitivity syndrome". J. Mol. Med. 87 (6): 623–32. PMID 19330472. doi:10.1007/s00109-009-0462-3. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]