Armenoid race

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A Syrian Armenian man of Armenoid type, from The Races of Europe: A Sociological Study by William Zebina Ripley (1911)

In the racial anthropology of the early 20th century, the Armenoid type is a subtype of the Caucasian race.[1] According to anthropologist Carleton Coon, the countries of the northern part of Western Asia, namely Anatolia/Asia Minor, the Caucasus, Iran, Upper Mesopotamia and the Levant, were considered the center of distribution of the Armenoid race.[2] Armenians and certain Semitic-speaking peoples, such as, the Assyrians, Lebanese, Syrians and Syriacs, Jordanians, Palestinians, and the ancient Phoenicians and their Maronite descendants, and the Jews are members of this race.

Origin, distribution and physiognomy[edit]

A Lebanese man of Armenoid type, from Ripley (1911)

Carleton S. Coon wrote that the Armenoid racial type is very similar to the Dinaric race, most probably due to racial mixture with the Mediterraneans (who often have olive skin) and the Alpines (who often have brown skin). The only difference is that Armenoids have a slightly darker pigmentation. He described the Armenoid as a sub-race of the Caucasoid race. Armenoids were said to be found throughout Eurasia. However, the largest concentrations occurred within Anatolia, Transcaucasia, Iran, and Mesopotamia. Armenoids considered the "true" Caucasians, Armenoids were relatively tall, usually with medium to dark brown or black hair, light to medium skin colour, large round eyes that were usually brown; a round, brachycephalic head shape with a straight backing (planocciput) (see Cephalic index), high cheekbones and non-prominent chins. Lips were full, and noses were often aquiline. Large minority of Armenoids have blond hair and blue, green, or hazel eyes. This racial type was believed to be prevalent among the Armenians, Assyrians, and Iraqis.[3][4] Renato Biasutti described the Armenoid race as having: "Opaque-white skin, brunet hair and eyes, abundant pilosity; medium stature (166), sturdy body build; wide head with rounded occiput (87); very long face, straight and narrow nose (57) with high bridge; thin lips, narrow eye opening.[5] It was also an element in Southern Europe. Armenoid was also identified as the dominant type of the indigenous Semitic groups of Syria and Mesopotamia: the ancient Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Canaanites and Amorites,[6] the modern Assyrians, Mandeans and Syriacs, the northern and central Iraqis, and also includes some people who identify as Arabs. The religious (mainly Christian, Jewish, Mandean, Shabak, Druze and Yezidi) minorities of Lebanon, Iraq, Turkey, Syria, Jordan, and Palestine, and the Lebanese and Syrians of mountainous regions irrrspective of religion were all identified as being of the Armenoid type.[7][8]

The Armenoid race type exists to the west and north of the Arabid race, and encompasses the modern Armenians, Assyrians, Lebanese Maronites, Greeks, Turks, Kurds, Georgians, Iranians, Jews/Israelis, Levantines, Syrian Arabs, Peoples of the Caucasus, Druze, Yezidis, Shabaks, Mandeans, Mhallami and Syriac-Arameans, together with the ancient ancestors and/or predecessors of these peoples, such as the Assyrians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Chaldeans, Eblaites, Amorites, Canaanites, Kassites, Gutians, Hyksos, Hittites, Hattians, Hurrians, Phrygians, Lydians, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Medes, Persians, Scythians, Ancient Greeks, Israelites, Samaritans, Judeans, Edomites, Moabites, Ammonites, Samaritans, Philistines, Cilicians, Cappadocians and Minoans among others.

Prominent Nazi and racial theorist Hans F. K. Günther used the term 'Near Eastern race' to describe the Armenoid type, and ascribed Near Eastern characteristics to several contemporary peoples, including: Armenians, Jews, Greeks, Georgians, Iranians, Assyrians, Kurds, Syrians/Syriacs, and Turks.[10] Günther regarded Jews as people of multiple racial origins but defined the Near Eastern race as their major basis, and described the race's characteristics with anti-Semitic themes, such as that the race was known for its "commercial spirit" and as "artful traders" who had strong psychological manipulation capacities that helped their trade, as well as being known to exploit people.[11] Günther's conception has been criticized for pseudoscientific analysis.[12] Zionists historically identified Jews as within the Armenoid type in the name of the Near Eastern race.[13] Zionists utilized the Armenoid type in the name of the Near Eastern race, and identified Jews as a particular group within that type.[14]

Types[edit]

The Armenoid is divided into four types: Armenid, Anatolid, Assyrid, and Caucasid.

Armenid- This type is predominant among Armenians and Ashkenazi .

Anatolid- Armenoid subtype that is found predominantly among Turkish people. They are somewhat darker and more slender than Armenids.

Assyrid- Both Assyrians, Levantine Arabs, and the Maltese people belong to this type. Assyrids are of middling height and a massive bodybuild.

Caucasid- Tall slender type prevalent among the people of the Caucasus.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ripley, William Z. (1899). The Races of Europe: A Sociological Study. D. Appleton & Company. p. 444. 
  2. ^ "Carleton Coon, "Racial Distribution map"". Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  3. ^ Fisher, William B. (2003). The Middle East and North Africa, Volume 50. Routledge. p. 444. ISBN 978-1-85743-184-1. The northern and eastern hill districts [of Iraq] contain many racial elements—Turkish, Persian, and proto-Nordic, with Armenoid strains predominating. [..] the population of the riverine districts of Iraq displays a mixture of Armenoid and Mediterranean elements. North of the Baghdad district the Armenoid strain is dominant. 
  4. ^ Fisher, William B. (1966). The Middle East: A Physical, Social and Regional Geography. Methuen. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-416-71510-1. Armenoid affinities are easily discerned in the peoples of northern and central Iraq. , extract of page 444
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-05-11. Retrieved 2012-05-11. 
  6. ^ Hitti, Philip K. (2002). History of Syria: including Lebanon and Palestine, Volume 1. Gorgias Press. p. 76. ISBN 1-931956-60-X. 
  7. ^ Review: An Introduction to the Anthropology of the Near East by C. U. Ariëns Kappers, American Anthropologist, 37(35) - Pages 148-49 by W.M. Krogman
  8. ^ Hourani, Albert H. (1946). Syria and Lebanon: A Political Essay. Oxford University Press. p. 96. 
  9. ^ The Races of Europe by Carleton Stevens Coon - (Chapter XII, section 18)
  10. ^ Alan E Steinweis. Studying the Jew: Scholarly Antisemitism in Nazi Germany. Harvard University Press, 2008. P. 29.
  11. ^ Alan E Steinweis. Studying the Jew: Scholarly Antisemitism in Nazi Germany. Harvard University Press, 2008. P. 29.
  12. ^ Alan E Steinweis. Studying the Jew: Scholarly Antisemitism in Nazi Germany. Harvard University Press, 2008. P. 29.
  13. ^ Mitchell B. Hart. Jews & Race: Writings on Identity & Difference, 1880-1940. Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA: Brandeis University Press, 2011. P. 247.
  14. ^ Mitchell B. Hart. Jews & Race: Writings on Identity & Difference, 1880-1940. Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA: Brandeis University Press, 2011. P. 247.