Investigation of potential copyright issue
Please note this is about the text of this Wikipedia article; it should not be taken to reflect on the subject of this article. Do not restore or edit the blanked content on this page until the issue is resolved by an administrator, copyright clerk or OTRS agent.
If you have just labeled this page as a potential copyright issue, please follow the instructions for filing at the bottom of the box.
The previous content of this page or section has been identified as posing a potential copyright issue, as a copy or modification of the text from the source(s) below, and is now listed on Wikipedia:Copyright problems (listing):
Unless the copyright status of the text on this page is clarified, the problematic text or the entire page may be deleted one week after the time of its listing.
Temporarily, the original posting is still accessible for viewing in the page history.
To confirm your permission, you can either display a notice to this effect at the site of original publication or send an e-mail from an address associated with the original publication to permissions-en at wikimedia dot org or a postal letter to the Wikimedia Foundation. These messages must explicitly permit use under CC-BY-SA and the GFDL. See Wikipedia:Donating copyrighted materials.
Note that articles on Wikipedia must be written from a neutral point of view and must be verifiable in published third-party sources; consider whether, copyright issues aside, your text is appropriate for inclusion in Wikipedia.
To demonstrate that this text is in the public domain, or is already under a license suitable for Wikipedia, click "Show".
Simply modifying copyrighted text is not sufficient to avoid copyright infringement—if the original copyright violation cannot be cleanly removed or the article reverted to a prior version, it is best to write the article from scratch. (See Wikipedia:Close paraphrasing.)
For license compliance, any content used from the original article must be properly attributed; if you use content from the original, please leave a note at the top of your rewrite saying as much. You may duplicate non-infringing text that you had contributed yourself.
It is always a good idea, if rewriting, to identify the point where the copyrighted content was imported to Wikipedia and to check to make sure that the contributor did not add content imported from other sources. When closing investigations, clerks and administrators may find other copyright problems than the one identified. If this material is in the proposed rewrite and cannot be easily removed, the rewrite may not be usable.
Avedis Zildjian I (the first) was an Armenian alchemist in the city of Constantinople in the early seventeenth century. While attempting to create gold by combining base metals, he discovered an alloy of copper, tin, and traces of silver with unique sound qualities. In 1618, Avedis used his secret alloy to create cymbals of spectacular clarity and power. The sound of the instruments was so extraordinary that the Sultan invited Avedis to live at court (Topkapi Palace) to make cymbals for the Sultan's elite Janissary Bands. As Avedis' reputation grew, the Sultan gave him the name "Zildjian" in Armenian (Zilciyan in Turkish), a word meaning "son of cymbal maker."
In 1623, Avedis was granted permission to leave the palace in order to start his own business in a suburb of Constantinople named Psamatia. That same business is now nearly four centuries old and has been passed down to Zildjian heirs for fifteen generations. Relocating to America in 1929, Avedis III moved the Zildjian factory to Quincy, MA and then to its current location in Norwell, MA for Zildjian's 350th Anniversary. The business passed to Avedis' son, Armand in 1977 and then to Armand's daughter, Craigie, in 1999. Currently, Craigie and her sister Debbie continue the family tradition in what is recognized as the oldest family-owned business in America.
The Birth of the Family Name Avedis I, an Armenian alchemist living in Constantinople, discovers a secret process for treating alloys and applies it to the art of making cymbals of extraordinary clarity and sustain. Although Central Asia Minor (Anatolia) has a long history of cymbal making dating back to 1200 B.C., Avedis' cymbals are far more musical and powerful in their projection.
The sultan's famed Janissary bands are quick to adopt Avedis' cymbals for daily calls to prayer, religious feasts, royal weddings and the Ottoman army. Sultan Osman II acknowledges Avedis to be the founder of the craft of Turkish cymbal making. In appreciation, the Sultan gives Avedis 80 gold pieces and the family name 'Zildjian,' which means 'cymbal smith' in Armenian (Zil is Turkish for 'cymbal,' dj means 'maker' and ian is the Armenian suffix meaning 'son of.'
Cymbal Maker from 1851-1865 Prior to 1851, the Zildjian Family's cymbals were simply known as "Turkish Cymbals." Avedis Zildjian II was the first in the family to manufacture the cymbals bearing the family name.
During that year, Avedis Zildjian II built a 25-foot schooner and sailed it from Constantinople to Marseilles and then on to London, where he displayed his cymbals at World Trade Fair. At the fairs of Paris and London in 1851, and again in London in 1862, cymbals bearing the name Avedis Zildjian won all prizes and awards for excellence. In 1865, Kerope Zildjian succeeded Avedis II and maintained the family's tradition.
During the late 1800's, Kerope was recognized throughout Europe and beyond as one of the most accomplished craftsman of the Zildjian family. His 'K Zildjian' cymbals surpassed all others in terms of resonance, thinness (always difficult to create) and durability.
Initially, Kerope was second in the line of succession. But, in 1865, Kerope inherited the firm from his brother, Avedis II. He ran the business for 44 years, until his death in 1909. By traveling to exhibitions in Europe's major centers of culture and trade, Kerope enhanced the family's reputation, winning ten decorations and medals, and many certificates of commendation.
Certainly, Kerope could not have imagined that his grandnephew, Avedis III, would someday bring the family's cymbal tradition to America where it would flourish like never before.
Upon Kerope's death in 1909, the Zildjian secret was passed to Kerope's Nephew, Aram (the second son of Avedis II.)
Aram, however found it difficult to continue manufacturing cymbals in Constantinople during a period of political upheaval. After joining the Armenian National Movement, he was forced temporarily to flee to Bucharest. Aram opened a second Zildjian factory in Bucharest, while Kerope's daughter Victoria stepped in to keep the factory in Samatya (a suburb of Constantinople) running. Eventually Aram returned to his native country, where he exported cymbals around the world, most notably to America, which was by then the largest consumer of musical instruments in the world.
In 1927, Aram writes his nephew, Avedis III (who is already living in America) telling Avedis that it is now his turn to carry on the family business. Avedis III, like his father Haroutune, was reluctant to assume responsibility for a 300-year-old family business, which had never been very profitable. Avedis III, the only surviving male in the direct line of succession, was an American, who owned a successful candy factory. He tells Aram that he will not return to Constantinople and therefore the cymbal business must be reestablished in America. Aram agrees to come and help Avedis set up the first Zildjian cymbal foundry in the United States. The company is incorporated in Quincy, Massachusetts in 1929 at the beginning of the Jazz Era.
As difficult as it may be for today's drummers to believe, cymbals were hardly heard at all in popular music in the early part of this century. Instead, even as the seeds of jazz were being sown, cymbals were primarily used at the end of a number for a single big crash. Avedis Zildjian helped change all that.
Like a lot of influential people in music, Avedis came from humble beginnings. "My father was born in 1889 in Samatya, not far from Constantinople," recalled Armand Zildjian (who succeeded his Father as President of the Zildjian cymbal company). "As a boy, Dad spoke Greek, Armenian, Turkish, French, and later (after coming to the U.S.), English. He emigrated to America in 1909 and got a job working in a candy factory in Boston. He was a quick learner, and soon started a candy business of his own. As he told me, "Why would you want to work for someone else when you could have your own business?"'
In 1927, Avedis received a letter from his uncle, Aram, telling him that it was now his turn to take over the ancient family art of cymbal making. But rather than return to Turkey, where the Zildjian family had crafted cymbals since 1623 (and where he himself had apprenticed as a young boy), Avedis convinced Aram to move the company to the U.S.
"I was only eight years old when Aram came to America, but I remember him well," said Armand. "He was like no one I had ever seen before. He must have weighed 300 pounds, and he was baldheaded, with a white goatee and mustache. Aram was very helpful in organizing the factory from the beginning, staying on through most of the first year to help Dad get started. Even so, my Father had concerns about entering the cymbal business (which had never been profitable) especially when he already had a successful candy business. It was my mother who thought it was a romantic story and persuaded him to consider it. So, Dad went around to the important music stores, asking them if they would buy his cymbals."
The move to the U.S. was a risky one. Demand for cymbals was low, and to make matters worse, months after Avedis opened the new cymbal factory outside of Boston, the Great Depression hit. The factory itself was an old, small, one-story building with a dirt floor.
"Working conditions were primitive in those days, and people worked very hard," Armand points out. "Initially, Dad worked in all facets of the business - from the melting to the billing. He persevered through the tough Depression years where others would have given up." Avedis quickly came to know all the professional drummers of the day. He became very friendly with Ray Bauduc, who played with Bob Crosby. He also knew Chick Webb and Jo Jones. But it was probably Gene Krupa with whom he had the closest working relationship. "Oftentimes when Gene would visit the plant, he'd pick out his cymbals and then we'd all go out on Dad's boat, the Mahal," recalled Armand. "Gene had many great ideas about playing cymbals - such as using them as the timekeeper on the kit in place of the snare drum."
Krupa asked Zildjian to develop a thinner cymbal, which immediately became very popular. He also helped promote the use of more special-purpose cymbals. This had a big impact on the Zildjian Company's developmental efforts. In fact, many of the cymbals we take for granted in modern drumming - such fundamental models as splash, ride, crash, hi-hat, and sizzle cymbals - were all invented and named by Avedis Zildjian.
"At this time, the use of the hi-hat cymbal was just becoming popular," said Armand. "Jo Jones from Count Basie's Band was helpful in refining Zildjian's hi-hats. Later, Buddy Rich and Louie Bellson helped Dad. Buddy, Gene and all the greats had a healthy respect for Dad, whom they viewed as one of the founding fathers of the music industry as we know it today."
There were, of course, setbacks. In 1939, the boiler in the laundry next door blew up, and the ensuing fire took most of the Zildjian company with it. However, four to five days later, Avedis had the business up and running. "On another occasion," Armand relates, "Dad went to light the oven, but let too much time elapse before lighting it. This caused an explosion that burned his entire face, and he was taken to the hospital. That same afternoon he came back from the hospital with his head completely bandaged and went immediately to his desk - where he typed out some bills the way he did every night. He was unstoppable!"
During the Second World War, Zildjian made cymbals for the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps marching bands. They also got orders from the British Admiralty. This was a very important part of the company's business, because copper and tin were allocated by the War Production Board. Without these orders, the War Production Board probably would have closed the plant down.
"The business grew rapidly during the swing era," continued Armand. "Dad continuously increased production over the years to meet that demand. He remained very devoted to the business that he had started; it was both his hobby and his life. Although he named me president of the Avedis Zildjian Company three years before his death, he never retired. He remained involved in the day-to-day running of the company until he died in 1979 at the age of ninety. Dad's continued involvement provided the continuity needed in transitioning from one generation of Zildjians to another." (Recognizing the importance of this continuity, Armand worked closely with his daughter, Craigie, who is currently the Company's Chief Executive Officer.)
"I learned a lot from my father," continued Armand. "He was a very decisive and astute businessman and a born leader. Yet he was also a very modest man with a warm side. He loved telling stories about his experiences and talking about how much the world had changed since he was a boy watching the camel caravans come into Constantinople. He was a powerful presence, but that's what it took to put cymbals where they are today."
The percussion industry has changed a great deal since Avedis Zildjian began making cymbals in 1929. But his countless innovations and pioneering production techniques earned him an indisputable place as one of the most influential musical instrument manufacturers of the century. His unflagging passion for his craft helped forever alter modern music as we know it.
In the European tradition, Armand was immersed in the family business at a very early age. As an eight year old, Armand witnessed his great uncle Aram's historic visit to America. Aram had come to convince Armand's father (Avedis) to carry on the family's 300 year-old tradition of cymbal making. With Aram's help, the business was relocated from Constantinople to Massachusetts in 1929 just months before the Great Depression.
Needless to say, times were very tough during the Depression. Nevertheless, Armand's parents -- recognizing his musical talent -- were able to buy him a second-hand Steinway piano and made numerous sacrifices to provide Armand with piano lessons. From then on, music became an important part of Armand's life. In addition to playing drums and piano, Armand taught himself trumpet and became proficient enough to join both the marching and concert bands at Colgate University.
Armand always felt fortunate to have been born into a musical tradition. By the time he was fourteen, he had been taught the Zildjian secret process of melting alloys and was skilled in every phase of the manufacturing operation. Avedis insisted that Armand work Saturdays, school vacations and summers, but Armand never resented the long hours he worked. "My Father came from the old country", said Armand, "and that's just how it was. And, I'm thankful that I was brought up that way."
Armand came to love the business and recognized the opportunities it presented. In Armand's words, "I used to skip school when I knew that my father had a drummer coming in. Whatever band was in town - Chick Webb, Gene Krupa, Lionel Hampton - I was always dying to talk with them or to see them play, or watch them test cymbals." Over the years, Armand developed a very close relationship with Gene Krupa. "I had a set of Slingerland Radio King drums just like Gene's," he said, "and Gene would come up to the house and show me things."
In the years to come, Armand developed close friendships with Buddy, Louie, Shelly, Elvin, and all the great drummers of the day. Armand then passed along what he had learned from that generation of legendary drummers to help the next generation of drummers find their signatory sounds.
After the War, Armand assumed full responsibility for manufacturing. This allowed him the freedom to experiment and develop new sounds, something he continued to do for the rest of his life. Armand enjoyed his role in R & D, which came naturally to him. In his words, "You have to follow the music and listen to the people who are playing it and learn from them. Then you have to make your product go where they are going." Max Roach marveled at Armand's ability to give the drummer what he wanted. Max claimed, "I could just describe what I wanted to Armand, sometimes just over the phone, and Armand would send it to me."
During his 65-year career, Armand was awarded a number of honors. In 1988, he received an Honorary Doctorate from Berklee College of Music. In 1994, he was inducted into the Percussive Arts Society Hall of Fame. He was also one of the few manufacturers to be honored at the "Rock Walk" on Sunset Boulevard in Los Angeles, and in 2002 was presented with the Modern Drummer Editor's Achievement Award. Despite all these accolades, Armand (like his father before him) remained a very humble man, who was commonly described as unpretentious.
Armand's daughter, Craigie strongly agrees that Armand used his charismatic personality and legendary humor to put people at ease. And, although he was considered to be the world's foremost authority on cymbals, he was very approachable. People felt comfortable coming to him to discuss their cymbal needs. Armand was so approachable because he believed that Zildjian's mission was to remain stewards of a 380 year-old tradition of serving drummers and percussionists around the world.
K Constantinople - The legendary "K Con" is the pinnacle of the Zildjian cymbal line, renowned for its perfect blended sound quality. Complex hammering contributes to the cymbal's unique sonic identity and dark tones that can be at once cutting and smooth. Made in small batches using a 14-step process, every K Constantinople has its own signature voice.
Kerope - The Kerope line draws from Zildjian's rich history and cymbal making expertise to bring forth the most authentic vintage K recreation to date. These hand crafted cymbals look as they sound - dark, and complex. Named in honor of Kerope Zildjian, who presided over one of the most storied periods in Zildjian history, each cymbal is meticulously hand crafted using a 14-step process that encompasses the best of everything we have learned in 390 years of cymbal making.
K Custom - Drawing from the spirit of the legendary K Zildjian range, K Custom cymbals are dark, rich and dry and enable today's drummers to utilize complex K sounds in a more modern musical environment. They feature traditional K hammering, plus a variety of additional modern hammering techniques that produce unique sonic capabilities. Recommended for modern jazz, studio, country and medium rock. K Customs are designed with today's diverse music scene in mind.
K Zildjian - K Zildjian cymbals continue to inspire drummers today with their deep, warm, and expressive sounds developed by Kerope Zildjian in 19th Century Turkey. Elaborate hammering and lathing techniques work the Zildjian alloy into versatile cymbals that are dark yet well suited for a wide variety of musical genres from jazz to rock.
A Avedis - This new addition to the Zildjian “A” Family is a vintage recreation of the timeless sound and feel heard and played on thousands of top hits from the 30’s through the 60’s, from swing to bebop to the explosion of rock & roll. Named in honor of Avedis Zildjian III, the father of the modern American cymbal, this legendary sound has be remastered and is now available for a new generation of drummers.
A Zildjian - Zildjian’s classic sound is embodied by A Zildjian and immortalized in countless recordings by the greatest drummers of all time. Known for their versatility, these bright cymbals range from paper thin and delicate to extra heavy and cutting. Recent adjustments were made to the curvature and weights of many current models to capture the sweet spot of the classic A sound, producing crashes, rides, and hats that reflect today’s musical styles.
A Custom - The choice of renowned rock, metal and fusion drummers, A Customs feature a brilliant finish and radical new hammering techniques that deliver a crisp, sweet, sophisticated A Zildjian sound, but with a contemporary feel. A Customs are not too dark and not too bright with a fast response and clean attack.
ZBT - ZBT (Zildjian Bronze Technology) delivers a bright, intense sound that cuts through the mix. Each ZBT cymbal was created using Ziljdian's extensive experience in cymbal making and features extensive lathing with a traditional finish.
Planet Z - Planet Z cymbals are a great entry to the Zildjian Family, designed to be versatile, inspiring instruments. Each cymbal is precision crafted in the U.S.A. from a proprietary Nickel Silver alloy.
^Robert Kreitner, Carlene M. Cassidy (2011). Management (12th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage. p. 35. ISBN978-1-111-22136-2. Company, based in Norwell, Massachusetts, is the largest cymbal maker in the world and the oldest continuously family-run business in the United States.
^Lamb, Charles W. (2002). The Subject is Marketing (2nd Canadian ed.). Scarborough, Ont.: Nelson Thomson Learning. p. 26. ISBN978-0-17-616955-8. Avedis Zildjian of Norwell, Massachusetts, can trace its history back to 1623 in Constantinople. It is the world's largest maker of cymbals for drummers and musicians.
^Newsweek, Volume 71, Issues 1-9, 1968, p. 71 "As the only producer of cymbals in the U.S., the Zildjian company dominates a world market rapidly expanding with the proliferation of per- cussionary rock 'n' roll bands."
^The Music Trades, Volume 135, Issues 1-6, p. 90 "Maintaining its position as the world's largest cymbal producer, the Avedis Zildjian Company has announced an exciting joint venture with Barcus-Berry, Inc."