Azim us-Shan Bahadur
15 December 1664
|Died||18 March 1712 (aged 47)|
|Spouse||Bai Jas Kaur|
Gitti Ara Begum
|Issue||Muhammad Karim Mirza|
Humayun Bakht Mirza
|Father||Bahadur Shah I|
Prince Azim-us-Shan (15 December 1664 – 18 March 1712) was the second son of Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah I, by his second wife, Maharajkumari Amrita Bai Sahiba. He was the grandson of Emperor Aurangzeb, during whose reign, he was the subahdar (viceroy) of Bengal Subah, Bihar and Odisha from 1697 to his death in 1712, and the great grandson of Emperor Shah Jahan.
In 1697 he was appointed the viceroy of Bengal Subah, Bihar and Odisha by Emperor Aurangzeb. Shortly after, he took successful military initiative against Rahim Khan. Azim gave the East India Company permission to build Fort William in Calcutta (presently Kolkata) in 1696. Using Mughal permission, the Dutch also built Fort Gustavas in Chinsura and the French built Fort Orleans in Chandernagore (presently Chandannagar).
Azim got into conflict with Murshid Quli Khan, the newly appointed Divan of Bengal, over imperial financial control. Considering the complaint of Murshid Quli Khan, Aurangzeb ordered Azim to move to Bihar. In 1703 he transferred the capital to Rajmahal and then again to Pataliputra (present-day Patna). He renamed Pataliputra to Azimabad after his own name.
In 1712, at the time of his father's death, he immediately proclaimed himself emperor. However, he was killed (drowned in the Ravi River) shortly afterwards in the succession struggles that ensued.
Azim-us-shan's first wife was Bai Jas Kaur, the daughter of Kirat Singh, who was the son of Raja Jai Singh, Kachwaha ruler of Amber. She married Azim-ud-din in 1678, and was the mother of Muhammad Karim Mirza born on 12 October 1679. She died at Delhi on 19 February 1721, and was buried at the Qutb.
His second wife was Sahiba Niswan, a Kasmiri lady, and the sister of Khwajah Inayatullah entitled Shaista Khan. She was the mother of Emperor Farrukhsiyar. Upon Farrukhsiyar's accession on 11 January 1713, she occupied an eminent position in the imperial harem. She died at Delhi in February 1729, having outlived her son for nearly ten years.
His third wife was Aisha Begum, the daughter of Ruhullah Khan Yazdi, the Mir Bakhshi. She was the granddaughter Khalilullah Khan. The marriage took place on 26 June 1692. She was the mother of Prince Humayun Bakht Mirza, and Prince Ruh-ud-daula Mirza. Azim-ush-shan is said to have been very fond of her. On 24 May 1709, she gave birth to twins, a boy and a girl. She died at Daulatabad on 15 July 1709, and was buried there, near the tomb of Burhan ud-din.
- Chatterjee, Anjali (2012). "Azim-us-Shan". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Irvine, p. 145.
- Irvine, p. 144.
- Cheema, G. S (1 January 2002). The Forgotten Mughals: A History of the Later Emperors of the House of Babar, 1707-1857. Manohar Publishers and Distributors. p. 179.
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- Irvine, p. 35.