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Nawabs of Bengal and Murshidabad

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Nawab Nizam of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa (1717–1880)a
and
Nawab Bahadur of Murshidabad (1882–1950)b
Nawabs of Bengal and Murshidabad
1717–1765
 

Coat of Arms of the Nawab Nizamm of Bengal, Bihar and  Orissa (top) and that of the Nawab Bahadur of Murshidabad (bottom)
Coat of arms

Motto
Nil Desparandum
"There is no cause for despair, never despair"
The Nawab Nizams of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa ruled over the Bengal Subah and were subordinate to the Mughal empire, however after the Battle of Plassey in 1757, and acquisition of the administration of the subah from the then Mughal Emperor, Shah Alam II, by the British East India Company, the Bengal Presidency was established, which included the Bengal subah and surther, the system of dual government was established in 1772. Shown here is a 1776 map of the Bengal Presidency, after it came under Company rule and prior to its takeover by the British Crown and the partition of Bengal.
The Nawab Nizams of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa ruled over the Bengal Subah and were subordinate to the Mughal empire, however after the Battle of Plassey in 1757, and acquisition of the administration of the subah from the then Mughal Emperor, Shah Alam II, by the British East India Company, the Bengal Presidency was established, which included the Bengal subah and surther, the system of dual government was established in 1772. Thus, the Nawabs became "puppet rulers" of the British, with very little real power and authority to exercise and lost even that little power when the Nizamat (power to exercise military power and criminal justice) of the Nawab was also taken away from them; the Nawabs remained as the mere pensioners of the British East India Company. After the Revolt of 1857, the regions under the Company rule came under the British Crown, and by now, the post/office of the Nawabs was just titular. They had no real power and authority. Further, after Indian independence, in 1947, the region first came under the rule of the Dominion of Pakistan for two days, and then the Dominion of India, followed by the Republic of India in 1950, and since then has remained under the rule of the republic. Shown here is a 1776 map of the Bengal Presidency, after it came under Company rule and prior to its takeover by the British Crown and the partition of Bengal.
Capital Murshidabadc
Languages English

Persian
Bengali
Hindi
Urdu
Arabic

Government Nobility
Historical era Mughal rule in India

Company rule in India
British Raj
Indian Independence movement
Indian Independence

 •  Emergence of the Mughal Empire 1526
 •  Established 1717
 •  Battle of Plassey 23 June 1757
 •  Battle of Buxar 22 October 1764
 •  Abolition of the title of Nawab of Bengal 1880
 •  Abdication of Mansoor Ali Khan, the last Nawab of Bengal 1 November 1880
 •  Emergence of the Nawab of Murshidabad 17 February 1882
 •  Disestablished 1765
Population
 •  1901 est. 75 million[1] 
Succeeded by
Company rule in India
British Raj
Today part of  India
 Bangladesh
a. Title abolished in 1880
b.
After Indian independence in 1947, followed by the promulgation of the Indian Constitution on 26 January 1950, which marked the transformation of the Dominion of India into the Republic of India, the Article 18 of the Indian Constitution abolished all titles, except those given by the Government of India to those who have made their mark in military and academic fields. Thus the title of the "Nawab Bahadur of Murshidabad" was officially, constitutionally and legally abolished.
c.
Murshidabad was the capital for both the Nawabs of Bengal and the Nawabs of Murshidabad.
Part of a series on the
History of Bangladesh
History of India
Part of a series on the
History of India
History of India

The Nawabs of Bengal (full title, the Nawab Nizam of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa) were the rulers of the then provinces of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. Between 1717 and 1765, they served as the rulers of the subah (or province) of Bengal. However, they were subordinate to the Mughal Empire. Siraj ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal was betrayed in the Battle of Plassey by Mir Jafar. He lost to the British, who took over the charge of Bengal in 1757, installed Mir Jafar on the Masnad (throne) and established itself to a political power in Bengal.[2]

In 1765 the system of Dual Government was established, in which the Nawabs ruled on behalf of the British and were mere puppets to the British. In 1772 the system was abolished and Bengal was brought under direct control of the British. In 1793, when the Nizamat (governorship) of the Nawab was also taken away from them, they remained as the mere pensioners of the British East India Company.[3][4] The last Nawab of Bengal, Mansur Ali Khan abdicated on 1 November 1880 in favour of his eldest son.[5]

Nawabs of Murshidabad succeeded the Nawabs of Bengal as Nawab Bahadur of Murshidabad, following Mansur Ali Khan's abdication[5][6] They got the title changed as the title of the Nawab of Bengal was abolished in 1880. They had little or no say in the share of the revenue collected and were ceased to use any force. After Indian Independence in 1947 it was declared that the princely states must accede to either India or Pakistan (East/West Pakistan).[7] It is a fact that Murshidabad (the capital city) became a part of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) for two days, as it had a Muslim majority. It became a part of India on 17 August 1947, following which the Pakistani flag was brought down from the Hazarduari Palace and the Indian tricolour was hoisted atop it.[8] After merging with India, they had no power as the Government of India took over all the princely states in India.[7] The house of the Nawabs appeared to have come to end in 1969 with Waris Ali Mirza being the last reigning Nawab and with no clear succession.[9] Although he left three sons and three daughters there was no clear successor to the title after his death because he disinherited one and the others disputed his will.[9]

Eventually, in August 2014, the Supreme Court of India declared Syed Mohammed Abbas Ali Mirza (born 1942)[10] to be the present Nawab Bahadur of Murshidabad and lawful heir to the royal title which had been in abeyance since the death of his maternal uncle Waris Ali Mirza (the third Nawab Bahadur of Murshidabad) in 1969.[10]

Bengal[edit]

The term "Bengal" incorporates to delineate the ethno-linguistic region of Bengal which including but not limited is all districts within the People's Republic of Bangladesh, as well as West Bengal, India.[11][12][13] During the first partition of Bengal in the early 20th century a new province, Eastern Bengal was created as a Lieutenant-Governorship along with Assam.[14] In 1911, East Bengal (now Bangladesh) was reunited with Bengal, and the new provinces in the east became: Assam, Bengal Province, Bihar and Orissa.[15] The Nawab thus gained rule over Bihar and Orissa, which were earlier part of Bengal.[16][17][18] So sometimes That is why the Nawabs of Bengal were also mentioned as "Nawab of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa" or "Nawab Nazim of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa"[19] - where Nazim (or, Subahdar) means the provincial governor - as they ruled over three subahs while the Nawabs of Murshidabad were the local ruler of the city of Murshidabad.[20] The majority of modern Bengal is inhabited by Bengali people who speak the Bengali language.[21]

History before the Nawab's rule[edit]

Sultans of Bengal[edit]

The early Sultans of Bengal ruled until 1282 which was followed by the rule of several successive dynasties. Ilyas Shah founder of the Ilyas Shahi dynasty, took complete charge of the then Bengal[22] and the capital was shifted to Sonargaon (near present day, Dhaka in Bangladesh).[23] He was one of the independent rulers of Bengal. His son, Sikandar Shah, who succeeded him, built the Adina Mosque at Pandua, near Gour, Adina Mosque in the medieval times, was considered to be the largest in undivided Bengal, as well as the entire Indian subcontinent.[24]

Mughal Empire[edit]

Emperor Akbar celebrates the Mughal conquest of Bengal

The Mughal Empire emerged as a powerful Empire in northern India. Babur, who was related to two legendary warriors – Timur and Genghis Khan, invaded north India and defeated Ibrahim Lodi of the Lodi dynasty.[25] Babur thus became the first Mughal emperor. He was succeeded by his son, Humayun. At the same time, Sher Shah Suri (alias Farid Khan) of the Suri dynasty rose to prominence and established himself as the ruler of the present day Bihar by defeating Ghiyasuddin Shah. But he lost to capture the kingdom because of sudden expedition of Humayun. In 1539, Sher Khan faced Humayun in the Battle of Chausa. He forced Humayun out of India. Assuming the title Sher Shah, he ascended the throne of Delhi. He also captured Agra and established control from Bengal in the east until the Indus River in the west.[26] After his death he was succeeded by his son, Islam Shah Suri. But in 1544 the Suris were torn apart by internal conflicts. Humayun took this advantage and captured Lahore and Delhi, but he died in 1556 AD.[27] He was succeeded by Akbar, who defeated Daud Khan Karrani of Bengal's Karrani Dynasty (or, Karnani Dynasty). After this, the administration of the entire region of Bengal passed into the hands of governors appointed by the Mughal emperors, who ruled Bengal till 1716 AD.[28][29][30]

There were several posts under the Mughal administrative system during Akbar's reign. Diwani was a system of provincial revenue administration under the Mughals. Nizamat (civil administration) and Diwani (revenue administration) were the two main branches of the provincial administration under the Mughals.[28] A Subahdar (provincial viceroy or governor), also called a Nizam was in-charge of the Nizamat. There was a chain of subordinate officials under the Nizams on the executive side and under Diwans on the revenue and judicial side.[28]

Emergence of the Nawab Nizam of Bengal[edit]

Murshidabad was the capital of the Nawabs
Early nineteenth century view of Murshidabad, with the Katra Mosque in the backdrops.

Murshid Quli Khan arrived as the Diwan of Bengal in 1717 AD. Before his arrival, there were four Diwans. And, after his arrival, Azim-ush-Shan held the Nizam's office. Azim got into conflict with Murshid Quli Khan over imperial financial control. Considering the complaint of Khan, the then Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb ordered Azim to move to Bihar.[31] Upon his departure the two posts united in one and Murshid Quli Khan became the first Nizam cum Diwan of Bengal. Murshid Khan was appointed the "Nawab Nizam of Bengal" and he emerged as the ruler of Bengal under the Mughals.[28][32] Murshidabad remained the capital of the Nawabs of Bengal until their rule.[28][33] The Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah, was betrayed in the Battle of Plassey by Mir Jaffer.[34] He lost to the British East India Company, who took installed Mir Jaffer on the Masnad (throne), as a "puppet ruler" and established itself to a political power in Bengal.[35]

In 1765, Robert Clive, of the British East India Company, became the first British Governor of Bengal.[36] He secured in perpetuity for the Company the Diwani (revenue and civil justice) of the then Bengal subah from the then Mughal Emperor, Shah Alam II and thus the system of Dual Government was established and the Bengal Presidency was formed. In 1772 the Dual Government system was abolished and Bengal was brought under direct control of the British. In 1793, when the Nizamat (military power and criminal justice) of the Nawab was also taken away from them, they remained as the mere pensioners of the British East India Company. After the Revolt of 1857, Company rule in India ended and the British Crown took over the territories which were under the direct rule of the British East India Company in 1858, which marked the beginning of the British Raj. These territories, including the territory of the Nawab Nazims came under the direct rule of the British Crown and British Raj was established in India. Thus, the Nawab Nizams remained just the titular heads of their territory, which was now ruled by the British Crown, and they had no political or any other kind of control over the territory.[37][38] The last Nawab of Bengal, Mansoor Ali Khan abdicated on 1 November 1880 in favour of his eldest son.[39]

History during the Nawab's rule[edit]

Dynasties[edit]

Tomb of Siraj-ud-Daulah at Khushbagh

From 1717 until 1880, three successive Islamic dynasties – Nasiri, Afshar and Najafi – ruled what was then known as Bengal.[40]

The first dynasty, the Nasiri, ruled from 1717 until 1740. The founder of the Nasiri, Murshid Quli Khan, was born a poor Deccani Odia Brahmin before being sold into slavery and bought by one Haji Shafi Isfahani, a Persian merchant from Isfahan who converted him to Islam. He entered the service of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and rose through the ranks before becoming the Nawab Nizam of Bengal in 1717, a post he held until his death in 1727. He in turn was succeeded by his son-in-law, Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan.[41] After Shuja-ud-Din's death in 1739 he was succeeded by his son, Sarfaraz Khan, who held the rank, until he was killed in the Battle of Giria in 1741, and was succeeded by Alivardi Khan, former ruler of Patna, of the Afshar Dynasty in 1740.[42]

The second dynasty, the Afshar, ruled from 1740 to 1757. Siraj ud-Daulah (Alivardi Khan's grandson), the last Afshar Nawab was killed in the Battle of Plassey in 1757.[43] They were succeeded by the third and final dynasty to rule the whole Bengal, the Najafi.[44]

Under the Mughals[edit]

Bengal Subah was one of the wealthiest parts of the Mughal empire.[45] As the Mughal empire began to decline, the Nawabs grew in power, although nominally subordinate to the Mughal emperor.[28][46] They wielded great power in their own right and finally became independent rulers of the Bengal region, for all practical purposes, by the early 1700s.[46]

Maratha expeditions[edit]

Raghunath Rao was Peshwa of the Maratha Empire from 1773 to 1774.

Marathas undertook six expeditions in Bengal from 1741–1748. Maratha general, Raghunath Rao was able to annex Orissa to his kingdom and the larger confederacy permanently as he successfully exploited the chaotic conditions prevailing in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa after the death of Murshid Quli Khan in 1727.[47] Constantly harassed by the Bhonsles, Orissa, Bengal and parts of Bihar were economically ruined. Alivardi Khan made peace with Raghunathrao in 1751 ceding in perpetuity Orissa up to the river Suvarnarekha, and agreeing to pay 12 lacs annually in lieu of the Chauth of Bengal and Bihar.[48]

The treaty included 20 lacs as Chauth for Bengal (includes both West Bengal and Bangladesh) and 12 lacs for Bihar(including Jharkhand). After this, Maratha promised never to cross the boundary of the Nawab of Bengal's territory.[49]

Thus, Baji Rao is hailed as the greatest Maratha chief after Shivaji because of his success in subjecting Muslim rulers of east India in states such as Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to the Maratha rule.[50]

Nawabs of Bengal under British rule and their decline[edit]

Mir Jaffer meeting with Sir Robert Clive after the Battle of Plassey

The break-up of the centralised Mughal empire by 1750, led to the creation of numerous semi-independent kingdoms (all provinces of the former Mughal empire). Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah was defeated by the British forces of Sir Robert Clive in the Battle of Plassey in 1757.[51] Thereafter the Nawab of Bengal became a "puppet ruler" depending on military support from British East India company to secure their throne.[43] Siraj-ud-Daulah was replaced by Mir Jaffer. He was personally led to the throne by Robert Clive, after triumph of the British in the battle.[43] He briefly tried to re-assert his power by allying with the Dutch, but this plan was ended by the Battle of Chinsurah. After the defeat at Battle of Buxar and grant of the Diwani (revenue collection) of Bengal by the then Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, to the British East India Company in August 1765 and the appointment of Warren Hastings by the East India Company as their first Governor General of Bengal in 1773, the Nawabs authority became restricted. By 1773, British East India company asserted much authority and formed the Bengal Presidency over areas ruled by the Nawabs i.e. the Bengal subah, along with some other regions and abolished the system of Dual Government. In 1793 (during Nawab Mubarak ud-Daulah's reign), the Nizamat (military power,civil and criminal justice) was abolished, British East India company thus annexed this former Mughal province as part of their empire and took complete control of the region, and the Nawabs of Bengal became mere pensioners of the British East India Company. All the Diwan offices except the Diwan Ton were also abolished.[37][38][52]

After the Revolt of 1857, Company rule in India ended, and all the territories which were under the rule of the British East India Company came under the British Crown in 1858, which marked the beginning of the British Raj. And administrative control of India came under the Indian Civil Service, which had administrative control over all areas in India, except the Princely States.[15]

Mansoor Ali Khan (aka Feradun Jah) was the last Nawab of Bengal. During his reign the Nizamat at Murshidabad became involved in debts. The then Government of India involved it into an action of preventing further claims. Feradun Jah left Murshidabad in February 1869 and started living in England. The title of "Nawab of Bengal" was abolished in 1880.[53] He returned to Bombay in October 1880 but spent most of his time pleading his case against the orders of the Government of India. After it was not resolved the Nawab renounced his styles and titles of Nawab Nizam of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa and abdicated in favour of his eldest son at St. Ives, Maidenhead, on 1 November 1880.[53]

Emergence of the Nawab of Murshidabad and the Nawabs post Indian independence[edit]

The Nawabs of Murshidabad succeeded the Nawab Nizams of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa as Nawab Bahadur of Murshidabad, following Mansoor Ali Khan's abdication[28][39][54] Nawabs of Murshidabad were the successors of the Nawabs of Bengal. After Lord Clive secured the Diwani of Bengal from Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II in 1765 for the East India Company they did not have any effective authority. So they lavishly enjoyed their title, privileges alongside with the honours they received. They got the title changed as the title of the Nawab of Bengal was abolished in 1880.[28] They had little or no say and ceased to control any significant force.[28][55]

After Indian Independence in 1947, all the non-princely states were subject to a test of religious majority in which the Muslim majority areas formed the Dominion of Pakistan, while the other regions formed the Dominion of India.[7] It is a fact that Murshidabad (the capital city for both, the Nawabs of Bengal and the Nawabs of Murshidabad) became a part of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) for two days, as it had a Muslim majority. However, it became a part of India on 17 August 1947.[56][57] The Pakistani flag was brought down from the Hazarduari Palace and the Indian tricolour was hoisted atop the palace.[56][58] The Nawabs, after the takeover by the British had no actual power and after merging with India too, they had yielded power, as the Government of India took over control of all the areas that merged with India. Furthermore, with the promulgation of the Indian Constitution on 26 January 1950, the Dominion of India was transformed into the Republic of India, and the Article 18 of the Indian Constitution (which is a part of the Right to Equality, a fundamental right in India), titles were abolished. The Article prevents the state from confirming any title except those titles given by the Government to those who have made their mark in military and academic fields. Such titles and awards include the Bharat Ratna, the Padma Shri and the Padma Vibhushan (the Supreme Court of India, on 15 December 1995, upheld the validity of such awards). Thus, with the promulgation of the Constitution, the title of the Nawab Bahadur of Murshidabad was abolished. And although, the Nawab Waris Ali Meerza held titles such as Raes ud-Daulah, they were not officially or legally recognised.[7][59]

Although, the Nawab Bahadur of Murshidabad had no political power the office continued to be held by the second Nawab Bahadur Syed Wasif Ali Meerza Khan Bahadur, who had held the office since 1906, and after his death in 1959, he was succeeded by his son, Syed Wasif Ali Meerza Khan Bahadur.[7] Waris Ali Meerza died in 1969,[60] survived by his three sons and three daughters. According to the Nawab’s law, the eldest son of the Nawab succeeded him, however, Waris Ali's eldest son, Wakif Ali Meerza Bahadur, was excluded from the succession by his father for contracting a non-Muslim marriage and for not professing the Muslim religion.

Waris Ali Meerza, the third Nawab Bahadur of Murshidabad, died in 1969, and he took no steps during his lifetime to establish his succession. And before declaring his successor Waris Ali died. There was no clear successor to Waris Ali.[61]

Since then there was no clear successor to Waris Ali and the titular office/post was in dispute, and a legal battle ensued. And following this as the title was in dispute, a legal battle ensued. Abbas Ali Meerza claimed to be the legal heir of Waris Ali on the basis of being the son of the daughter of Waris Alis' father, the second Nawab Bahadur of Murshidabad, Wasif Ali Meerza; while Sajid Ali Meerza claimed the same on the basis of being the son by mut‘ah marriage of Wasif Ali. The case reached the Supreme Court and finally, the Supreme Court judges, Justice Ranjan Gogoi and Justice R K Agrawal, gave their judgement on 13 August 2014, declaring the then 72-year-old Abbas Ali Meerza (full name, Syed Mohammed Abbas Ali Meerza), who happened to be the son of the only daughter of Waris Ali’s father, Wasif Ali Meerza (the third Nawab Bahadur of Murshidabad), the successor and the legal heir to the former Nawab of Murshidabad, Waris Ali Meerza. The Court directed Abbas Ali Meerza, son of Syed Md. Sadeque Ali Meerza, to be the direct descendant of Waris Ali Meerza. However, the case against the state's annexation of the Murshidabad Estate, which is worth several thousand crores, is still on, as of 2014.[62][63]

However, as titles have been abolished in India, the title of the Nawab Bahadur of Murshidabad no longer exists. However, Abbas Ali Meerza can now legally succeed Waris Ali Meerza's office legally, but his title of the fourth Nawab Bahadur of Murshidabad would be unofficial,as the title is not legally and officially recognised.[62][63][64]

List of the Nawabs of Bengal[edit]

The following is a list of all the Nawabs of Bengal. Sarfaraz Khan and Mir Mohammad Jaffer Ali Khan (Mir Jaffer) were the only Nawabs to become the Nawab twice.[65] The chronology started in 1717 with Murshid Quli Khan and ended in 1881 with Mansoor Ali Khan's abdication.[28][39][65]

Portrait Titular Name Personal Name Birth Reign Death
Nasiri Dynasty
Murshid Quli Jafar Khan.jpg Jaafar Khan Bahadur Nasiri Murshid Quli Khan 1665 1717–1727 1727[66][67][68]
Sarfaraz Khan.jpg Ala-ud-Din Haidar Jang Sarfaraz Khan Bahadur  ? 1727-1727 29 April 1740[69]
Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan.jpg Shuja ud-Daula Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan Around 1670 (date not available) July 1727 – 26 August 1739 26 August 1739[70][71]
Sarfaraz Khan.jpg Ala-ud-Din Haidar Jang Sarfaraz Khan Bahadur  ? 13 March 1739 – April 1740 29 April 1740[69]
Afshar Dynasty
Alivardi Khan.jpg Hashim ud-Daula Muhammad Alivardi Khan Bahadur Before 10 May 1671 29 April 1740 – 9 April 1756 9 April 1756[72][73]
Siraj ud-Daulah.jpg Siraj ud-Daulah Muhammad Siraj-ud-Daulah 1733 April 1756 – 2 June 1757 2 July 1757[74][75]
Najafi Dynasty
Mir Jafar (left) and Mir Miran (right).jpg Ja'afar 'Ali Khan Bahadur Mir Mohammad Jaffer Ali Khan Bahadur 1691 June 1757 – October 1760 17 January 1765[76][77][78]
Mir Qasim.jpg Itimad ud-Daulah Mir Qasim Ali Khan Bahadur  ? 20 October 1760 – 1763 8 May 1777[79]
Mir Jafar (left) and Mir Miran (right).jpg Ja'afar 'Ali Khan Bahadur Mir Mohammad Jaffer Ali Khan Bahadur 1691 25 July 1763 – 17 January 1765 17 January 1765[79][80]
Nazam ud-Daulah.jpg Nazam-ud-Daulah Najimuddin Ali Khan Bahadur 1750 5 February 1765 – 8 May 1766 8 May 1766[81]
Saif ud-Daulah.jpg Saif ud-Daulah Najabut Ali Khan Bahadur 1749 22 May 1766 – 10 March 1770 10 March 1770[82]
Mubaraq ud-Daulah.jpg Mubarak ud-Daulah Ashraf Ali Khan Bahadur 1759 21 March 1770 – 6 September 1793 6 September 1793[83]
Babar Ali.jpg Azud ud-Daulah Babar Ali Khan Bahadur  ? 1793 – 28 April 1810 28 April 1810
Ali Jah.jpg Ali Jah Zain-ud-Din Ali Khan Bahadur  ? 5 June 1810 – 6 August 1821 6 August 1821
Walla Jah.jpg Walla Jah Ahmad Ali Khan Bahadur  ? 1810 – 30 October 1824 30 October 1824
Nawab Nazim Humayun Jah.jpg Humayun Jah Mubarak Ali Khan Bahadur 29 September 1810 1824 – 3 October 1838 3 October 1838
Feradun Jah.jpg Feradun Jah Syed Mansoor Ali Khan Bahadur 29 October 1830 29 October 1838 – 1 November 1880 (abdicated) 5 November 1884

List of the Nawabs of Murshidabad[edit]

The Nawabs of Murshidabad succeeded the Nawabs of Bengal after the abdication in 1881 and the abolition of the title of Nawab of Bengal in 1880.[28][39] There have been four Nawabs of Murshidabad ,as of 2014, as follows:

Picture Titular Name Personal Name Birth Reign Death
Najafi Dynasty
Young Hassan Ali.jpg Ali Kadir Syed Hassan Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur 25 August 1846 17 February 1882 – 25 December 1906 25 December 1906
Wasif Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur.jpg Amir ul-Omrah Syed Wasif Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur 7 January 1875 December 1906 – 23 October 1959 23 October 1959
Waris Ali.jpg Raes ud-Daulah Syed Waris Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur 14 November 1901 1959 – 20 November 1969 20 November 1969
N/A N/A Disputed/In abeyance[62][63] N/A 20 November 1969 – 13 August 2014 N/A
Coat of Arms of the Nawab of Murshidabad.png N/A Syed Mohammed Abbas Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur Circa 1942 13 August 2014 – Present[62][63] Present

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, p. 46
  2. ^ Chaudhury, Sushil; Mohsin, KM (2012). "Sirajuddaula". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. 
  3. ^ Singh, Vipul (2009). Longman History & Civics (Dual Government in Bengal). Pearson Education India. pp. 29–. 
  4. ^ Madhya Pradesh National Means-Cum-Merit Scholarship Exam (Warren Hasting's system of Dual Government). Upkar Prakashan. 2009. pp. 11–. ISBN 978-81-7482-744-9. 
  5. ^ a b Murshidabad.net (8 May 2012). "Decline of the Nawabs of Bengal". Retrieved 10 August 2012. 
  6. ^ Murshidabad.net (8 May 2012). "Hassan Ali Mirza's succession". Retrieved 10 August 2012. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Lumby 1954, p. 232
  8. ^ "Murshidabad was a part of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) for two days after which it became a part of India". 30-days.net. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  9. ^ a b "The last reigning Nawab of Murshidabad, Waris Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur". Retrieved 10 August 2012. 
  10. ^ a b Times of India (20 August 2014). "Murshidabad gets a Nawab again, but fight for assets ahead". Retrieved 12 March 2015. 
  11. ^ Hasan, Perween (15 August 2007). Sultans and Mosques: The Early Muslim Architecture of Bangladesh. I.B.Tauris. p. 4. ISBN 9781845113810. 
  12. ^ Knight, Lisa I. (1 June 2011). Contradictory Lives: Baul Women in India and Bangladesh. Oxford University Press. p. 191. ISBN 9780199773619. 
  13. ^ Chakraborty, Mridula Nath (26 March 2014). Being Bengali: At Home and in the World. Routledge. p. 141. ISBN 9781317818908. 
  14. ^ Ray, Asok Kumar; Chakraborty, Satyabrata (2008). Society, Politics, and Development in North East India: Essays in Memory of Dr. Basudeb Datta Ray. Concept Publishing Company. p. 195. ISBN 9788180695728. 
  15. ^ a b David Gilmour, The Ruling Caste: Imperial Lives in the Victorian Raj (2007) pp. 46, 135
  16. ^ Sir James Bourdillon The Partition of Bengal (London: Society of Arts) 1905
  17. ^ "History of Bangladesh". Bangladesh Student Association. Archived from the original on 19 December 2006. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  18. ^ "Britain Proposes Indian Partition". Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada: The Leader-Post. BUP. 2 June 1947. 
  19. ^ "Nawabs of Bengal were also known as Nawabs of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa". Murshidabad.nic.in. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  20. ^ "The Nawabs of Murshidabad ruled only over Murshidabad". Royal Ark. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  21. ^ Huq, Mohammad Daniul; Sarkar, Pabitra (2012). "Bangla Language". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. 
  22. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2006). The Delhi Sultanate, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, p.197
  23. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2006). The Delhi Sultanate, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, p.212
  24. ^ Husain, ABM (2012). "Adina Mosque". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. 
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