Cosmology An illustration in Zakariya al-Qazwini's "The Wonders of Creation" showing "a disk-like earth with the surrounding range of Qaf Mountains resting on the back of a giant bull (al-Rayyan), which in turn stands on a vast fish (Bahamut) held up by an angel. This type of visualisation of the structure of the universe was not unusual in the thirteenth century."
|Sub grouping||Sea monster|
|Habitat||Deep below the Earth|
Bahamut, Bahamoot (// bə-HAH-moot; Arabic: باهاموت Bahamūt, from Hebrew בְּהֵמוֹת "Behemoth") is a sea monster (gigantic fish, whale or sea serpent) that lies deep below, underpinning the support structure that holds up the earth, according to Zakariya al-Qazwini.
In this conception of the world, the earth is shouldered by an angel, who stands on a slab of gemstone, which is supported by the cosmic beast (ox) sometimes called Kuyutha'(/Kuyuthan)/Kiyuban/Kibuthan (most likely from a corruption or misrendering of Hebrew לִוְיָתָן "Leviathan"). The fish/whale Bahamut carries this bull on its back, and is suspended in water for its own stability.
However, the original biblical Behemoth never appeared as a fish. A reshaping of its nature must have occurred in Arab storytelling, some time in the pre-islamic period. One proposed scenario is that a pair of beasts from the bible were confused with each other; the behemoth mis-assigned to the fish, and the aquatic leviathan to the bull.
Bahamut, according to Edward William Lane's abstract of a particular Islamic work on cosmography, is a giant fish acting as one of the layers that supports the earth. It is so immense "[all] the seas of the world, placed in one of the fish's nostrils, would be like a mustard seed laid in the desert." Above the fish stands a bull called Kuyootà, on the bull, a "ruby"[e] rock, on the rock an angel to shoulder the earth.
There are a number of Islamic cosmographical treatises, of more or less similar content.
There can occur certain discrepancies in Western translations, even when there are no textual differences in the Arabic. The creature, named Bahamut or Balhut in these sources, can be described as a fish or whale according to translation, since the original Arabic word hūt (حوت) can mean either. Also, the gem comprising the slab beneath the angel's feet, in Arabic yāqūt (ياقوت) is of ambiguous meaning, and can be rendered as "ruby", or variously otherwise.[e][Arabic source verification needed]
Al-Damiri (d. 1405) on authority of Wahb ibn Munabbih was one of Lane's sources, possibly the source of his main summary.[g] His description of "Bahmût" (French translation) matches Lane's summary down to certain key details.[h] However, there seems to be discrepancies in using "a heap of sand" (instead of "mustard") in the size analogy, and the bull's name given ("Rakaboûnâ") is rather different.[i]
Al-Qazwini (d. 1283)'s[j] cosmography The Wonders of Creation on the contrary agrees with Lane on these points.[k] However, it disagrees somewhat with Lane's on the description, on what lies below the fish: water, air, then a region of darkness, and with respect to the bull's appendages,[l][m] It should be cautioned that Qazwini's cosmography is known to exist in a variety of different manuscripts.
Both cosmographies provide the story as words spoken by Wahb ibn Munabbih, so the descriptions should be similar at the core. In fact, Al-Damiri's version is considered to be mere redactions of Qazwini printed onto its margins.
Ibn al-Wardi (d. 1348) (Kharīdat al-ʿAjā'ib, "The Pearl of Wonders") is another source used by Lane, to give variant readings. Its chapter that includes the cosmography has been deemed a copy of Yaqut al-Hamawi (d. 1229)'s Mu'jam al-Buldan, with similar wording, with some rearrangements, and very slight amounts of discrepant information.
These texts connect the cosmic fish and bull with phenomena of nature, namely the waxing and ebbing of tides, maintenance of the sea-level, and earthquakes. The account which only connects concerns the bull states that its breathing causes the waxing and ebbing of the tides. And since the fish and the bull drink the water running off the earth into the sea, they counteract the tap-off causing sea-level to rise. But the beasts will eventually become engorged, when they will become agitated, or, it marks the advent of Judgment Day (Ibn al-Wardi, Yaqut).
Lives of prophets
There are two Qiṣaṣ al-anbīyāʾ ("Lives of the Prophets"), one by al-Tha'labi, known otherwise for his Tafsir al-Thalabi, the other by Al-Kisa'i which are considered the oldest authorities containing a similar cosmographical description concerning the big fish and bull. In al-Tha'labi's text is an elucidation on the whale having several names, as follows: "God created a large fish (nūn) which is a huge whale whose name (ism) is Lutīyā, by-name (kunyah) Balhūt, and nickname (laqab) Bahamūt".
Yakut also gives the account that Iblis almost incited the whale Balhūt into causing a quake, but God distracted it by sending gnats to its eyes. Or alternatively, God had sent a sword-like fish that bedazzled and captivated the giant fish. This account is also found in al-Tha'labi's Qiṣaṣ al-anbīyāʾ, but in that version God forces the whale (Lutīyā) into submission by sending a creature that invaded through its nose and reached its brain; it also claims to be an anecdote on authority of Kaʿb al-Aḥbār (d. 650s A.D.), a convert considered the earliest informant of Jewish-Muslim tradition to Arab writers.[o]
Although this is an instance of an Arabic tale that ascribes the origins of earthquakes to the cosmic whale/fish supporting the earth, more familiar beliefs in medieval Arab associate the earthquake with the bull, or with Mount Qaf.
Japanese folklorist Ōbayashi Taryō has explained that the traditional belief in the earthquake-causing bull is heavily concentrated in Arab regions (Saharan Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan, Malay), whereas the motif of "World-Fish's movement causes earthquake" is found mostly in parts of Indochina, China, and throughout Japan.
According to Jorge Luis Borges's work, the Book of Imaginary Beings (1957), Bahamut is "altered and magnified" from Behemoth and described as so immense that a human cannot bear its sight.
Borges placed Bahamut as the identity of the unnamed giant fish which Isa (Jesus) witnessed in the story of the 496th night of One Thousand and One Nights (Burton's edition).[p] This giant fish supports a bull, the bull a rock, and the rock an angel, exactly as in the traditional Perso-Arabic medieval model of the world.[q][r] Borges appropriated the description of the Bahamut from Edward Lane's Arabian Society in the Middle Ages.[s]
In popular culture
- In the Dungeons & Dragons tabletop role-playing game, Bahamut is the dragon god of justice, and is the first instance of the name being used for a dragon.
- In Rage of Bahamut collectible card game and its anime adaptation, Bahamut is an ancient dragon with the capability to destroy the world. In the anime, preventing or aiding Bahamut's release is the goal of most of the story's factions.
- In Shadowverse collectible card game, Bahamut is one of the Legendary follower cards, which upon being played destroys all other cards. Both artwork and lore depict it as a dragon.
- In the Final Fantasy video game series, Bahamut is one of the most prominent summons – monsters that can be brought into battle to fight for their summoner. It appears in almost all installments of the series, with the exception of Final Fantasy XII, where its name is used for the game's final dungeon, Sky Fortess Bahamut.
- In Granblue Fantasy video game, the Bahamut Weapons are a set of extremely powerful weapons that boost character stats based on the character's species. These can be acquired from Bahamut himself, who is the same as Rage of Bahamut's incarnation.
- In Megazone 23 original video animation, the central artificial intelligence is named Bahamut and is responsible for propping up a fake reality.
- In Bahamut (album) of the New York based musical group Hazmat Modine, the third track named "Bahamut" too, gives a description of the Bahamut in spoken word at 2:34
- Makara or Kar Mahi an analogue from Indo-Iranian cultural sphere
- Gaokerena the mythical white haoma tree being guarded by analogue mythical creatures
- Atlas (mythology), a rough analogue from Greek mythology
- Dandan, another large fish in Arabian mythology
- The Wonders of Creation
- Ferdinand Wüstenfeld's edited text and Hermann Ethé's incomplete translation.
- Mu'jam al-Buldan
- Ibn al-Wardi, The Pearl of Wonders(Kharīdat al-ʿajā'ib wa-farīdat al-ghāraʾib). "Belhut" in a Latin translation.
- Arabic yāqūt is ambiguous, and it had been endered "ruby" as Lane and Perron and "green emerald". or just "rock", that is to say, rock of "green jacinth", "green corundum", or "green rock".
- The source he notes at the end of the summary is al-Damiri ("Ed-Demeeree"), but this source does not completely match Lane's summary in details, at least when using Perron's translation of al-Damiri for comparison.
- At least this is the source ("Ed-Demeeree, on the authority of Wahb Ibn-Munebbih, quoted by El-Isḥáḳee, 1, 1.") which he cites at the apparent end of the description from one work; after which he begins "Another opinion is..." and moves to a different source.
- The bull having 4,000 eyes, nose, ears, mouths, tongue, and legs.
- At least in comparison with Nicolas Perron's French translated version.
- Or "El-Ḳazweenee" as Lane spells his name. Lane cites him in the foregoing passages on "Kaf", Arabic Society, p. 105.
- On the "mustard seed" analogy and proximity of the bull's name: "mustard seed" (German "Senfkorn") in Ethé's translation. Bull's names are "Kīyūbān (Arabic: کیوبان) or Kibūthān" (Arabic: کبوثان) in Wüstenfeld's edition, but also written "Kuyūthā" (كيوثاء ) in some version.
- The bull has 40,000 eyes, etc.
- Although these differences are strictly based on the edition of Qazwini published in Germany (Wüstenfeld ed.)
- Although in some printed editions of Ibn al-Wardi, it occurs as "bahmūt" (equivalent to "Bahamūt").
- The account is also given by Ibn al-Wardi, by al-Suyūṭī (d. 1505) and the al-Jazzār (d. after 1576).
- This is one of the tales in "The Adventures of Bulukiya".
- Burton hinted this also, footnoting that this bull was the cosmic "Bull of the Earth", and gives appelation in Persian as gāw-i zamīn.
- Except the night's tale adds that in the further depths lives a serpent called Falak.
- And not, as one might be led to believe, from Lane's translation of the Arabian Nights. In fact, Lane after Chapter 19 (Nights 424–436) skips to Night 537, so he omits this Bulukiya tale entirely.
- Lebling, Robert (2010). Legends of the Fire Spirits: Jinn and Genies from Arabia to Zanzibar. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 9780857730633. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- Chalyan-Daffner (2013), p. 216 and note 198.
- Lane, Edward William (1883). Lane-Poole, Stanley (ed.). Arabian society in the Middle ages: studies from the Thousand and one nights. London: Chatto & Windus. pp. 106–107.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Streck, Maximilian (1936), "Ḳāf", The Encyclopaedia of Islām, E. J. Brill ltd., IV, pp. 582–583
- Ethé (1868), p. 298.
- Chalyan-Daffner (2013), pp. 237–238 and note 271, citing Heinen, Islamic Cosmology, p. 235 for the statement "in none of these ancient texts is Behemoth a fish"
- Chalyan-Daffner (2013), p. 238.
Guest, Grace D.; Ettinghausen, Richard (1961), "The Iconography of a Kāshān Luster Plate", Ars Orientalis, 4: 53, note 110, JSTOR 4629133,
The passage in Qazwīnī dealing with these ideas is on p. 145 of Wüstenfeld's edition (where the names of the two animals are confused with each other and where also the Leviathan appears in a corrupt Arabic form form; see also tr. Ethé, p. 298
- Jwaideh (1987), pp. 34–35. sfnp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFJwaideh1987 (help)
- Ibn al-Wardi (1835), pp. 36–37.
- Chalyan-Daffner (2013), p. 216, note 198. (Kharīdat, Cairo edition of AH1358/AD1939, published by Maṭbaʿat Muṣtafā al-Bābī al-Ḥalabī, pp. 16, 15)
- Lane (1883), p. 106.
- Rustomji, Nerina (2013). The Garden and the Fire: Heaven and Hell in Islamic Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 71.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ibn al-Mundir, Abū Bakr b. Badr (1860), Le Nâċérî: La perfection des deux arts ou traité complet d'hippologie et d'hippiatrie arabes, 3, Perron, Nicolas (trans.), Bouchard-Huzard, p. 481: Note 14 to p. 457 by Perron (in French)
- Latin, accusative, smaragdum viridem, Ibn al-Wardi (1835), pp. 36–37
- "Felsen aus grünem Hyacinth", in the Ethé's German translation of Qazwini, Ethé (1868), p. 298
- Streck's summary of Qazwini, Streck (1936), p. 615 harvp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFStreck1936 (help)
- Jwaideh (1987), p. 34. sfnp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFJwaideh1987 (help)
- Brinner (2002), p. <!4,-->7.
- Chalyan-Daffner (2013), p. 214, note 195 transcribes "Kīyūbān/Kibūthān" from Wüstenfeld ed., I, p. 148
- Wüstenfeld (1849), p. 145.
- Streck (1936) harvp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFStreck1936 (help), "al-Ḳazwīnī", Encyclopedia of Islām, p. 841.
- Ethé (1868), p. 297.
- Chalyan-Daffner (2013), p. 216 and note 199.
- Streck (1936) harvp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFStreck1936 (help), "al-Ḳazwīnī", Encyclopedia of Islām, p. 844.
- Jwaideh (1987) harvp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFJwaideh1987 (help), p. 19, note 4.
- "Belhut" in the Latin translation of Kharīdat Ibn al-Wardi (1835), pp. 36–37
- Jwaideh (1987), p. 19. sfnp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFJwaideh1987 (help)
- Jwaideh (1987) harvp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFJwaideh1987 (help), p. 34, note 4, where it states that in Ibn al-Wardi, Kharīdat, p. 14 the spelling is given as "bahmūt". The Kharīdat here is that of the Cairo edition of AH1324/AD1906.
- Chalyan-Daffner (2013), pp. 215–216 and notes 196, 107: Ibn al-Wardī, Kharīdat al-ʿajāʾib, p. 16.
- Lane (1883), p. 107, note 1..
- Lane (1883), p. 107, note 3.
- Chalyan-Daffner (2013), pp. 217–218.
- Lane (1883), p. 106, note 1.
- Jwaideh (1987), p. 34 harvp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFJwaideh1987 (help), note 1.
- Brinner (2002), p. 7.
- Yaqut, ibn-Wardi, and al-Tha'labi.
- Chalyan-Daffner (2013), p. 217 and note 200
- Chalyan-Daffner (2013), p. 235.
- Brinner (2002), p. 8.
- Chalyan-Daffner (2013), p. 217 and note 201
- Schmitz, Michael (1936), "Kaʿb al-Aḥbār", The Encyclopaedia of Islām, E. J. Brill ltd., IV, p. 583
- Chalyan-Daffner (2013), pp. 217.
- Chalyan-Daffner (2013), pp. 219–220.
- Chalyan-Daffner (2013), pp. 219–221, 226, 238.
- Lane (1883), pp. 105–106.
- Borges & Guerrero (2005), pp. 114, 230, citing Wheeler, Post (1952) The Sacred Scriptures Of The Japanese, p. 495.
- Ouwehand, Cornelis (1964), Namazu-e and Their Themes, E. J. Brill, pp. 4, 262(index).
- Taryō, Ōbayashi, (1979) Shinwa no hanashi, pp. 84–89.
- Taryō, Ōbayashi, (1979) Shinwa no hanashi, pp. 93–96.
- Borges, Jorge Luis; Guerrero, Margarita (1978) . El Libro de los seres imaginarios. Bruguera. pp. 36–37.
- Borges, Jorge Luis; Guerrero, Margarita (1969). Book of Imaginary Beings. Norman Thomas di Giovanni (trans.). Dutton. pp. 37–38.
- Borges, Jorge Luis; Guerrero, Margarita (2005). Book of Imaginary Beings. Andrew Hurley (trans.). New York: Viking. pp. 25–26. ISBN 9780670891801.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Burton, Richard F. (1885), "Four hundred and ninety-sixth night", A Plain and Literal Translation of the Arabian Nights: Now Intituled The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night, Burton Club, 5, pp. 323–325.
- Borges & Guerrero (2005), p. 25 and Hurley's note to it, p. 221, saying that the passage "The earth was, it is said..." is from Lane, Arabian Society.
- Lane, Edward William (1840). The Thousand and One Nights: Commonly Called, in England, the Arabian Nights' Entertainments. 2. London: Charles Knight. p. 643.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- (primary sources)
- al-Hamawi, Yaqut (1987) . Jwaideh, Wadie (ed.). The Introductory Chapters of Yāqūt's Muʻjam Al-Buldān. Brill Archive. pp. 34–35.
- al-Qazwini, Zakariya (1849). Wüstenfeld, Ferdinand (ed.). 'Aja'ib al-makhluqat [Kosmographie: Die Wunder der Schöpfung]. 1. Göttingen: Dieterich. (in Arabic)
- ʿAjā'ib al-makhlūqāt wa gharā'ib al-mawjūdāt (عجائب المخلوقات و غرائب الموجودات), plain text redaction (in Arabic)
- al-Qazwini, Zakariya (1868). Die Wunder der Schöpfung: Nach der Wüstenfeldschen Textausgabe, mit Benutzung und Beifügung der Reichhaltigen Anmerkungen und erbesserungen des Herrn Prof. Dr. Fleischer. 1. Ethé, Hermann (trans.). Leipzig: Fues’s Verlag. (in German)
- Thaʻlabī, Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad (2002). Brinner, William M. (trans.) (ed.). ʻArāʻis al-majālis fī qiṣaṣ al-anbiyā, or: Lives of the prophets. Brill.
- Ibn al-Wardi, 'Abu Hafs Zain-al-din 'Umar ibn al-Muzaffar (1835), Tornberg, Carolus Johannes (ed.), Fragmentum libri Margarita mirabilium (codice Upsaliensi) (in Arabic), Reg. Acad. Typ., pp. 35–37; translation (in Latin)
- Jwaideh, Wadie, ed. (1987) , The Introductory Chapters of Yāqūt's Muʻjam Al-Buldān, Brill Archive, pp. 34–35
- (secondary sources)
- Chalyan-Daffner, Kristine (2013). Natural Disasters in Mamlūk Egypt (1250–1517): Perceptions, Interpretations and Human Responses (PDF) (Ph. D.). Heidelberg University. pp. 213–252.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Streck, Maximilian (1936), "al-Ḳazwīnī", The Encyclopaedia of Islām, E. J. Brill ltd., IV, pp. 841–844