Carl Sagan Institute
The Carl Sagan Institute: Pale Blue Dot and Beyond was founded in 2014 at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York to further the search for habitable planets and moons in and outside the Solar System. It is focused on the characterization of exoplanets and the instruments to search for signs of life in the universe. The founder and current director of the institute is astronomer Lisa Kaltenegger.
The institute, inaugurated in 2014 and renamed on 9 May 2015, collaborates with international institutions on fields such as astrophysics, engineering, earth and atmospheric science, geology and biology with the goal of taking an interdisciplinary approach to the search for life elsewhere in the universe and of the origin of life on Earth.
Carl Sagan was a faculty member at Cornell University beginning in 1968. He was the David Duncan Professor of Astronomy and Space Sciences and director of the Laboratory for Planetary Studies there until his death in 1996.
The main goal of the Carl Sagan Institute is to model atmospheric spectral signatures including biosignatures of known and hypothetical planets and moons to explore whether they could be habitable and how they could be detected. Their research focuses on exoplanets and moons orbiting in the habitable zone around their host stars. The atmospheric characterization of such worlds would allow researchers to potentially detect the first habitable exoplanet. A team member has already produced a "color catalog" that could help scientists look for signs of life on exoplanets.
Bioreflectance spectra catalog
Team scientists used 137 different microorganism species, including extremophiles that were isolated from Earth's most extreme environments, and cataloged how each life form uniquely reflects sunlight in the visible and near-infrared to the short-wavelength infrared (0.35–2.5 µm) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This database of individual 'reflection fingerprints' (spectrum) might be used by astronomers as potential biosignatures to find large colonies of microscopic life on distant exoplanets. A combination of organisms would produce a mixed spectrum, also cataloged, of light bouncing off the planet. The method will also be applied to spot vegetation. The goal of the catalog is to provide astronomers with a baseline comparison to help scientists interpret the data that will come back from telescopes like WFIRST and E-ELT.
Ultraviolet radiation on life forms could also induce biofluorescence in visible wavelengths. An exoplanet orbiting an M-type star with these life forms would glow when exposed to solar flares, allowing it to be detected by the new generations of space observatories.
Other catalogs and models
Institute scientists have catalogued the spectral emissions and albedo of solar system objects, including all eight planets, nine moons, and two dwarf planets. They have also modeled Earth's atmosphere throughout geological history. Exoplanets with similar conditions to early Earth are considered candidates for emerging life forms.
- Astrobiology – Science concerned with life in the universe
- Lists of planets
- Methods of detecting exoplanets – Overview of methods of detecting exoplanets
- Cofield, Calla (9 May 2015). "Institute for Pale Blue Dots Renamed to Honor Carl Sagan, Will Search for Alien Life". Space.com. Retrieved 2015-05-11.
- "About the Carl Sagan Institute". Retrieved 2021-01-18.
- Glaser, Linda (January 27, 2015). "Introducing: The Carl Sagan Institute". Archived from the original on 2015-02-27. Retrieved 2015-05-11.
- "Carl Sagan Institute - Major Research Areas". Retrieved 2021-01-18.
- Cofield, Calla (30 March 2015). "Catalog of Earth Microbes Could Help Find Alien Life". Space.com. Retrieved 2015-05-11.
- Hegde, Siddharth; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G.; Kent, Ryan; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Rothschild, Lynn (31 March 2015). "Surface biosignatures of exo-Earths: Remote detection of extraterrestrial life". PNAS. 112 (13): 3886–3891. Bibcode:2015PNAS..112.3886H. doi:10.1073/pnas.1421237112. PMC 4386386. PMID 25775594.
- Cornell University (24 September 2018). "Astronomers use Earth's natural history as guide to spot vegetation on new worlds". Eurekalert!. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
- Cornell University (13 August 2019). "Fluorescent glow may reveal hidden life in the cosmos". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
- "Biofluorescent Worlds – II. Biological fluorescence induced by stellar UV flares, a new temporal biosignature." Jack T. O'Malley-James1 and Lisa Kaltenegger1, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Volume 488, Issue 4, October 2019, Pages 4530–4545 doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1842
- Linda B. Glaser (25 July 2018). "Exoplanet detectives create catalog of 'light-fingerprints'". Cornell Chronicle. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
- Blaine Friedlander (24 March 2020). "Earth's own evolution used as guide to hunt exoplanets". Cornell Chronicle. Retrieved 18 January 2021.