Central Committee elected by the 15th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)

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Central Committee elected
by the 15th Congress
14th ←
→ 16th
15th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks).jpg
The 15th Party Congress; in the foreground Alexei Rykov, Mykola Skrypnyk and Joseph Stalin raising their membership cards.
Duration 19 December 1927 – 13 July 1930
General Secretary Joseph Stalin
Second Secretary Vyacheslav Molotov
Inner-groups Politburo: 9 full & 10 candidates
Secretariat: 8 full & 4 candidates
Orgburo: 16 full & 9 candidates
No. of departments 11
Members 71 full and 50 candidates (CC)

The Central Committee (CC) composition was elected by the 15th Congress, and sat from 19 December 1927 until 13 July 1930. The CC 1st Plenary Session renewed the composition of the Politburo, Secretariat and the Organizational Bureau (OB) of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks).

Keys[edit]

Indicates that the individual is female.
BY Birth year.
DY Death year.
PB Politburo member.
SC Secretariat member.
OB Orgburo member.
CPB, CSC, COB The first "C" in these initials refers to "Candidate member"

Plenums[edit]

The CC was not a permanent institution. It convened plenary sessions, of which six CC plenary sessions and two joint CC–Central Control Commission (CCC) plenary sessions were held between the 15th Congress and the 16th Congress. When the CC was not in session, decision-making powers were transferred to inner bodies of the CC itself; the Politburo, Secretariat and Orgburo (none of these bodies were permanent either, but convened several times a months).[1]

Plenum
(CC)
Joint plenum
(CC–CCC)
Start–end Length
1st Plenary Session
19 December 1927 1 day
1st Joint Plenary Session 6–11 April 1928 6 days
2nd Plenary Session
4–12 July 1928 9 days
3rd Plenary Session
16–24 November 1928 9 days
2nd Joint Plenary Session 16–23 April 1929 8 days
4th Plenary Session
29 April 1929 1 day
5th Plenary Session
21 June 1929 1 day
6th Plenary Session
10–17 November 1929 8 days

Apparatus[edit]

Individuals employed by Central Committee's bureaus, departments and newspapers made up the apparatus between the 15th Congress and the 16th Congress.[2] The bureaus and departments were supervised by the Secretariat, and each secretary (member of the Secretariat) supervised a specific department.[3] The leaders of departments were officially referred to as Heads, while the titles of bureau leaders varied between chairman, first secretary and secretary.[4]

Institutions Head Took office Left office Tenure Ethnicity
Name
Cyrillic
BY DY
Agitation and Propaganda Department Alexander Krinitsky
Александр Криницкий
1894 1937 19 December 1927 3 May 1928 136 days Russian
Agitation, Propaganda and Press Department Alexander Krinitsky
Александр Криницкий
1894 1937 3 May 1928 19 November 1929 1 year and 200 days Russian
Agitation, Propaganda and Press Department Aleksei Stetskii
Алексей Стецкий
1896 1938 19 November 1929 1 May 1930 163 days Russian
Bolshevik Nikolay Bukharin
Никола́й Буха́рин
1888 1938 19 December 1927 April 1929 1 year and 103 days Russian
Bolshevik Vilhelm Knorin
Вильгельм Кнорин
1890 1929 1930 13 July 1930 1 year and 193 days Latvian
Chief Administrator Timofey Samsonov
Тимофей Самсонов
1888 1956 19 December 1927 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
Culture and Propaganda Department Aleksei Stetskii
Алексей Стецкий
1896 1938 1 May 1930 13 July 1930 73 days Russian
Information Department Lev Roshal
Лев Рошаль
1896 1940 19 December 1927 1928 43 days Belarusian
Institute of Red Professors Mikhail Pokrovsky
Михаи́л Покро́вский
1868 1932 19 December 1927 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
Lenin Institute Ivan Skvortsov-Stepanov
Ива́н Скворцо́в-Степа́нов
1878 1928 19 December 1927 August 1928 256 days Russian
Lenin Institute Maksimilian Savelyev
Максимилиан Савельев
1884 1939 August 1928 13 July 1930 1 year and 316 days Russian
Party History Department Vacant
19 December 1927 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days
Pravda Nikolay Bukharin
Никола́й Буха́рин
1888 1938 19 December 1927 April 1929 1 year and 103 days Russian
Pravda Vacant
April 1929 13 July 1930 1 year and 103 days
Press Department Sergei Gusev
Сергей Гусев
1874 1933 19 December 1927 March 1928 103 days Russian
Press Department Nikolay Smirnov
Николай Смирнов
1893 1940 March 1928 May 1928 60 days Russian
Organizational-Distribution Department Ivan Moskvin
Иван Москвин
1890 1937 19 December 1927 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
Secret Department Ivan Tovstukha
Иван Товстуха
1889 1935 19 December 1927 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Ukrainian
Statistical Department Yelena Smitten
Елена Смиттен
1883 1942 19 December 1927 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Belarusian
Work in the Countryside Department Karl Bauman
Карл Бауман
1882 1937 19 December 1927 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Latvian
Workers' and Peasants' Department Aleksandra Artyukhina
Елена Смиттен
1889 1969 19 December 1927 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian

Members[edit]

Full[edit]

Name
Cyrillic
BY DY Left office Tenure Ethnicity Portrait First post held
(during term)
CIM
Ivan Akulov
Иван Акулов
1888 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
Chairman, Central Committee of the Ukrainian Council of Trade Unions
Andrey Andreyev
Андрей Андреев
1895 1971 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
CPB, OB
Nikolay Antipov
Николай Антипов
1894 1938 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
Second Secretary, Leningrad Regional Committee COB
Aleksandra Artyukhina
Александра Артюхина
1889 1969 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
Head, Workers and Peasants Department of the Central Committee OB, CSC
Aleksei Badayev
Алексей Бадаев
1883 1951 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian Chairman, Leningrad Union of Consumer Societies
Karl Bauman
Карл Бауман
1892 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Latvian
Head, Department for Work in the Countryside of the Central Committee CPB, SC, OB
Andrei Bubnov
Андрей Бубнов
1884 1938 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian Head, Political Directorate of the Red Army OB, CSC
Nikolai Bukharin
Никола́й Буха́рин
1888 1938 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian Editor-in-chief, Pravda PB
Georgy Chicherin
Георгий Чичерин
1872 1936 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs
Vlas Chubar
Влас Чубар
1891 1939 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Ukrainian Chairman, Council of People's Commissars of the Ukrainian SSR CPB
Mikhail Chudov
Михаил Чудов
1893 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
First Secretary, North Caucasian Regional Committee
Aleksandr Dogadov
Александр Догадов
1888 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
Secretary, Central Committee of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions OB
Yan Gamarnik
Ян Гамарник
1894 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days

Ukrainian

First Secretary, Far Eastern Regional Committee OB
Filipp Goloshchokin
Филипп Голощёкин
1876 1941 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
First Secretary, Kazakskogo Regional Committee
Ivan Kabakov
Иван Кабаков
1891 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
First Secretary, Tula Regional Committee
Lazar Kaganovich
Лазарь Каганович
1893 1991 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days
Russian
First Secretary, Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Ukraine CPB, SC, OB
Mikhail Kalinin
Михаил Калинин
1875 1946 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian Chairman, Central Executive Committee of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets PB
Kuprian Kirkizh
Куприян Киркиж
1886 1932 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Belarusian
First Secretary, Central Committee of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan
Sergey Kirov
Серге́й Ки́ров
1886 1934 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian First Secretary, Leningrad City Committee
First Secretary, Leningrad Regional Committee
CPB
Vilhelm Knorin
Вильгельм Кнорин
1890 1938 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Latvian
First Secretary, Central Committee of the Communist Party of Byelorussia
Nikolay Kolotilov
Николай Колотилов
1885 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
First Secretary, Ivanov-Voznesensky Regional Committee
Nikolay Komarov
Николай Комаров
1886 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
Chairman, Executive Committee of the Leningrad Regional Soviet
Joseph Kosior
Иосиф Косиор
1889 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Polish
Chairman, Board of Vostokstal
Stanislav Kosior
Станислав Косиор
1889 1939 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Polish
First Secretary, Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) of Ukraine CPB, SC, OB
Vasily Kotov
Василий Котов
1885 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
Member, Secretariat of the Moscow Regional Committee COB
Nadezhda Krupskaya
Наде́жда Кру́пская
1869 1939 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian Member, Collegium of the People's Commissar for Education of the Russian SFSR
Gleb Krzhizhanovsky
Глеб Кржижано́вский
1872 1959 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian Chairman, State Planning Commission at the Council of Labor and Defense
Nikolay Kubiak
Николай Кубяк
1881 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian People's Commissar for Agriculture of the Russian SFSR SC, OB
Yegor Kulikov
Егор Куликов
1891 1943 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
First Secretary, Zamoskvorechye District Committee
Valerian Kuybyshev
Валериан Куйбышев
1888 1935 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian Chairman, Supreme Soviet of the National Economy
Emanuel Kviring
Эммануил Квиринг
1888 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Volga German Deputy Chairman, State Planning Commission at the Council of Labor and Defense
Ivan Lepse
Иван Лепсе
1889 1929 6 October 1929 1 year and 291 days Latvian
Chairman, Central Committee of the Union of Metalworkers COB
Semen Lobov
Семён Лобов
1888 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
Chairman, Supreme Soviet of the National Economy of the Russian SFSR COB
Isidore Lyubimov
Исидор Любимов
1882 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
Chairman, Board of the Central Union of Consumer Societies
Dmitry Manuilsky
Дмитро Мануїльський
1883 1959 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Ukrainian Member, Presidium of the Executive Committee of the Communist International
Alexei Medvedev
Алексей Медведев
1884 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
Second Secretary, Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Ukraine
Vyacheslav Menzhinsky
Вячеслав Менжинский
1874 1934 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
[note 1]
Chairman, Joint State Political Directorate
Vasily Mikhailov
Василий Михайлов
1894 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
Chairman, Moscow City Council of Trade Unions COB
Anastas Mikoyan
Анастас Микоян
1895 1978 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Armenian People's Commissar for Foreign and Internal Trade CPB
Vyacheslav Molotov
Вячеслав Молотов
1890 1986 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian Member, Presidium of the Executive Committee of the Communist International
Secretary, Executive Committee of the Communist International
PB, SC, OB
Ivan Moskvin
Иван Москвин
1890 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
Head, Organizational-Distribution Department of the Central Committee OB, CSC
Georgy Oppokov
Георгий Оппоков
1888 1938 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian a man with a serious demeanour, with tidy hair wearing a blazer, a white shirt and a tie Chairman, Board of Donugol
Mamia Orakhelashvili
Мамия Орахелашвили
1888 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Georgian First Secretary, Transcaucasian Regional Committee
Grigory Petrovsky
Григо́рій Петро́вський
1878 1958 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Ukrainian a bearded man with wavy hair, wearing glasses and what seems to be a suit, a white tie, and a black and white dotted shirt Chairman, Central Executive Committee of the All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets CPB
Osip Piatnitsky
Осип Пятницкий
1882 1938 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days
Russian
Secretary, Executive Committee of the Communist International
Pavel Postyshev
Григо́рій Петро́вський
1887 1939 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian a man with wavy but well kept hair, bearded, smiling to the camera, wearing a black but stripped suit, a white shirt and a coloured tie First Secretary, Kharkiv Regional Committee
Jānis Rudzutaks
Ян Рудзутак
1887 1938 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Latvian People's Commissar for Railways PB
Moisei Rukhimovich
Моисей Рухимович
1889 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian Deputy Chairman, Supreme Soviet of the National Economy OB
Ivan Rumyantsev
Иван Румянцев
1886 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
First Secretary, Vladimir Regional Committee
Alexei Rykov
Алексей Рыков
1881 1938 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian Chairman, Council of People's Commissars
Chairman, Council of Labor and Defense
PB
Vasily Schmidt
Сергей Чуцкаев
1886 1938 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
[note 2]
People's Commissar for Labor COB
Isaak Schwartz
Исаак Шварц
1879 1951 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days

Ukrainian

Chairman, Central Committee of the Union of Coal Miners
Nikolay Shvernik
Николай Шверник
1888 1970 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian First Secretary, Ural Regional Committee OB
Mykola Skrypnyk
Микола Скрипник
1872 1933 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Ukrainian People's Commissar for Education of the Ukrainian SSR
Ivan Skvortsov-Stepanov
Ива́н Скворцо́в-Степа́нов
1878 1928 8 October 1928 294 days Russian Head, Lenin Institute
Alexander Smirnov
Александр Смирнов
1878 1938 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
People's Commissar for Agriculture of the Russian SFSR OB, SC
Grigori Sokolnikov
Григорий Сокольников
1888 1938 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days
Ukrainian
Deputy Chairman, State Planning Commission at the Council of Labor and Defense
Joseph Stalin
Ио́сиф Ста́лин
1878 1953 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Georgian General Secretary, Central Committee PB, SC, OB
Aleksei Stetskii
Алексей Стецкий
1896 1938 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
Head, Propaganda Department of the Leningrad Regional Committee
Konstantin Strievsky
Константин Стриевский
1885 1938 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Belarusian
Chairman, Moscow Soviet for the National Economy
Daniil Sulimov
Даниил Сулимов
1890 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
First Deputy People's Commissar for Railways OB
Sergei Syrtsov
Сергей Сырцов
1893 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
First Secretary, Siberian Regional Committee CPB
Aleksandr Tolokontsev
Александр Толоконцев
1889 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
Chairman, Central Military-Industrial Management of the Supreme Soviet of the National Economy
Mikhail Tomsky
Михаил Томский
1880 1936 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian Chairman, Central Committee of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions PB
Alexander Tsiurupa
Алекса́ндр Цюру́па
1870 1928 8 May 1928 141 days Ukrainian Deputy Chairman, Council of People's Commissars
Fyodor Ugarov
Фёдор Угаров
1885 1932 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
Chairman, Leningrad Regional Council of Trade Unions
Nikolai Uglanov
Николай Угланов
1886 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
First Secretary, Moscow City Committee CPB, SC, OB
Konstantin Ukhanov
Константин Уханов
1891 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
Chairman, Executive Committee of the Moscow Regional Soviet COB
Kliment Voroshilov
Климент Ворошилов
1881 1969 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian Chairman, Revolutionary Military Council
People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs
PB
Isaak Zelensky
Исаак Зеленский
1890 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days
Russian
First Secretary, Central Asian Bureau
Ivan Zhukov
Иван Жуков
1889 1937 13 July 1930 2 years and 206 days Russian
Chairman, Board of Elektrotresta

Candidate[edit]

Name
Cyrillic
BY DY Ethnicity First post held
(during term)
Portrait CIM
Pyotr Alexeyev
Пётр Алексеев
1877 1936 Russian First Secretary, Narva District Committee
Naum Antselovich
Наум Анцелович
1888 1952
Russian
Chairman, Central Committee of the Union of Rural Workers
Petr Baranov
Пётр Баранов
1892 1933 Russian Commander, Red Army Air Force
Nikolai Bryukhanov
Николай Брюханов
1878 1938 Russian People's Commissar for Finance
Nikolai Chaplin
Николай Чаплин
1902 1938 Russian First Secretary, Central Committee of the Communist Youth League
COB
Sergey Chutskayev
Сергей Чуцкаев
1876 1944 Russian Chairman, Executive Committee of the Far Eastern Regional Soviet
Mikhail Chuvyrin
Михаил Чувырин
1883 1947 Russian First Secretary, Luhansk Regional Committee
Robert Eikhe
Роберт Эйхе
1890 1940 Latvian Chairman, Executive Committee of the Far Eastern Regional Soviet
Shalva Eliava
Шалва Элиава
1883 1937 Georgian Chairman, Council of People's Commissars of the Transcaucasian SFSR
Konstantin Gey
Константин Гей
1896 1939 Russian
[note 3]
Member, Executive Committee of the Red International of Labor Unions
Fyodor Gryadinsky
Фёдор Грядинский
1893 1938 Russian People's Commissar for Foreign and Domestic Trade
Akmal Ikramov
Акмаль Икрамов
1898 1938 Uzbek Second Secretary, Central Committee of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan
Vladimir Ivanov
Владимир Иванов
1893 1938 Russian Second Secretary, North Caucasus Regional Committee
Anna Kalgyna
Анна Калыгина
1895 1937 Russian Deputy Head, Workers and Peasants Department of the Central Committee
Grigory Kaminsky
Григорий Каминский
1895 1938
Russian
Deputy Chairman, Central Committee of the Unions of Agricultural Cooperatives
Mendel Khatayevich
Мендель Хатаевич
1893 1937
Russian
First Secretary, Tatar Regional Committee
Aleksei Kiselyov
Алексей Киселёв
1879 1937 Russian Secretary, Presidium of the Executive Committee of the Communist International Aleksei Kiselyov (2).jpg
Ivan Klimenko
Иван Клименко
1891 1937 Russian Deputy People's Commissar of Agriculture of the Russian SFSR
Ivan Kodatskiy
Иван Кодацкий
1893 1937 Russian First Secretary, Vyborg District Committee
Philemon Kolgushkin
Филимон Колгушкин
1887 1937
Russian
Deputy Chairman, Leningrad Soviet of the National Economy
Taras Kondratyev
Тарас Кондратьев
1892 1937 Russian First Secretary, Volodarsky District Committee
Alexander Krinitsky
Александр Криницкий
1894 1937 Russian Agitation and Propaganda Department of the Central Committee
Fyodor Leonov
Фёдор Леонов
1892 1938 Russian First Secretary, Krasnaya Presnya District Committee
Filipp Lokotskov
Филипп Локацков
1881 1937 Russian Chairman, Executive Committee of the Ural Regional Soviet
Vissarion Lominadze
Виссарион Ломинадзе
1897 1935 Georgian Member, Presidium of the Executive Committee of the Communist International
Solomon Lozovsky
Соломон Лозовский
1892 1952
Russian
General Secretary, Central Committee of the Red International of Labor Unions
Alexander Markov
Александр Марков
1877 1935 Russian Chairman, Central Committee of the Union of Textile Workers
Valery Mezhlauk
Валерий Межлаук
1893 1938 Latvian
[note 4]
Head, Metallurgy Directorate of the Supreme Soviet of the National Economy
Mikhail Mikhailov-Ivanov
Михаил Михайлов-Иванов
1894 1931 Russian Chairman, Board of the Leningrad Machine-Building Trust
Levon Mirzoyan
Левон Мирзоян
1887 1939 Armenian First Secretary, Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Azerbaijan
Grigory Melnichansky
Григорий Мельничанский
1886 1937
Russian
Member, All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions
Gazanfar Musabekov
Газанфар Мусабеков
1888 1938 Azerbaijani Chairman, Council of People's Commissars of the Azerbaijani SSR
Klavdija Nikolaeva
Клавдия Николаева
1893 1944 Russian Agitation and Propaganda Department of the North Caucasian Regional Committee
Ivan Nosov
Иван Носов
1888 1937 Russian First Secretary, Crimean Regional Committee
Mikhail Oshvintsev
Михаил Ошвинцев
1889 1939 Russian Chairman, Ural Soviet of the National Economy
Vladimir Polonsky
Михаил Ошвинцев
1893 1937
Russian
First Secretary, Rogozhsko-Simonovsky District Committee
Konstantin Rumyantsev
Константин Румянцев
1889 1939 Russian Deputy Chairman, Board of Azneft
Kuzma Ryndin
Кузьма Рындин
1893 1938 Russian Second Secretary, Ural Regional Committee
Martemyan Ryutin
Мартемья́н Рю́тин
1890 1937 Russian First Secretary, Krasnaya Presnya District Committee
Boris Semenov
Борис Семёнов
1890 1937 Russian First Secretary, Ekaterynoslavsky–Dnepropetrovsk District Committee
Alexander Serebrovsky
Александр Серебровский
1884 1938 Russian Deputy Chairman, Supreme Soviet of the National Economy
Sergey Sobolev
Александр Серебровский
1900 1939 Russian First Secretary, Leningrad Regional Committee of the Communist Youth League
Vasily Stroganov
Василий Строганов
1888 1938 Russian First Secretary, Yuzovsky–Stalin District Committee
Kirill Sukhomlin
Кирилл Сухомлин
1886 1938 Russian Chairman, Supreme Soviet of the National Economy of the Ukrainian SSR
Anton Tsikhon
Антон Цихон
1887 1939 Belausian First Secretary, Bauman district committee
Józef Unszlicht
Ио́сиф У́ншлихт
1879 1938
Polish
Deputy People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs
Mikhail Uryvayev
Михаил Урываев
1887 1937 Russian Head, Joint Military Factories
Juozas Vareikis
Иосиф Варейкис
1894 1938 Lithuanian First Secretary, Saratov Regional Committee
Andrei Zhdanov
Андрей Жданов
1896 1948 Russian First Secretary, Nizhny Novgorod Regional Committee

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Vyacheslav Menzhinsky's father was Polish.
  2. ^ Vasily Schmidt was born into a German family, but was born and raised in Russia.
  3. ^ Konstantin Gey was born into an Estonian family, but was born and raised in Russia.
  4. ^ Valery Mezhlauk's mother was German.

References[edit]

General[edit]

Plenary sessions, apparatus heads, ethnicity (by clicking on the individual names on "The Central Committee elected by the XVth Congress of the CPSU (b) 12.19.1927 members" reference), the Central Committee full- and candidate membership, Politburo membership, Secretariat membership and Orgburo membership were taken from these sources:

Bibliography[edit]

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ Simons & White 1984, pp. 423–425.
  2. ^ Fainsod & Hough 1979, p. 410.
  3. ^ Fainsod & Hough 1979, pp. 410–411 & 417–419.
  4. ^ Fainsod & Hough 1979, pp. 417–419.