Central Institution for Meteorology and Geodynamics
|Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik
|Jurisdiction||Austrian Federal Government|
|Headquarters||Hohe Warte, Vienna|
|Parent agency||Federal Ministry of Science and Research (Austria)|
It is a subordinate agency of the Austrian Federal Ministry for Science and Research. The headquarters of ZAMG is located in Vienna. In Salzburg, Innsbruck, Graz and Klagenfurt ZAMG is represented by regional offices.
The ZAMG was founded in 1851 and is the oldest weather service in the world. Their tasks, it is not only operate in the various fields of monitoring networks and conduct research, but also make their results available to the public.
The Hohe Warte in the Döbling district of Vienna is the headquarters of the Central Institution for Meteorology and Geodynamics and Regional Office for Vienna, Lower Austria and Burgenland. Other regional offices of ZAMG are:
- Regional Office for Salzburg and Upper Austria in the City of Salzburg
- Regional Office for Vorarlberg and Tyrol (Innsbruck)
- Regional Office for Carinthia (Klagenfurt)
- Regional office for Styria (Graz)
Other facilities of ZAMG and observatories of ZAMG are:
Today, the Central, with regional offices for Salzburg and Upper Austria, in Carinthia, Tyrol and Vorarlberg, and Styria, as a quasi-legal institution of the covenant, a modern service company. Only some activities are highlighted: the Synoptikabteilung is responsible with the help of modern technology, for daily forecasting service. The geophysical department conducts by the earthquake - and geomagnetic service. Creates the environment department, using the data obtained from the Austrian Monitoring Network, climate statistics and maps. The technical division is in charge of the meteorological monitoring network, which consists of semi-automatic weather detection systems (TAWES stations) and semi-automatic climate stations (TAKLIS stations). The Department of Environmental Meteorology to study the spread of pollutants in the atmosphere and are starting to crises (e.g. leakage of radioactivity into the atmosphere), direct information to the Federal Alarm. The Department for electronic data processing is provided with latest equipment to cope with the extensive computer-controlled processes.
One of the key tasks of ZAMG, it is observed, the climate in Austria and to explore. This has been over the years laid a network of over two hundred semi-automatic weather stations (TAWES) through Austria. Meteorological parameters such as pressure, temperature, wind, precipitation, etc. are from Lake Constance to Lake Neusiedl, but also from the plains up into the mountains (Sonnblick Date Observatory) and controls. This treasure of data is the basis for jedwege climate research and is specifically for the understanding of the current climate of great importance.
The Department Synoptik deals with areas of remote sensing with the manual and automatic interpretation of satellite and radar data in relation to an application in the prediction. In the field of numerical models, the research focuses in the development of LAM Aladin, as in the new development of nowcasting model INCA.
The Department of Environmental Meteorology deals with the spread of pollutants in the atmosphere and have fueled the meteorological processes that affect the transport of contaminants. One of the priorities of the department's applied research in this area.
The first regional survey of the geomagnetic Austria-Hungarian crown lands was conducted by Karl Kreil in 1846–1851. On the occasion of the earthquake in Ljubljana in Slovenia (1895), the Austrian Seismological Service, which is now operated by the EGD, was founded.
Since then, both fields constantly researched. Today's activities include geophysical and environmental issues.
In July 1851 Emperor Franz Joseph approved the establishment of "... a central institution for meteorological and magnetic observations", the Central Institution for Meteorology and Earth Magnetism, which dates back to an initiative of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. This sent the request in 1848 to Karl Kreil, director of the observatory at Prague, and full member of the Academy, a meteorological observation system for the Austrian monarchy designing.
Karl Kreil (1798–1862) became the first director of the newly founded Central Institution of Wieden, and also professor of physics at the University of Vienna. This personal union between one hand and Director of University Teachers on the other, remained to this day and lasting influence on the scientific research at the Central Institution. Kreil set up a meteorological observation system for the entire territory of the Austrian monarchy and carried out for this also the first country geomagnetic recording. 1865, began at the Central Institution with the publication of a daily weather map.
1872 moved to Central in it, from Henry Ferstel built, new and final quarters of the Hohe Warte in Vienna Dobling. A year later, in 1873, the Central Institution organized the first international meteorological congress in Vienna, founded the International Meteorological Organization (IMO) as a precursor of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).
In 1877 the output of daily telegraphic weather reports carried out, with a synoptic map and the forecast for the next day. The new report contained the morning of 60 observation stations from all over Europe, including 24 domestic ones.
By decree of 23 February 1904, was transferred to the Central Institution for the entire seismic Austria, which took the name change to Central Institution for Meteorology and Geodynamics after him.
In his position as Director Kreil followed by outstanding scientists, including Julius Hann (1839–1921) and Felix Maria von Exner (1876–1930). Hanns was important in climatology and a world-wide began to be in his era as one, meteorologists Austrian school '- Hann also wrote the Comprehensive Textbook of Meteorology (1901) talking about - that one remembers Exner as a great theorist and his work of Dynamic Meteorology (1925).
At the Central Institution worked with many other researchers such as Max Margules (1856–1920), founder of theoretical meteorology and Victor Conrad (1876–1962), discoverer of the discontinuity, named after him in the middle of the crust.
Only once did the tradition of the Central Institution was cut short after the annexation of Austria into the German Reich in climate and weather had to be relocated to Berlin, where it to the German Reich Meteorological were placed, and the Central Institution in Vienna in order to be transformed into a research institution.
After World War II was restored to its original state and there was a considerable human and geographic expansion of the Central Institution, which also reflected in the numerous scientific research. In 1957 a house on the neighboring property was purchased and subsequently adapted for office use; between 1967 and 1973 a radar tower, a balloon-filling house and a new office building including specialised libraries were built at the site of the Central Institution.
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