Sri Charitropakhyan

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Dasam Granth
Dasam Granth - (ਦਸਮ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ)


Jaap Sahib - Akal Ustat - Bachitar Natak - Chandi Charitar Ukat(i) Bilas - Chandi Charitar 2 - Chandi di Var - Gyan Parbodh - Chobis Avatar - Brahm Avtar - Rudar Avtar - Sabad patshahi 10 - 33 Swaiyey - Khalsa Mahima - Shastar Nam Mala - Charitropakhyan - Zafarnamah - Hikayats
Other Related Banis
Ugardanti - Bhagauti Astotar - Sri Kaal Chopai - Lakhi Jungle Khalsa - Asfotak Kabits - Sahansar Sukhmana - Vaar Malkauns Ki - Chandd - Chaupai Sahib - Tavparsadi Savaiye
Historical sources - Memorials
Various aspects
Idolatry Prohibtion

Sri Charitropakhyan or Pakhyan Charitar (Punjabi: ਪਖ੍ਯਾਨ ਚਰਿਤ੍ਰ) is a huge composition, present in Dasam Granth, which is generally and traditionally ascribed to Guru Gobind Singh. The composition contains 404 tales of wiles of men and women, containing many historical, mythological and philosophical aspects, having 7558 verses.[1] This composition ends at Chopai which is one of the Nitnem banis.[2] The term Charitropakhyan is derived from two words, Charitar means characteristics/function of character and Pakhyan means already told. There are two types of Charitars, one is Purakh Chairtar i.e. Men Characters and Tria chariter, i.e. Women character.[3]

There is dispute over the authorship of Charitropakhyan among scholars, with some claiming that Charitropakhyan is out of tune with other Sikh scriptures, and thus must have been composed by other poets.[4][5]


In a literal sense, Charitropakhyan is a plot created by the author in which there is an account of stories told by the wise minister to his King (ਮੰਤ੍ਰੀ ਭੂਪ ਸੰਬਾਦੇ). The plot is explained in the second tale, which is as follows:

King Chitra Singh of Chitravati got married to the damsel of Indra's kingdom. She gave birth to a son, Hanuvant Singh. The damsel deserted the king when he grew old. He ordered all of his employees to find her, but instead found another similar looking girl named Chitramati. Chitramati was the daughter of the ruler of Orissa. To marry her, he had a fight with her father, the ruler of Orissa. Chitramati was about the age of the son of Chitra Singh, Hanuvant Singh. She grew heavily attracted to him and tried to seduce him into a sexual relationship, but Hanuvant Singh was religious in thought and did not go for incest. She in turn created a drama and accused Hanuvant Singh of raping her. King Chitra Singh believed her blindly, without knowing the side of his son, and sentenced him to death.

Mantri, the wise adviser of the King, knew that the King's second wife, Chitramati, was not of a pious character and was falsely blaming Hanuvant Singh. In order to prevent the wrongful execution of Hanuvant Singh, the adviser shared various accounts of stories depicting different situations, with the intention of making the King realize his folly and improve his decision-making skill.[6]

List of Tales[edit]

Following is the list of tales present in Dasam Granth:

  1. Chandi Chritar - The tale of Shakti (Hukam)
  2. Raja Chitar Singh and Rani Chitar Vati (Base Tale)
  3. Tale of Girl of Kalpi Town
  4. Tale of Ghurki
  5. Tale of Sehaj Kala
  6. Tale of Maal Mati
  7. Tale of Zainabadi
  8. Tale of Anuraag Mati
  9. Tale of Jag Jot Mati
  10. Tale of Chitarkala
  11. Tale of Wife of a Shopkeeper
  12. Tale of Radhika
  13. Tale of Wife of Ramdas
  14. Tale of Puhap Mati
  15. Tale of Bhaanmati
  16. Tale of Chhajia
  17. Tale of Bitan Mati
  18. Tale of Chhalchhider Kumari
  19. Tale of Naadira Bano
  20. Tale of Lal Mati
  21. Tale of Anoop Kaur
  22. Tale of Anoop Kaur
  23. Tale of Anoop Kaur
  24. Tale of Sumer Kaur
  25. Tale of Prem Kumari
  26. Tale of Nirat Mati
  27. Tale of Biyom Kala
  28. Tale of Soorchhat
  29. Tale of Madan Mati
  30. Tale of Chaachar Mati
  31. Tale of Maan Manjri
  32. Tale of Ras Manjri
  33. Tale of Chhattar Manjri
  34. Tale of Chhab Maan Mati
  35. Tale of King of South
  36. Tale of Fateh Mati
  37. Tale of Gainde Khan
  38. Tale of Raj Mati
  39. Tale of Raj Mati
  40. Tale of Diljan Mati
  41. Tale of Preet Manjri
  42. Tale of Rustam Kala
  43. Tale of A Slave
  44. Tale of Tilik Manjri
  45. Tale of Raj Mati
  46. Tale of Noor Bibi
  47. Tale of Baadal Kumari
  48. Tale of Noor Jehan
  49. Tale of Nand Mati
  50. Tale of Pohap Manjri
  51. Tale of Sheel Manjari
  52. Tale of Daughter of Raja Vijay Singh
  53. Tale of Vijay Kunwar
  54. Tale of Baal Mati
  55. Tale of Roop Mati
  56. Tale of Chandra Kala
  57. Tale of Inder Mati
  58. Tale of Chiter Devi
  59. Tale of Laadam Kunwar and Suhaag Devi
  60. Tale of Rang Raae
  61. Tale of Shah
  62. Tale of Mahaan Singh
  63. Tale of Rani of Raja Parbal Singh
  64. Tale of Dam Prabha
  65. Tale of Wife of Mittar Singh
  66. Tale of Roshan Raae
  67. Tale of Roop Kala
  68. Tale of Son of a Shah
  69. Tale of Raj Kala
  70. Tale of Chattar Prabha
  71. Tale of King of Sirmaur
  72. Tale of Shah of Gujarat
  73. Tale of Pohap Wati
  74. Tale of Bairam Thief
  75. Tale of Indebted Thief
  76. Tale of Son-in-Law Thief
  77. Tale of Bhagwati
  78. Tale of Gigo
  79. Tale of Bisva Mati
  80. Tale of Radha
  81. Tale of Drig Daniya
  82. Tale of Begum of Shah Jehan
  83. Tale of Rajo
  84. Tale of lndra Mati
  85. Tale of Raja Uchsrav
  86. Tale of lnder Singh
  87. Tale of Chandra Prabha
  88. Tale of Kanj Prabha
  89. Tale of Ram Singh Jat
  90. Tale of Deepkala
  91. Tale of Kaamkandla
  92. Tale of Saroop Kala
  93. Tale of A Weaver 186
  94. Tale of Din Diaal
  95. Tale of Bindo
  96. Tale of Gohraan Raae
  97. Tale of Raja Rasaloo and Rani Kokila
  98. Tale of Heer Ranjha
  99. Tale of Ruder Kala
  100. Tale of A Clever Woman
  101. Tale of Sohni Mahiwal
  102. Tale of Raja Dasrath and Kaikaee
  103. Tale of Shah Jallaal
  104. Tale of The Wife of a Jat
  105. Tale of Taas Beg
  106. Tale of Four Thieves
  107. Tale of Maan Kunwar
  108. Tale of Sassi Punnu
  109. Tale of Urvassi
  110. Tale of Raja Roopeshwar
  111. Tale of Raj Prabha
  112. Tale of Chatar Kala
  113. Tale of ani Krishna Kunwar
  114. Tale of Sringi Rishi and Prostitute
  115. Tale of Rishi Gautam and Ahliya
  116. Tale of Two Devils: Sandh and Apsandh
  117. Tale of Sachee
  118. Tale of Rani Mantar Kala
  119. Tale of Rani Ruder Kala
  120. Tale of Vishnu
  121. Tale of A Thief Woman
  122. Tale of Rani Kookum Devi and Ghansaar Devi
  123. Tale of Lord Vishnu
  124. Tale of Rani Phool Mati
  125. Tale of Indra Mati
  126. Tale of A Brave Woman
  127. Tale of Rattan Singh
  128. Tale of Rani Maan Mati
  129. Tale of Mirza Sahiban
  130. Tale of Sumat Kumari
  131. Tale of Bhaag Mati
  132. Tale of Sughar Kumari
  133. Tale of Sujjan Kumari
  134. Tale of Baaj Mati
  135. Tale of Kala Kunwar
  136. Tale of Rani Bharmar Mati
  137. Tale of Daropdee Arjan
  138. Tale of Rani Abhawatti
  139. Tale of Maaneshawari
  140. Tale of Megh Mati
  141. Tale of Paarbati
  142. Tale of Rajkumari Ukha
  143. Tale of Rani Raj Mati
  144. Tale of Shingarwati
  145. Tale of Bhaagwati
  146. Tale of Parmod Kumari
  147. Tale of Rani Khairy and Samin
  148. Tale of Rani of Raja Durga Dutt
  149. Tale of Five Wives of a Drug-Addict
  150. Tale of Rani Garbhwati
  151. Tale of Gumaan Mati
  152. Tale of Lachhmi
  153. Tale of Naaz Mati
  154. Tale of Darapkala
  155. Tale of Praan Mati
  156. Tale of Kandarapkala
  157. Tale of Nal Damwanti
  158. Tale of Rani Taanbar Kala
  159. Tale of Rani Bir Kala
  160. Tale of Maid Krishna Kala
  161. Tale of Sanmas Dhola
  162. Tale of Tund Kala
  163. Tale of Vijay Kumari
  164. Tale of Udhaypuri Begum
  165. Tale of Bhistkala
  166. Tale of Rani Joban Kala
  167. Tale of Rani Shaahparee
  168. Tale of Rani Jot Mati
  169. Tale of Milkmaid Shaahparee
  170. Tale of Rani Bir Kala
  171. Tale of Sahib Devi
  172. Tale of Geet Kala
  173. Tale of Sangeeta Kala
  174. Tale of Surta Devi
  175. Tale of Chapal Kala
  176. Tale of Bir Mati
  177. Tale of Menlata
  178. Tale of Sumer Devi
  179. Tale of Kaamwati
  180. Tale of ainotma
  181. Tale of Rani Nisis Prabha
  182. Tale of Bhaan Kala
  183. Tale of Rit Raj Prabha
  184. Tale of Daropdhi
  185. Tale of Runrang Kumari
  186. Tale of Achalkala
  187. Tale of Kaamkala
  188. Tale of Kanchan Prabha
  189. Tale of Bhoop Kala
  190. Tale of Chanchala
  191. Tale of Parbeen Rai
  192. Tale of Gaan Kala
  193. Tale of Tirdas Kala
  194. Tale of Wife of a Basket Weaver
  195. Tale of Maanmati and Bipan Prabha
  196. Tale of Apritam Kala
  197. Tale of Ran Rang Mati
  198. Tale of Sankh Kunwar
  199. Tale of Rani Padmani
  200. Tale of Rani Udginder Prabha
  201. Tale of Yousaf Zulaikhan
  202. Tale of Chapal Kala
  203. Tale of Raja Narkasur
  204. Tale of Rani Kailaas Mati
  205. Tale of Vijay Kumari
  206. Tale of Rani Ishaq Mati
  207. Tale of Rani Mushak Mati
  208. Tale of Atpal Devi
  209. Tale of Bharthari
  210. Tale of Rani Chanchala Kumari
  211. Tale of Tarita Prabha
  212. Tale of Sukmaar Mati
  213. Tale of Mrig Nainee
  214. Tale of Gulzaar Mati
  215. Tale of Tarun Kumari
  216. Tale of Rani Katach Kumari
  217. Tale of Shah Sikander
  218. Tale of Rani Dinket Mati
  219. Tale of Chaplaang Mati
  220. Tale of Roshan Jehan
  221. Tale of Mrig Raj Mati
  222. Tale of Rani Bhog Mati
  223. Tale of Rani Chhattarmati
  224. Tale of Rani Tripuraar Kala
  225. Tale of Rani Chakhchar Mati
  226. Tale of Rustam Devi
  227. Tale of Rani Manmaal Mati
  228. Tale of Rani Biraj Mati
  229. Tale of Budh Mati
  230. Tale of Madan Mati
  231. Tale of Main Kala
  232. Tale of Bad Diachhmati
  233. Tale of Bichhan Mati
  234. Tale of Nirpat Kala
  235. Tale of Rani Achhal Mati
  236. Tale of A Prostitute
  237. Tale of Bhog Mati
  238. Tale of Chhat Chhail Kumari
  239. Tale of Beer Mati
  240. Tale of Ruch Raaj Kumari
  241. Tale of Rani Birha Manjri
  242. Tale of Chhab Maan Manjri
  243. Tale of Chitar Manjri
  244. Tale of Naagar Mati
  245. Tale of Ras Tilak Manjri
  246. Tale of Swaran Manjri
  247. Tale of Jas Tilak Manjri
  248. Tale of Amit Prabha
  249. Tale of Bichchhan Manjri
  250. Tale of Bhujang Mati
  251. Tale of Jal Jaachh
  252. Tale of Sukh Mati
  253. Tale of Jeeo Mati
  254. Tale of Bishan Mati
  255. Tale of Lahore Mati
  256. Tale of Seven Maidens
  257. Tale of Aligunj Mati
  258. Tale of Hans Mati
  259. Tale of Mrigraj Kala
  260. Tale of Kajraachh Mati
  261. Tale of Mashook Mati
  262. Tale of Mashook Mati
  263. Tale of Naagar Mati
  264. Tale of Birah Kumari
  265. Tale of Prakrit Mati
  266. Tale of Rann Khamb Kala
  267. Tale of A Muslim Woman
  268. Tale of Champa Kala
  269. Tale of Jhakhket Mati
  270. Tale of Poorab Devi
  271. Tale of Bilaas Devi
  272. Tale of Sugandh Mati
  273. Tale of Sukrit Manjri
  274. Tale of A Maid
  275. Tale of Habsh Mati
  276. Tale of Ruder Mati
  277. Tale of A Co-Wife
  278. Tale of Roshan Aara
  279. Tale of Prem Manjri
  280. Tale of Jugraaj Manjri
  281. Tale of Rani Vijay Mati
  282. Tale of Amar Kala
  283. Tale of Rani Kinnar Mati
  284. Tale of Dakhshan Devi
  285. Tale of Sumat Mati
  286. Tale of Bikhiya
  287. Tale of Mariam Begum
  288. Tale of Chhail Devi
  289. Tale of Dakhshan Devi
  290. Tale of Poorab Devi
  291. Tale of Paschim Devi
  292. Tale of Utter Mati
  293. Tale of Raj Devi
  294. Tale of Anand Wati
  295. Tale of Chanchala Devi
  296. Tale of Mangla Devi
  297. Tale of Sakuch Mati
  298. Tale of Jhilmil Devi
  299. Tale of Achhal Devi
  300. Tale of A Wise Friend
  301. Tale of Isht Mati
  302. Tale of Chhattar Devi
  303. Tale of Abharn Devi
  304. Tale of Vidhiya Mati
  305. Tale of Tripur Mati
  306. Tale of Dudamb Devi
  307. Tale of Sughna Wati
  308. Tale of Phut Basir Devi
  309. Tale of Apoorab Devi
  310. Tale of Ras Tilak Devi
  311. Tale of Daughter of Shah
  312. Tale of A Jatti
  313. Tale of A Beautician
  314. Tale of Sukmaar Devi
  315. Tale of Pachham Devi
  316. Tale of Bang Devi
  317. Tale of Puhap Prabha
  318. Tale of Margaj Devi
  319. Tale of Muni Raj Mati
  320. Tale of Rukmani
  321. Tale of Devjaani
  322. Tale of Makrachh Mati
  323. Tale of Parmud Sen
  324. Tale of Apsra Mati
  325. Tale of Sultan Kumari
  326. Tale of Sukch Mati
  327. Tale of Achla Mati
  328. Tale of Pir Kutab Shah
  329. Tale of a Female (Water-Carrier)
  330. Tale of Birah Devi
  331. Tale of Valan Devi
  332. Tale of Preet Kala
  333. Tale of Daughter of Shah
  334. Tale of Pingal Devi
  335. Tale of Roshan Dimaagh
  336. Tale of Rangh Jhar Devi
  337. Tale of Parj Mati
  338. Tale of Bivaas Mati
  339. Tale of Rattan Mati
  340. Tale of Mathura
  341. Tale of Apachhara Devi
  342. Tale of Baranga Devi
  343. Tale of Sorath Devi and Paraj Kumari
  344. Tale of Ras Rang Mati
  345. Tale of Angana Devi
  346. Tale of Gajgaah Mati
  347. Tale of Lakhshmani
  348. Tale of Gora Devi
  349. Tale of Ugar Devi
  350. Tale of Navjoban Devi
  351. Tale of Bastar Mati
  352. Tale of Zebatul Nisa
  353. Tale of Rann Jhoomak Devi
  354. Tale of Sandhla Devi
  355. Tale of Bilaas Devi
  356. Tale of Dal Bhanbah Devi
  357. Tale of Khanjan Devi
  358. Tale of Sunder Devi
  359. Tale of Manmohan Devi
  360. Tale of Jhakhjhoomer Devi
  361. Tale of Gaj Gaamni Devi
  362. Tale of Guloo
  363. Tale of Punjab Devi
  364. Tale of Mehtab Prabha
  365. Tale of Chit Chop Mati
  366. Tale of Naabh Mati
  367. Tale of Moorakh Mati
  368. Tale of Chakh Chaar Mati
  369. Tale of Chanchal Devi
  370. Tale of Abdaal Mati
  371. Tale of Kanchan Devi
  372. Tale of Rani Suchhab Wati
  373. Tale of Hingla Devi
  374. Tale of Mehtaab Mati
  375. Tale of Jag Joban Devi
  376. Tale of Parbin Devi
  377. Tale of Suhaas Devi
  378. Tale of Miradhaas Mati
  379. Tale of Suprabha Devi
  380. Tale of Chriter Mati
  381. Tale of Khaadma Baano
  382. Tale of Mani Neel Mati
  383. Tale of Kokila Mati
  384. Tale of Wife of Shah
  385. Tale of Raj Kumari
  386. Tale of Din Dipak Devi
  387. Tale of Jagmohan Devi
  388. Tale of Madh Mokal Devi
  389. Tale of Makardhuj Devi
  390. Tale of Gohra Rai
  391. Tale of Khatima Baano
  392. Tale of Sandal Devi
  393. Tale of Champa Devi
  394. Tale of Alkesh Mati
  395. Tale of Sajul Devi
  396. Tale of Chapla Devi
  397. Tale of Sagar Devi
  398. Tale of Alkrit Devi
  399. Tale of Bhookhan Devi
  400. Tale of Maha Kunwar
  401. Tale of Basant Kumari
  402. Tale of Sadda Kumari
  403. Tale of Shiv Devi
  404. Tale of Shri Immortal Lord

Summary of Tales[edit]

The following is the summary of each tale translated from work of Dr Rattan Singh Jaggi steek of Dasam Granth

98. Tale Of Heer Ranjha[edit]

Applicable Age: 14+ Years to 100

Ranjha was avtaar of Indra and Heer was avatar of Apsara Meneka who was given abhi-shaap(curse) by Rishi Kapil to get born on Matlok. Rishi kapil was visiting inderlok when he got opportunity to saw Menaka for first time in king Inder darbar and his "Biraj" fell on seeing her. This led to rishi kapil cursing Menaka in anger! " you will take birth in Matlok. Ranjha was born near river chenab at house of chitar devi. As years went by a great famine came and only those people survived who were rich. Ranjha mother during famine in order to survive, sold him to a Jat family and he became an attractive young man whosoever girl saw him, fell for him saying "Ranjha Ranjha" the famous couplet popular in today times. Similarly Heer ended up being born into Choochak Clan. As the epic moves forward they fell in love and heer was married to Khera family as her father doesn't agree with Ranjha. Now Ranjha becomes a beggar and joins the Doli (Marriage) party of heer during her marriage. When ranjha gets a chance with heer alone they both suicide together and leave for Swarga back into their positions of Indra and Meneka. The authors today sing this Plot(Charitar).

Bhai Gurdas also references this epic in Vaar 27 Pauri 1

ਰਾਂਝਾ ਹੀਰ ਵਖਾਣੀਐ ਓਹੁ ਪਿਰਮ ਪਰਾਤੀ।।
Ranjha and Heer are renowned for the love they bore each other.

ਪੀਰ ਮੁਰੀਦਾ ਪਿਰਹੜੀ ਗਾਵਨਿ ਪਰਭਾਤੀ ॥੧॥
But superior to all is the love, the disciples bear for their Guru.They sing it at the ambrosial hour of morning

100. Tale of Clever Woman[edit]

Applicable Age: 14+ Years to 100

In Raghu-kul an king named Roopeswar was a famous and respected in Nagar of Ropar(Today Punjab). He had a queen named "Chittar Kumari" and she was very beautiful and no other woman was equally beautiful to her. A Danav(Demon) came over from Lanka to Ropar. He was enticed by the Rani and Danav mind got fixed on her. The king called his bishops for consulting to get rid of Danav. And they sent a powerful (Mullah)Muslim general to fight him off and mullah challenged Danav with his power. Danav responded by lifting the castle around him in one hand and Mullah in other and he placed castle on his head as if he is the pillar supporting him and the castle fell on him and this is how he sent the mullah to Jampur (City of Death). Then, the king sent his second Muslim general, who Danav lifted from legs and banged him on earth and killed him. Then came another one who he picked and threw in the river.
Then came a women in front of Danav, and she started praising the dana and this pacified the Danav. She enticed the Danav. She fed the Danav with various kind of Food and Wines, which made Danav Happy. She started doing this everyday for him and he started trusting her more and more.
One day she sat sad in front of her and Danav asked her, you take good care of me and you ask nothing for return. Tell me what you want , why are you sad and I will fulfill your wish. He asked 2 or 3 times and she responded by saying. I am bothered by a Asur(Demon) and I don't think you can do anything about it.
Hearing this the Danav wrote a Jantar for her and told her take this and whosoever sees it once will be burned to ashes. She smartly took it from him and opened it & showed him immediately. The Danav saw it himself and burned himself to ashes.

Learning: Thus, the Danav who could not have been even won over by powerful "kings of kings" Indra ended up being deceived(Charitar) by a simple women.

101. Tale Of Soni Mahiwal[edit]

Applicable Age: 14+ Years to 100

On the bank of the river Ravi, there use to live a Jat named Mahiwal. Seeing him Sohni fell in love with him. When sun use to go down, she use to come visit her by crossing the river Ravi. She use to swim across the river by holding “Baked Clay Pot” or Pakka Ghadda which doesn’t dissolves in water. One day when she started her journey, her brother woke up and started following her. The secret of her journey to meet Mahiwal was now known to her brother, but Sohni didn’t knew her secret is revealed to her brother. Next day in morning her brother went and replaced the Pakka ghadda with Kacha Ghadda or “unbaked clay pot” which dissolves in water. Thus that night Sohni picked her kachaa ghadda and began journey. She swam half way and the Unbaked clay pot melted in waters of Ravi and sohni sank and died in water. Mahiwal waiting and waiting started searching for Sohni in Ravi waters. A strong wave current came and he also sank in the river and died.

Learning: Thus, One Person(her own Brother) constructed a plot(Charitar) which ended up killing sohni and mahiwal.

Bhai Gurdas also references this epic in Vaar 27 Pauri 1

ਮੇਹੀਵਾਲ ਨੋ ਸੋਹਣੀ ਨੈ ਤਰਦੀ ਰਾਤੀ।
The fame of Sohni who used to swim the Chenab river in the night to meet Mahival is well known.

ਪੀਰ ਮੁਰੀਦਾ ਪਿਰਹੜੀ ਗਾਵਨਿ ਪਰਭਾਤੀ ॥੧॥
But superior to all is the love, the disciples bear for their Guru.They sing it at the ambrosial hour of morning

108. Tale of Sassi Punnu[edit]

Applicable age : 14+ Years to 100

The Rishi Kapil came over to some place and saw a Apsara named Rambha. Seeing Rambha his mind got affixed with her and his "Biraj" fell on earth. From his Biraj, Rambha got pregnant, which resulted in a girl child being born. Rambha threw that child in Sind River and went to swarga.

The girl kept floating in river Sind and Was rescued by Kind of Sind Brahamdatt. He started taking care of her as a daughter and named her Sassi or "Sassiya" as she was more beautiful than the Moon (Sass).

When she grew up, she was married to King Punnu. The King Punnu already had Rani before Sassi. As Punnu grew fond of Sassi, the other Elder Rani got jealous of Sassi. She plotted to kill Punnu with her servants, when King Punnu will go for hunting next time. The day of death came and King Punnu went for Hunting and the servant of Elder Rani fired his arrow and took the King down in middle of Dark jungle. The news of death came to sassi and she went with her servants to middle of jungle to see dead body of Punnu, and seeing the body Sassi also died.

The story ends with Dharamraj Response

In Dharamraj Sabha news of death came of Sassi and Punnu, Dharamraj responded that with the jealous fervor sorrow, the Other Rani got angry and did Charitar(Plotted) to kill her Husband Punnu, with the same Sorrow she will taken, lets do this solution.

Learning: Jealousy always leads to wrong ending and is punishable in court of Dharamraj.

Dharamraj can be referenced in Guru Granth Sahib Jee, Ang 967 Line 6 Raag Raamkali: Bhatt Satta & Balwand
ਧਰਮ ਰਾਇ ਹੈ ਦੇਵਤਾ ਲੈ ਗਲਾ ਕਰੇ ਦਲਾਲੀ ॥

The Righteous Judge of Dharma(DharamRaj) considered the arguments and makes the decision.

Bhai Gurdas Vaar also references this epic in Vaar 27 Pauri 1

ਸਸੀ ਪੁੰਨੂੰ ਦੋਸਤੀ ਹੁਇ ਜਾਤਿ ਅਜਾਤੀ।

The love of Sassi and Punnü, though of different castes, is everywhere spoken of.

ਪੀਰ ਮੁਰੀਦਾ ਪਿਰਹੜੀ ਗਾਵਨਿ ਪਰਭਾਤੀ ॥੧॥
But superior to all is the love, the disciples bear for their Guru.They sing it at the ambrosial hour of morning


The different theories on the authorship of the Pakhyan Charitar:[4]

  1. The historical and traditional view is that the entire work was composed by Guru Gobind Singh himself.
  2. The entire collection was composed by the poets of the Guru's entourage.
  3. Only a part of the work was composed by the Guru, while the rest was composed by the other poets.
  4. The work is not related to the Guru, but was instead written by an unknown poet.

Historical References[edit]

The following are historical references from the 18th Century, which claim that Guru Gobind Singh had written tales at Anandpur as well as at Dina Kangar:

Letter to Mata Sundri, Bhai Mani Singh[edit]

The letter was written by Bhai Mani Singh to Mata Sundri, after 5 years of demise of Guru Gobind Singh.[7] This manuscript provides evidence of existence of 303 Charitars, Shastar Nam Mala and Krishna Avtar compositions. This manuscript was written before compilation of dasam granth during collections of various compositions.[8] Among critics Gyani Harnam Singh Balabh believes that only 303 Charitars were written by Guru Gobind Singh among 404 Charitars in Charitropakhyan.[9]

Parchi Gobind Singh - Bava Sevadas[edit]

This manuscript was finished sometime in the first quarter of the eighteenth century (around 1741) by Seva Das, an Udasi.[10] He mentioned that Guru Gobind Singh had written tales in Persian in Zafarnama, called Hikaaitaan during his lifetime.[11] Many of these tales are the Persian translations of the narratives in Charitropakhyan.[12]

Mahima Parkash, Sarup Das Bhalla[edit]

This book was completed by Sarup Das, who belong to lineage of Guru Amar Dass, in 1776. He had access to whole Dasam Granth and mentioned that 404 Charitars and Chaubis Avtar was written by Guru Gobind Singh. He states: ਚੋਪਈ ।।
ਚੋਬਿਸ ਅਵਤਾਰ ਕੀ ਭਾਖਾ ਕੀਨਾ ।।
ਚਾਰ ਸੋ ਚਾਰ ਚਲਿਤ੍ਰ ਨਵੀਨਾ ।।
ਭਾਖਾ ਬਣਾਈ ਪ੍ਰਭ ਸ੍ਰਵਣ ਕਰਾਈ ।।
ਭਏ ਪ੍ਰਸੰਨ ਸਤਗੁਰ ਮਨ ਭਾਈ ।।

Relationship with Hikaaitaan[edit]

The following is a list of Hikayats, which are similar to narratives in Charitropakhyan, rewritten in the Persian Language. In fact, many of these are the Persian translations of the narratives in Charitropakhyan.

  • Hikayat 4 is Persian adaptation of Charitra 52
  • Hikayat 5 is Persian adaptation of Charitra 267
  • Hikayat 8 is Persian adaptation of Charitra 118
  • Hikayat 9 is Persian adaptation of Charitra 290
  • Hikayat 11 is Persian adaptation of Charitra 246

The similarity of narratives in Hikayats and Charitropakhyan' serves directs the single Authorship of both compositions.[13]


  1. ^ Page 6, Hymns From The Dasam Granth, By Gobind Singh Mansukhani
  2. ^ Kabyo Bach Benti, Charitar 404, Dasam Granth
  3. ^ ਇਤਿ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਚਰਿਤ੍ਰ ਪਖ੍ਯਾਨੇ ਪੁਰਖ ਚਰਿਤ੍ਰੇ ਮੰਤ੍ਰੀ ਭੂਪ ਸੰਬਾਦੇ ਇਕਸਠਵੋ ਚਰਿਤ੍ਰ ਸਮਾਪਤਮ ਸਤੁ ਸੁਭਮ ਸਤੁ ॥੬੧॥੧੧੦੬॥ਅਫਜੂੰ॥ / ਇਤਿ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਚਰਿਤ੍ਰ ਪਖ੍ਯਾਨੇ ਤ੍ਰਿਯਾ ਚਰਿਤ੍ਰੇ ਮੰਤ੍ਰੀ ਭੂਪ ਸੰਬਾਦੇ ਤ੍ਰਿਸਠਵੋ ਚਰਿਤ੍ਰ ਸਮਾਪਤਮ ਸਤੁ ਸੁਭਮ ਸਤੁ ॥੬੩॥੧੧੨੯॥ਅਫਜੂੰ॥ - Dasam Granth Sahib
  4. ^ a b McLeod, W. H. (2005-07-28). Historical dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 44–. ISBN 978-0-8108-5088-0. Retrieved 2 June 2010.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "McLeod2005" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  5. ^ Amaresh Datta, ed. (2006). The Encyclopaedia Of Indian Literature (Volume One (A To Devo), Volume 1. Sahitya Akademi. p. 888. ISBN 978-81-260-1803-1. 
  6. ^ Charitar 2, Charitropakhyan, Dasam Granth
  7. ^ ....ਭਾਈ ਮਨੀ ਸਿੰਘ ਜੀ ਦਾ ਸੰਪਰਕ ਦੇਸ਼ ਦੀ ਰਾਜਧਾਨੀ ਦਿੱਲੀ ਨਾਲ ਨਿਰੰਤਰ ਬਣਿਆ ਸੀ ਅਤੇ ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਦਾ ਇਹ ਪੱਤਰ ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ ਜੀ ਦੇ ਜੋਤੀ-ਜੋਤਿ ਸਮਾਉਣ ਤੋਂ ਵੀ ਕੋਈ 4-5 ਸਾਲ ਬਾਅਦ ਦਾ ਹੈ।.....Sri Dasam Granth Krtitv, Dr. Harbhajan Singh
  8. ^ ...ਭਾਈ ਮਨੀ ਸਿੰਘ ਜੀ ਦੁਆਰਾ ਮਾਤਾ ਸੁੰਦਰੀ ਜੀ ਨੂੰ ਲਿਖਿਆ ਇਕ ਪੱਤਰ ਉਪਲਬਧ ਹੈ, ਜਿਸ ਵਿਚ ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਨੇ 303 'ਚਰਿਤਰ ਉਪਾਖਿਆਨ' ਅਤੇ 'ਕ੍ਰਿਸ਼ਨ ਅਵਤਾਰ' ਦਾ ਪੂਰਬਾਰਧ ਮਿਲ ਜਾਣ ਅਤੇ ਇਸ ਦਾ ਉਤਰਾਰਧ ਅਥਵਾ 'ਸ਼ਸਤ੍ਰ ਨਾਮ ਮਾਲਾ' ਨਾ ਮਿਲਣ ਦਾ ਜ਼ਿਕਰ ਕੀਤਾ ਹੈ। ...Sri Dasam Granth Krtitv, Dr. Harbhajan Singh
  9. ^ ...ਇਹ ਵੀ ਸੋਚਣ ਦੀ ਗਲ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਜੇ ਇਸ ਚਿੱਠੀ ਦੇ ਅਸਤਿਤ੍ਵ ਦੀ ਖ਼ਬਰ 'ਦਸਮ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ' ਦੀ ਬਾਣੀ ਉਤੇ ਵਿਸ਼ਵਾਸ ਕਰਨ ਵਾਲੇ ਕਿਸੇ ਵਿਅਕਤੀ ਤੋਂ ਮਿਲਦੀ, ਤਾਂ ਇਹ ਮੰਨਿਆ ਜਾ ਸਕਦਾ ਸੀ ਕਿ ਪੂਰੇ 'ਦਸਮ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ' ਨੂੰ ਗੁਰੂ-ਕ੍ਰਿਤ ਦਸਣ ਵਾਸਤੇ ਉਸ ਨੇ ਫ਼ਰਜ਼ੀ ਚਿੱਠੀ ਬਣਾਈ ਹੈ। ਪਰ ਸਥਿਤੀ ਇਸ ਦੇ ਉਲਟ ਹੈ। ਜਿਸ ਗਿ. ਹਰਨਾਮ ਸਿੰਘ 'ਬਲਭ' ਨੇ ਸ. ਕਰਮ ਸਿੰਘ 'ਹਿਸਟੋਰੀਅਨ' ਦੀ ਪ੍ਰੁੇੁਰਨਾ ਨਾਲ ਇਸ ਪੱਤਰ ਨੂੰ ਖੋਜ ਕੇ ਪ੍ਰਚਾਰਿਆ ਸੀ, ਵਾਸਤਵ ਵਿਚ ਉਹ 'ਦਸਮ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ' ਦਾ ਵਿਰੋਧੀ ਸੀ। 'ਕ੍ਰਿਸ਼ਨਾਵਤਾਰ ਬਾਣੀ', ਜਿਸ ਦਾ ਜ਼ਿਕਰ ਇਸ ਪੱਤਰ ਵਿਚ ਹੈ, ਉਸ ਨੂੰ ਗਿਆਨੀ ਹਰਨਾਮ ਸਿੰਘ ਕਿਸੇ ਕਵੀ ਦੀ ਰਚਨਾ ਮੰਨਦਾ ਹੈ। ਉਸ ਦੇ ਵਿਚਾਰ ਅਨੁਸਾਰ 'ਚਰਿਤਰੋਪਾਖਿਆਨ' ਦੇ ਕੇਵਲ 303 ਚਰਿਤ੍ਰ ਗੁਰੂ-ਕ੍ਰਿਤ ਹਨ। ...Sri Dasam Granth Krtitv, Dr. Harbhajan Singh
  10. ^ Parchi and History
  11. ^ Sakhi 13, Parchi Guru Gobind Singh Ki, Bava Sewadas
  12. ^
  13. ^