Sada Kaur

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Ranjit Singh's Empire

Sada Kaur (1762–1832) was a Punjabi Sikh who played an important role in Ranjit Singh's rise to power in Punjab. She was the mother-in-law of Maharajha Ranjit Singh and the chief of Kanhaiya Misl.

Life and career[edit]

Sada Kaur was born to sardar Daswandha Singh Gill, in 1762[1] in Firozpur. Her Village was Rauke Kalan, Moga district, Punjab. She was married to Gurbax Singh Kanheya, the son of Jai Singh Kanheya, the chief of Kanheya Misl.[1] Her husband died fighting in the Battle of Batala against the Sukerchakia Misl, the Ramgarhia Misl as well as Sansar Chand Katoch. In 1785, Sada Kaur, along with Jai Singh Kanhaiya, then betrothed her daughter to Ranjit Singh, the Sukerchakia Misl's chief's son, and they were married in 1786.[2] In 1789, her father-in-law, Jai Singh Kanheya, also died.[2] Sada Kaur then assumed the leadership of the Kanhaiya Misl as well as the loyalty of its 8,000 cavalrymen.[1] After the death of his father, Mahan Singh, in 1792 Ranjit Singh was made the chief of the Sukerchakia Misl and Sada Kaur became his regent.[1] Sada Kaur used both Kanheya and Sukerchakia misals to push Ranjit forward.

The people of Lahore who were tired of the rule of Bhangi misl requested Sada Kaur and Ranjit Singh to take over Lahore. Sada Kaur advised Ranjit that whoever controls Lahore controls Punjab. On 7 July 1799 Ranjit Singh and Sada Kaur attacked Lahore with 25,000 troops. The people of Lahore opened the city gates for them. Ranjit entered the city through Lohari gate and Sada Kaur entered through Delhi gate. Sada Kaur made Ranjit Singh the king of Lahore in 1801.

In the battles for Amritsar, Chiniot, Kasur, Attock and Hazara she was with Ranjit Singh. In 1807 Ranjit Singh remarried. Sada Kaur did not approve of it. She broke with Ranjit. Then Sada Kaur thought of ruling her own state but Ranjit Singh restricted her movements. She retained the majority of her estates until 1820.[1] Sada Kaur died in Lahore in 1832.


  1. ^ a b c d e Kakshi, S.R.; Pathak, Rashmi; Pathak, S.R.Bakshi R. (1 January 2007). Punjab Through the Ages. Sarup & Sons. pp. 272–274. ISBN 978-81-7625-738-1. Retrieved 12 June 2010.  C1 control character in |pages= at position 5 (help)
  2. ^ a b Griffin, Sir Lepel Henry; Massy, Charles Francis (1890). The Panjab chiefs: historical and biographical notices of the principal families in the Lahore and Rawalpindi divisions of the Panjab. Civil and Military Gazette press. pp. 161–162. Retrieved 13 June 2010. 

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