Chinilpa (lit. "people friendly to Japan") is a Korean word that denotes Koreans who collaborated with the Imperial Japanese government during its colonial reign over Korea from 1910–1945, or shortly before then, around the time of the Korean Empire. To this day, chinilpa is often used as a derogatory statement against Japanophilic South Koreans.
In the last years of Joseon Dynasty, the word chinilpa meant a group of politicians who sought alliance with Japan, such as Iljinhoe, that confronted pro-Russian, pro-Chinese and pro-American groups. However, at the end of World War II, when Korea regained its independence, the word changed its meaning from "pro-Japanese politicians" to "pro-Japanese collaborators".
After South Korea's gradual democratization during the 1980s and 1990s, a public call to prosecute chinilpa and "set the history right" has gained increasing support. This sometimes mixes with a general anti-Japanese sentiment in South Korea, reinforcing each other. However, they are two distinct social agendas.
The word chinilpa for who collaborated with the Imperial Japanese first appears in chinilmunhangnon (Comments on Chinil Literature, 친일문학론, 1966), written by Im Jong Guk, who was an activist of Korea. Before its publication, it was common to call them builbae (Korean: 부일배; Hanja: 附日輩; literally "people who collaborated with Japan"), especially criticizing Korean Leadership.
Prosecution against chinilpa under Rhee Syngman administration
Banmin Teugwi, the Special Committee mentioned above, was set up in 1948 under the rule of Rhee Syngman. It handled 682 cases; 559 cases were handed over to a special prosecutor's office, which handed down indictments in 221 cases. A special tribunal tried 38 cases, sentenced guilty verdicts and punishments in 12 cases including one death sentence. Eighteen others had their civil rights suspended, six others were declared innocent and the remaining two were found guilty but were exempted from punishment. However, the Supreme Court suspended their execution in March 1950, just before the Korean War.
Most notably, Syngman Rhee sabotaged and dissolved the Special Committee for Prosecution of Anti-National Offenders (banmin teugwi, 반민특위), which had been established to prosecute chinilpa. Under Rhee's regime and in subsequent governments, many of them enjoyed the same wealth and power they had under the Japa rule.
Prosecution against chinilpa in the 21st century
After more than 50 years have passed since the end of prosecution against chinilpa under the Rhee Syngman administration, the prosecution restarted abruptly as a political agenda of President Roh Moo-hyun.
Definition of chinilpa by the Special Law
The newly enacted Special Law on the Inspection of Collaborations for the Japanese Imperialism defines "pro-Japanese and anti-national actions" (chinila) as follows.
- article 2
- Under this act, the "pro-Japanese and anti-national actions" means any of the following actions committed between the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War that began the deprivation of Korean sovereignty by the Japanese imperialism and August 15, 1945.
- 1. Any act to attack or order to attack the military forces fighting against the Japanese imperialism to keep sovereign power.
- 3. Any act to kill, execute, harass or arrest the persons or their families participating in the independent movement or anti-Japanese movement, and an act to instruct or order those violences thereto.
- 6. Any act to agree, join or conspire the treaties that interfered with the sovereign power including Eulsa Treaty, Korean-Japanese Annexation Treaty and others.
- 8. Any act of participating in the Assembly of Japanese Empire as a member of the Noble Class or member of Japanese Assembly.
- 9. Any act of participating as vice chairman, advisor or House of Representatives for the Senate of the Choson Government-General.
- 10. Any act of positively cooperate with the invasion war (WW2) as an officer above lieutenant of the Japanese imperial forces.
- 14. Any act to operate the military supply manufacturing to help the warfare of the Japanese imperialism or donate certain amount of or more money and goods determined under the Presidential Decree.
The law is concerned about the independence movement, unlike the ex-Nazi prosecution which concentrates on the war crimes. Most remarkable are items 8 and 9. Being a law-maker during that time qualifies one as a "pro-Japanese and anti-national Collaborator" regardless of what one did as a law-maker.
On August 29, 2005, a civic organization, the Institute for Research in Collaborationist Activities disclosed a list of 3094 Koreans chinilpa suspects including Park Chung Hee, the former Korean president, Kim Song Su, a former publisher of Dong-a Ilbo and the founder of Korea University, and Bang Eung Mo, a former president of Chosun Ilbo.
On December 6, 2006, a South Korean presidential commission, the Investigative Commission on Pro-Japanese Collaborators' Property revealed the first official chinilpa list of 106 persons during 1904 to March 1st Movement in 1919 was including four of the Five Eulsa Traitors.
On August 18, 2006, the commission started the investigation before seizing the property obtained by collaborators during Japanese colonization.
On May 2, 2007, the South Korean government announced its plan to seize assets gained by pro-Japanese collaborators during Japanese colonial rule amounting 3.6 billion won (US$3.9 million, €2.8 million) worth of land from the descendants of nine pro-Japanese collaborators. On August 13, 2007, the commission decided to confiscate about 1 million square meters of land which is valued at 25.7 billion won that is now owned by the descendants of another ten pro-Japanese collaborators.
On September 17, 2007, the commission revealed the second list of 202 collaborators focused on pro-Japanese figures between 1919 and 1937. The list includes Song Byeong-jun who sent letters to the Japanese government asking for a merger, Lee Ji-yong, who is one of the Five Eulsa Traitors, Lee Doo-hwang, who participated in the murder of Empress Myeongseong in 1895 and later became a governor of the North Jeolla Province, a novelist Yi In-jik, the author of Hyeoleuinu (Tears of Blood), Yoo Hak-ju, a council member of the Iljinhoe, Bae Jeong-ja, foster daughter of the first Resident-General of Korea, Itō Hirobumi who spied on Korean independent activists and recruited comfort women, and Park Je-bin, who formed a tribute group to pay condolences at Ito's funeral in 1926. On the same day, the Seoul administrative court rejected a lawsuit against the commission to erase the names of the son and grandson of Daewon-gun (father of Gojong of the Korean Empire) from the list, who allegedly attended the signing of the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty as representatives of the royal family.
The official list during the most controversial period (1937–1945) that may contain persons who played important roles in South Korean development after the independence and enlisted in the 2005 list of the Institute for Research in Collaborationist Activities had not been revealed as of September 2007.
Since the enactment of the Special Law on the Inspection of Collaboration with Japanese Imperialism (ko:친일진상규명법) in 2004 and the special law to redeem pro-Japanese collaborators' property in 2005, the committee has made a list of 452 pro-Japanese collaborators and examined the land of 109 among them. The total size of the land is estimated at 13.1 million square meters, worthy almost 100 billion won.
The confiscated properties will be appropriated, with priority, to reward Koreans who contributed to the independence of Korea from Japan.
- Anti-Japanese sentiment in Korea
- Five Eulsa Traitors
- Japan–Korea disputes
- Japan–Korea relations
- Makapili - a Filipino who working for the Japanese Army.
- As seen in .
- (Korean) "<친일문학론> 임종국님을 아시나요?", OhmyNews, 2004.01.19.
- "Pro-Japan collaborators list sparks controversy", The Korea Times, 8/29/2005
- "KOREA: Ex-leader Park on list of 3,000 Japan collaborators", The Korea Herald/AsiaMedia-UCLA, August 30, 2005
- "정부차원의 첫 보고서 친일청산 논란 재점화", The Korea Times, 2006/12/07.
- "Assets of Japan Collaborators to Be Seized", The Korea Times, 08-13-2006
- "SKorea to seize assets of collaborators in Japanese colonial era for first time", The Associated Press/The International Herald Tribune, May 2, 2007
- "State to Confiscate Land of Pro-Japanese Collaborators" Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., The Korea Times, 2007-08-13
- Bae Ji-sook, "202 Pro-Japanese Collaborators Disclosed", The Korea Times, 09-17-2007.
- (Korean) 강인식, "법원 `친일파 공개 적절`", JoongAng Ilbo, 2007.09.18.
- (Japanese) "宋秉畯ら第２期親日反民族行為者２０２人を選定", JoongAng Ilbo, 2007.09.17.