Christian and Missionary Alliance
|Christian and Missionary Alliance|
|Polity||Elements of Congregationalist, Presbyterian and non-sacramental Episcopal polities|
|Headquarters||Colorado Springs, Colorado|
|Founder||Albert Benjamin Simpson|
Founded by Rev. Albert Benjamin Simpson, an ordained minister of the Presbyterian Church in Canada, in 1887, the C&MA did not start off as a denomination, but rather began as two distinct parachurch organizations: the Christian Alliance, which focused on the pursuit and promotion of the Higher Christian life, and the Evangelical Missionary Alliance, which focused on mobilizing "consecrated" Christians in the work of foreign missionary efforts. These two groups amalgamated in 1897 to form the C&MA. It was only much later, in 1974, that an official denomination was formed.
In 2006 there were 2,010 C&MA churches and approximately 417,000 members in the United States. Approximately 600 of those churches were described as intercultural. In Canada there were 440 churches, 59 of which multicultural, and approximately 120,000 members. In the C&MA 2004 annual report estimated that outside North America C&MA membership exceeded 3 million. The C&MA center used to be in Nyack, New York, which continues to be the home of Nyack College (formerly Missionary Training Institute) and Alliance Theological Seminary. C&MA International Office is located in São Paulo, Brazil.
- 1 Beliefs
- 2 History
- 3 Membership trends
- 4 Structure
- 5 Ministries
- 6 Seminaries and colleges
- 7 C&MA boarding school abuse
- 8 Prominent members
- 9 Prominent former members
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The C&MA's Statement of Faith defines it as an evangelical Protestant denomination. The following is a summary of the Statement of Faith for the U.S. Church:
- One God who exists as a Trinity.
- Jesus Christ is both God and man who died as a substitutionary sacrifice, was resurrected, ascended to heaven, and will return to establish his kingdom.
- The Holy Spirit indwells, teaches, and empowers believers; he convinces the world of sin, righteousness, and judgment.
- The Bible, as originally given, is inerrant, divinely inspired, and the complete revelation of God's will for the salvation of men. It is the only rule for Christian faith and practice.
- Man was created in the image of God, but through disobedience is born with a sinful nature. Mankind can only be saved through Christ's "atoning work".
- Those who repent and believe in Christ are born again of the Holy Spirit, becoming children of God.
- The will of God is for each believer to be filled with the Holy Spirit and "sanctified wholly" to receive "power for holy living and effective service". This is both a "crisis" and "progressive" experience occurring after conversion. Sanctification is "Separation from sin" and "Separation to God". The believer must, through faith, surrender, accept Christ as sanctifier, and continue to abide in relationship with Christ through obedience to his Word.
- Within the "redemptive work" of Christ, provision is made for bodily healing. Prayer for the sick and anointing with oil are scriptural and the privilege of the Church.
- The Church is all who believe in Christ, are redeemed through his blood, and are born again of the Holy Spirit. It has been called to fulfill the Great Commission. The local church is a body of believers joined together for worship, edification through God's Word, prayer, fellowship, proclaiming the gospel, and observing the ordinances of baptism and the Lord's Supper.
- The just shall be resurrected unto life and the unjust unto judgment.
- The imminent second coming of Christ will be personal, visible, and premillennial.
A.B. Simpson articulated the Alliance's core theology as the Christological "Fourfold Gospel": Jesus Christ as Savior, Sanctifier, Healer, and Soon Coming King. Sanctification is sometimes described as "the deeper Christian life". This teaching is similar to that of the Higher Life movement and the Keswick Convention. It is perhaps best exemplified by the writings of A. W. Tozer. The Christian & Missionary Alliance, being a part of the holiness movement, is heavily influenced by Wesleyan-Arminian theology. The C&MA also emphasizes missionary work, and believes that the fulfillment of the Great Commission is the reason it exists.
The Christian and Missionary Alliance was not founded as a denomination. Rev. A. B. Simpson was a Presbyterian clergyman motivated by the spiritual needs of the metropolitan multitudes in North America, as well as by those of the unevangelized peoples in other lands. He was compelled by a sense of urgency to take this message to all nations because of Jesus' statement in Matthew 24:14: "And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come" (KJV translation).
In the 1890s the first missionaries arrived in Jerusalem from the CMA. They are known in the CMA letters by their surnames, Miss Brown and Miss Dunn. The CMA work in Jerusalem would eventually result in the founding of the Church on Prophets Street and the Alliance Church in the Old City of Jerusalem.
During the start of the 20th century, Simpson became closely involved with the growing Pentecostal movement, an offshoot of the Holiness movement. It became common for Pentecostal pastors and missionaries to receive their training at the Missionary Training Institute that Simpson founded. Consequently, Simpson and the C&MA had a great influence on Pentecostalism, in particular the Assemblies of God and the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel. This influence included evangelical emphasis, C&MA doctrine, Simpson's hymns and books, and the use of the term 'Gospel Tabernacle,' which led to many Pentecostal churches being known as 'Full Gospel Tabernacles.'
Eventually, there developed severe division within the C&MA over issues surrounding Pentecostalism (such as speaking in tongues and charismatic worship styles). By 1912, this crisis was a catalyst for the emergence of the C&MA as an organized denomination, shifting more authority to the council and becoming more ecclesiastical. To ensure the survival of the C&MA in the face of division, Simpson put all property in the name of the C&MA. In the event of separation, all property would revert to C&MA.
After Simpson's death in 1919, the C&MA distanced itself from Pentecostalism, rejecting the premise that speaking in tongues is a necessary indicator of being filled with the Holy Spirit, and instead focused on the deeper Christian life. By 1930, most local branches of the C&MA functioned as churches, but still did not view themselves as such.
By 1965, the churches adopted a denominational function and established a formal statement of faith. This new mission society soon became a major evangelical movement. Today it is a growing missionary denomination committed to evangelism around the world through church planting.
The Christian and Missionary Alliance has experienced steady and significant growth since its inception. In 1925, there were just 25,000 members in 392 churches. Membership reached 50,000 members in 1950 and by 1976 had reached 150,000. In 2006, there were 417,008 members in 2,010 congregations. While membership is concentrated in the American Midwest and Northwest, the denomination is well represented throughout the United States. Pennsylvania has the largest number of both members and congregations. As of December 2017 there were more than 2000 churches and 500,000 members in the US.
The biennial General Council is the highest governing body of the C&MA. It elects officers, transacts business, enacts policies, and evaluates the progress of denominational ministries. Delegates include licensed workers (i.e., clergy), members of the board of directors, three representatives from each C&MA postsecondary educational institution, two lay delegates from each accredited church (with additional delegates for every 100 church members), national officers of Men and Women’s ministries, lay members of district executive committees, and retired and disabled missionaries and official workers.
A 28-member board of directors elected by General Council provides general oversight and management of the denomination and acts as the executive committee of the General Council when the council is not in session. National officers (president, vice president, secretary, treasurer) are ex officio members.
Churches are organized into either geographical or cultural districts. A district is led by a conference, a legislative body meeting once a year. The conference elects the district executive committee and a superintendent, the chief officer of the district. The ordination and licensing for clergy is the responsibility of districts.
The current and 12th president of the denomination is Rev. Dr. John Stumbo. He was first elected in 2013 at the Alliance Council in Tampa, Florida, and then re-elected to a second four-year term in 2017 at the Alliance Council in Columbus, Ohio.
Associated with the denomination is CAMA Services. “CAMA” stands for “Compassion and Mercy Associates”. Services include a variety of relief and development efforts providing food, clothing, medical care, and job training to people in crisis situations around the globe in the name of Jesus.
Begun in 1974 by Andy Bishop an outreach to refugees fleeing the Indochina conflict, CAMA now works in refugee camps in Thailand, and has worked with refugees in Hong Kong, Lebanon, Jordan, and Guinea, and famine victims in Burkina Faso and Mali. CAMA Services worked together with local C&MA churches in 2005 to provide Hurricane Katrina relief in the United States.
Envision is the Short-Term Mission Office (STMO) of the Christian and Missionary Alliance whose purpose is to facilitate short-term mission trips to mission fields served by the C&MA.
Envision, originally called AYMission, was started in 2003 by Matt Peace as a way of facilitating youth short-term mission trips. Today Envision sends out over 1000 people every year to 40 different countries. However, their main focus of work is currently in 11 locations, including:
Ensenada, Mexico- Short-Term teams are in the process of helping plant churches in Ensenada and do community outreach through VBS, building relationships and building projects.
San Salvador, El Salvador- With the help of Pastor Mario Gonzalez, the work of Envision in El Salvador has helped hundreds of people. Several people in their twenties live in El Salvador for up to one year with this program.
United States- Inner-city ministries in Philadelphia and Chicago help at risk children, youth and the community through soup kitchens, food banks, coffeehouses, and many other types of ministries. Other domestic sites in the U.S. include Atlanta, Cleveland, Los Angeles, Miami, and Providence.
Seminaries and colleges
As of 1998, there are two C&MA graduate schools, four C&MA colleges, and one C&MA seminary accredited by The Association of Theological Schools. Seminaries in other countries may be accredited by other organizations. For C&MA educational institutions in the Philippines, see Christian and Missionary Alliance Churches of the Philippines.
- Nyack College and Alliance Theological Seminary in Nyack, New York, New York City, and Puerto Rico, United States
- Simpson University and A.W. Tozer Theological Seminary in Redding, California, United States
- Toccoa Falls College in Toccoa, Georgia, United States
- Crown College and Crown Graduate School in St. Bonifacius, Minnesota, United States
- Ambrose University in Calgary, Alberta, Canada
- École de théologie évangélique du Québec in Montreal, Quebec, Canada
- Seminario Teológico AC&M (ITAM) in Santiago, Chile
- Seminario Biblico Alianza in Armenia, Colombia
- The Alliance Leadership Institute (ALTI) in Jerusalem
- Alliance Graduate School in Philippines
- Alliance Bible Seminary in Hong Kong
- The Christian Alliance Institute of Theology (CAIT) in Beirut, Lebanon
- Northeastern Bible Seminary in Khon Kaen, Thailand
C&MA boarding school abuse
In the 1980s alumni of Mamou Alliance Academy in Guinea, West Africa, began to write letters to C&MA headquarters informing leadership of systemic child abuse that occurred at the school. Phone calls and letter writing of this nature to the C&MA continued for ten years.
The alumni reported that the C&MA response was evasive, deceptive, and employed “stonewalling” tactics. Alumni were reportedly told that they should forgive, and that they would "hurt the name of Jesus" by coming forward. One alumnus said that "the only way that we could get the Alliance to do anything was through the media. It was only through shaming them by putting the truth out there". Robert Fetherlin, vice president for International Ministries for the C&MA, said "We heard as far back as the 1980s that there were some questionable events that took place at Mamou. That there may have been mistreatment of children, however, we were slower than we should have been in responding to that."
In 1995, 30 alumni from Mamou approached the C&MA for an investigation and restitution. They reported systemic abuse including psychological abuse, excessive beating, sadistic dental practices performed without novocaine, sexual molestation, and rape. The following year an independent commission of inquiry (ICI) was formed and 80 testimonies were heard. In April 1998 the ICI released a report which found the denomination negligent in monitoring Mamou and in training teachers. The report identified nine offenders, of whom four were retired, three deceased and two no longer with the C&MA.
The US C&MA Board of Directors issued an open letter to the victims of abuse asking for "forgiveness for the pain and trauma that you suffered while under the care of C&MA dorm parents, teachers and missionaries."
Since these abuses occurred, the Alliance changed its policies and practices. Fetherlin said that the Alliance tried "to keep families together as much as possible, as opposed to asking parents to commit to sending their elementary children off to 'missionary kid' boarding schools", and supported homeschooling, which they had previously opposed.
The Alliance also established a Sensitive Issues Consultative Group made up of professional counselors and caregivers as part of its response to the commission's recommendations. A publication on child safety and protection entitled Safe Place was produced, a child safety and protection policy for its international work introduced, and a revised Uniform Discipline, Restoration and Appeal policy implemented that mandates denomination-wide zero-tolerance when there is a finding of sexual abuse of a child or vulnerable adult. A child protection training program which every overseas Alliance worker is required to attend was set up. Child Protection and Safety policies were published on the Alliance Web site.
- Angelino Apelar, founder of the Association of Filipino Churches (AFC)
- Severino R. Bagtasos III, He was killed inside the church where he was a pastor because of his works towards the Muslim people of Jolo
- Lisa Beamer, author
- Todd Beamer, United Airlines Flight 93 passenger
- Charles A. Blanchard, early president of Wheaton College, Honorary Vice President of the C&MA
- F. F. Bosworth, healing evangelist, author of Christ the Healer. Served as a C&MA pastor and evangelist.
- Peter Budaj, ice hockey goaltender for the Montreal Canadiens
- Joel Comiskey, prominent author on cell church ministry, C&MA pastor and missionary
- Dr. V. Raymond Edman, president of Wheaton College, 1940–1965, author, C&MA missionary to South America
- Dr. Kenneth Gangel, prominent author and Christian Education professor
- Josh Garrels, award-winning folk musician, former Alliance Pastor
- Rev. Armin Gesswein, World Evangelist, Author(1907-2001)
- Dannah Gresh, Author and National Youth Speaker
- Steven Exposé, Author and Biblical Scholar
- Stephen Harper, Prime Minister of Canada (2006–2015)
- Ben Heppner, tenor
- William Holmes Howland, 25th Mayor of Toronto from 1886 to 1887 president of the Toronto Board of Trade in 1874-1875
- Clement Humbard, brother of TV pastor/evangelist Rex Humbard. Served as a licensed C&MA evangelist.
- Robert A. Jaffray, missionary statesman to China
- Howard O Jones, Billy Graham's first African-American evangelist, author
- Rebecca Kleefisch, Lieutenant Governor of Wisconsin
- Sunder Krishnan, pastor, author, conference speaker
- Reuben & Grace Larson, missionaries to Ecuador in the 1930s, co-founders of HCJB, international Christian healthcare and media ministry
- R.G. LeTourneau, prolific inventor and philanthropist, founder of LeTourneau University
- Preston Manning, founder and former leader of the Reform Party of Canada
- Joshua J Masters, author
- Archie E. Mitchell, minister, missionary to Vietnam
- Wilmer “Vinegar Bend” Mizell, former Major League baseball star and member of C&MA Board of Directors
- Jhan Moskowitz, 1948 – 2012, One of the Founders of Jews for Jesus
- Carl Ralston, founder of Remember Nhu
- Dr. David Rambo, former president of the C&MA and vice president of the National Association of Evangelicals
- Paris Reidhead, author, missionary to Africa, and Deputation Secretary of the Sudan Interior Mission
- Kurt Schmoke. former Mayor of Baltimore
- Aaron Shust, Contemporary Christian Recording Artist
- Charles Randal Smith, formerly prominent Canadian forensic child pathologist
- Dr. Jack Sara. President of Bethlehem Bible College, Palestine.
- Ryan Smyth, ice hockey player for the Edmonton Oilers
- James L. Snyder, minister, writer, humorist, biographer of A. W. Tozer
- Chuck Strahl, prominent Canadian politician
- Philip Teng, pastor, author, president of Alliance Bible Seminary in Hong Kong, prominent leader in Chinese C&MA churches worldwide, first president of Alliance World Fellowship
- Mike Tomlin, Head Coach of the Pittsburgh Steelers
- A. W. Tozer, author and pastor
- Ryan Walter, ice hockey Stanley Cup winner in 1986 for the Montreal Canadiens
- Rev. Dr. Agustin B. Vencer, Filipino Pastor, Lawyer, Author, former International Director of World Evangelical Alliance, current Regional Director and Vice President at DAWN Ministries
- Phil Vischer, creator of VeggieTales and founder of Big Idea Productions
- Cam Ward, ice hockey goaltender for the Carolina Hurricanes & 2006 Conn Smythe Trophy winner
- Ravi Zacharias, author and apologist, the well known Christian apologist and head of Ravi Zacharias International Ministries, has roots in the Christian and Missionary Alliance, and was, at one time, Professor of Evangelism and Contemporary Thought at Alliance Theological Seminary in Nyack, NY.
Prominent former members
- David Berg (deceased), expelled, and eventually founded the Children of God, now known as The Family International
- Billy Graham, evangelist, preached his first sermons as a licensed assistant/youth pastor at the Tampa Gospel Tabernacle of the Christian and Missionary Alliance in 1933-1937.
- Jack Hayford, president of the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel. Attended Neighborhood Church of the C&MA, Oakland, CA, as a teenager.
- Felix Manalo, who later founded the Iglesia ni Cristo (Church of Christ)
- Frederick K. C. Price, prominent African-American mega church leader, advocating Word of Faith and Prosperity Gospel, was formerly a C&MA pastor.
- Paul Rader, a pioneer in radio evangelism, pastor of Moody Memorial Church and Chicago Gospel Tabernacle. Served as president of C&MA, 1919–1924, after A.B. Simpson's death.
- Oswald J. Smith, pastor of People's Church, Toronto. Served as a C&MA pastor in the 1920s.
- Charles Templeton, post-World War II evangelist. Subsequently left and became an agnostic.
- Satyavrata, Ivan (2009). The Holy Spirit: Lord and Life-Giver. InterVarsity Press. p. 1. ISBN 9780830833078.
The Holiness emphasis gave rise to several new church movements, including the Salvation Army, the Christian and Missionary Alliance, the Church of the Nazarene, the Free Methodist Church and the Church of God. Two leaders of the Christian and Missionary Alliance who had a key role in shaping the Holiness movement were its founder, A.B. Simpson, and the well-known Bible teacher A.W. Tozer.
- Smith, Andrea (11 March 2008). Native Americans and the Christian Right: The Gendered Politics of Unlikely Alliances. Duke University Press. p. 280. ISBN 9780822388876.
Some denominations that emerged out of the Holiness movement are the Church of God, the Christian and Missionary Alliance, and the Church of the Nazarene.
- "Alliance website: About Us > History".
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- The C&MA 2004 report to General Council & Minutes of General Council 2005, p. 19
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- Kurian, George Thomas; Lamport, Mark A. (7 May 2015). Encyclopedia of Christian Education. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 240. ISBN 9780810884939.
The Christian & Missionary Alliance makes its theological home in the Wesleyan tradition, which began in the mid 18th century as a result of the influence of the Anglican clergyman John Wesley. The Second Great Awakening, toward the beginning of the 19th century, which came about partly from the influence of Wesley's theological perspective, also played an important role in the development of the Holiness movement, of which the C&MA is a part (Schmidt 1988, 813-829).
- Hindson, Edward E.; Mitchell, Daniel R. (1 August 2013). The Popular Encyclopedia of Church History: The People, Places, and Events That Shaped Christianity. Harvest House Publishers. p. 347. ISBN 9780736948074.
John Wesley's influence is felt in the United Methodist Church, the Free Methodist Church, the Church of the Nazarene, the Wesleyan Church, and the Christian and Missionary Alliance Church, among others.
- "The Great Commission". Christian and Missionary Alliance. Retrieved 2013-03-29.
- Miller, Duane Alexander (June 2010). "Renegotiating the Boundaries of Evangelicalism in Jerusalem's Christian Quarter: Christian and Missionary Alliance Church". Anglican and Episcopal History. 79 (2): 185–188. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Burgess, Stanley, et al. 1993. Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. p. 166.
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- Manual of the C&MA, Section A4 Uniform Constitution for Districts.
- Manual of the C&MA, Section E3 United Policy on Licensing and Certification, I. Orders of Ministry, page E3-1.
- Manual of the C&MA, Section A5 Uniform Constitution for Accredited Churches.
- "President of the C&MA". Retrieved 2018-08-08.
- Our Work. Compassion and Mercy Associates http://camaservices.org/our-work/. Retrieved 12 February 2018. Missing or empty
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- All God's Children – Documentary - 2008
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- "Child Safety & Protection". Cmalliance.org. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
- Cox's Book of Modern Saints and Martyrs - Caroline Cox - Google Books. Books.google.com.ph. Retrieved 2013-03-29.
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- Official website of the Alliance World Fellowship
- Official website of the Christian and Missionary Alliance in the United States
- Official website of the Christian and Missionary Alliance in New Zealand
- Official website of the Christian and Missionary Alliance in Canada
- Official website of the Asia-Pacific Region of the Christian and Missionary Alliance
- Official website of the Christian and Missionary Alliance in Australia
- Alliance Life: Official Magazine of the Christian and Missionary Alliance
- Christian and Missionary Alliance at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
- Christian and Missionary Alliance: Association of Religion Data Archives