Chronicle of Current Events

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A Chronicle of Current Events
The Chronicle of the Current Events.jpg
A Chronicle of Current Events No 5,
31 December 1968 (front cover)
Editor
Categories political repression in the Soviet Union, samizdat, political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union
Frequency bimonthly / quarterly
Publisher Soviet human rights movement
Total circulation 6 x 6 x 6 ... ?
First issue 1968
Final issue 1982
Country Soviet Union
Based in Moscow
Language

Russian, English

(translated since 1971)
Website http://www.memo.ru/history/diss/chr/index.htm

A long-running samizdat periodical of the post-Stalin USSR, A Chronicle of Current Events (Russian: Хро́ника теку́щих собы́тий)[1] was an underground magazine[2] that became the main voice of the Soviet human rights movement, inside the country and abroad.[3] Despite constant harassment by the Soviet authorities more than sixty issues of the Chronicle were published between April 1968 to December 1982.

The periodicial offered a unique overview of the nature and extent of political repression in the Soviet Union. It had no rival, although in the 1970s similar samizdat publications emerged in Ukraine and Lithuania; it had its precursors in underground publications produced by confessional and ethnic minority groups.[4] The Chronicle was produced by dissenting members of Moscow's literary and scientific intelligentsia [5] who gathered and published information about the struggle against human rights violations all over the Soviet Union and, to some extent, in the Soviet Bloc as well. In time its coverage extended to almost all the constituent nations, confessional and ethnic groups of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.[6]

The founder and first editor of the Chronicle was Natalya Gorbanevskaya,[7] a main contributor to the publication.[8] A participant in the 1968 Red Square demonstration, she was forced to undergo psychiatric examination, then[9] and later. In 1970 she was tried and convicted and sent to the Kazan Special Psychiatric Hospital,[10] from which she was released in 1972.[11]

Others stepped forward to take Gorbanevskaya's place (see Section 4 The Editors, below) and were themselves, in turn, subjected to various forms of harassment and intimidation. This pattern would be repeated more than once over the next 13 years.

Origins : 1950s and 1960s[edit]

By the early 1960s critically minded adults and youngsters in Moscow (later they would be known as dissidents) were confronted by a growing range of information about ongoing political repressions in the Soviet Union. For example, the writers Yuli Daniel and Andrey Sinyavsky, sentenced and imprisoned in 1966, told of far greater numbers of political prisoners in letters home from the prison camps, than they and others had previously believed to exist.[12]:147

This picture was amplified by Anatoly Marchenko's My Testimony, a seminal text which began circulating in samizdat in December 1967.[13] It provided a detailed account of his time in labor camps and Soviet prisons, as well as describing the conditions there.[14][15]:58 Through other contacts and friends, during prison or camp visits, older and younger generations in Moscow began to learn of the repressive measures being used in Ukraine and the Russian provinces.[14]

A turning point for the dissident movement came in 1967 when Yuri Galanskov, Alexander Dobrovolsky and Vera Lashkova were arrested in Moscow for producing literary samizdat magazines. At the same moment Alexander Ginzburg was detained for collaborating with Galanskov on the White Book (a volume of documents about the trial of writers Andrei Sinyavsky and Yuli Daniel). The Galanskov-Ginzburg trial, and the public protests before and after the accused were convicted, formed the main subject of issue No 1 of the Chronicle (30 April 1968) and took up more than half of its contents. Issue No 1 also detailed the repressive measures taken by the authorities against those signing the numerous petitions concerning the trial, which was delayed until January 1968.[16]

The growth in the unofficial, alternative and uncensored circulation of information led a group including poet and translator Natalya Gorbanevskaya, writer Ilya Gabay and physicist Pavel Litvinov to consider organising a regular information bulletin. Rather than follow previous samizdat genres, the literary almanac (e.g. Phoenix, Syntaxis) or collections documenting a single trial (e.g. The White Book), the periodical would process the steady flow of information by circulating regular reports and updates about searches, arrests, trials, conditions in prisons and camps and extrajudicial measures against protest and dissent — at least for the duration of 1968. That year marked the 20th anniversary of the UN Declaration of Human Rights and Nos 1-5 are titled Human Rights Year in the Soviet Union: until 1969 A Chronicle of Current Events was the sub-title of the periodical.

A prototype already existed in bulletins by repressed groups that had begun recently begun publication in samizdat. Among them were a Baptist periodical, published since 1965, and, of more direct significance, the informational bulletin of the Crimean Tatars, established in 1964.[17]:44[18]:285 Unlike these single-issue periodicals, which mainly circulated among their respective groups, the new publication[19] aimed to cover a broader spectrum of political repression and appeal to a wider audience.[14]

How the Chronicle was produced[edit]

The Chronicle was compiled in Moscow by anonymous editors, drawing on a network of informants throughout the Soviet Union. Known for its dry, concise style, it documented the extrajudicial harassment and persecution, the arrests and trials of those who opposed the regime for its denial of their rights; it carried further reports about their subsequent treatment in prisons, labor camps, and mental asylums.[20]

The Chronicle was produced by samizdat techniques, whereby typewritten texts were retyped by recipients and passed along in chain-letter fashion. The authors encouraged readers to utilize the same distribution channels in order to send feedback and local information: "Simply tell it to the person from whom you received the Chronicle, and he will tell the person from whom he received the Chronicle, and so on." This advice came with a warning: "But do not try to trace back the whole chain of communication yourself, or else you will be taken for a police informer."[21][22]

According to the 1936 Soviet Constitution then in force, the Chronicle was not an illegal publication, or so the editors maintained: "The Chronicle is in no sense an illegal publication, and the difficult conditions in which it is produced are created by the peculiar notions about law and freedom of information which, in the course of long years, have become established in certain Soviet organizations. For this reason the Chronicle cannot, like any other journal, give its postal address on the last page."[23] The authorities thought otherwise, as is reflected in the list of people harassed, detained and imprisoned for their part in the periodical's production and circulation. Some were given camp sentences (Sergei Kovalev, Alexander Lavut, Tatyana Velikanova and Yury Shikhanovich). Some were sent to psychiatric hospitals (Natalya Gorbanevskaya). Others were persuaded to leave the country (Anatoly Yakobson, Tatyana Khodorovich).

History – Persistence and Disruption[edit]

Publication of Nos 1–27 (1968–72)[edit]

In honor of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations declared 1968 as the "International Year for Human Rights". In April Natalya Gorbanevskaya compiled the first issue of the Chronicle of Current Events. Its cover (dated 30 April 1968) carried the title: "The International Year for Human Rights in the Soviet Union" and, like every subsequent issue of the Chronicle, quoted the text of Article 19 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

"Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers."

The issue reported on the trial of the Social Christian Union in Leningrad[24] and already carried information from the camps. Its main focus, however, was the trial of Galanskov and Ginzburg in Moscow.[25]:84

As the first compiler of the Chronicle and its typist, Gorbanevskaya produced the "zero-generation" copy based on information from her friends in Moscow, using a typewriter purchased on the semi-legal grey market. She made six copies which were then secretly distributed to friends, who made further carbon-copies on their own typewriters, passing them on, in turn, to friends and trusted acquaintances.

Gorbanevskaya was arrested on 24 December 1969, while compiling Issue 11. She managed to hide the source papers, which had handwriting which could identify other authors, in her desk, and additional information was hidden in her coat. The KGB missed both of these hiding places. Issue 11 was released on schedule, leading with the story on Gorbanevskaya's trial.[26] She was diagnosed as schizophrenic and held in a Soviet psychiatric prison until February 1972. Eventually she was allowed to return to Moscow and in 1975 she emigrated to France.

Following Gorbanevskaya's arrest, her work was taken over by literary critic Anatoly Yakobson. He collated the material for issues 11-27 of the Chronicle until the end of 1972, after which he emigrated from the USSR.[27]:31

"Case No. 24" (1972–73)[edit]

By 1972, the Chronicle was being run by biologist Sergei Kovalev, mathematician Tatyana Velikanova and linguist Tatyana Khodorovich. Kovalev acted as chief editor, while Velikanova was responsible for collating material and organizing apartments for meetings, and Khodorovich served as a major conduit for information.

In June 1972, the KGB arrested Pyotr Yakir, followed by Victor Krasin in September. Numerous witnesses were summoned and cross-examined over the following months (Bukovsky, for example, was brought from Vladimir Prison) as part of Case No. 24.[28] Under pressure from KGB General Yaroslav Karpov, Yakir and Krasin agreed to appear on Soviet television, recant their past activities, and urge their fellow activists to stop the publication of the Chronicle. They also passed on the KGB threat that, for every issue published after the broadcast, there would be an arrest.[27]:31–32

The editors of the Chronicle suspended publication after Issue 27 (15 October 1972). This did not prevent the arrest in January 1973 of Irina Belogorodskaya, who occasionally assisted in typing up manuscripts for the journal. As a reaction to the new situation, the Chronicle's editors prefaced Issue 28 (31 December 1972) with a declaration stating that they had decided to resume publication because they found the KGB ultimatum to be "incompatible" with "justice, morality and human dignity".[27]:32[29] This declaration would not be made public for another 16 months, however.

After some discussion the editors decided to change the periodical's established policy of anonymity.

To undermine the blackmailing tactics of the KGB they agreed to circulate a declaration acknowledging their personal responsibility for the periodical's circulation when they issued the delayed issues of the Chronicle: No 28 (31 December 1972), No 29 (31 July 1973), and No 30 (31 December 1973). Unlike other groups, for example, the Action Group on Human Rights in the USSR, previous editors of the Chronicle had never openly linked their names to the samizdat text. In taking this step, Kovalyov, Velikanova and Khodorovich hoped to make it more difficult for the authorities to implicate others.

On 7 May 1974, they invited foreign correspondents to a press conference at which issue Nos 28, 29 and 30 were openly distributed. At the same event Kovalyov, Velikanova and Khodorovich issued a press release. It was signed by all three of them and consisted of a few short sentences:

Since we do not consider, despite the repeated assertions of the KGB and the USSR court instances, that A Chronicle of Current Events is an illegal or libelous publication, we regard it as our duty to facilitate as wide a circulation for it as possible. We believe it is essential that truthful information about violations of basic human rights in the Soviet Union should be available to all who are interested in it.[30][31]

Publication resumes : Nos 28–65 (1974–82)[edit]

After the arrests and prosecutions of "Case No 24", the Chronicle of Current Events continued to appear several times a year, though less frequently than before.

The three editors who gave up their anonymity to hold the 7 May 1974 press conference and announce the resumption of the Chronicle's publication were all punished for their audacity. Sergei Kovalev was arrested in December that year. In 1975 he was put on trial and sentenced to seven years of labor camps and three years of internal exile for "anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda".[32] Tatyana Khodorovich was forced into emigration.[33] In 1979 Tatyana Velikanova was finally arrested and in 1980 she was prosecuted and sentenced to five years in the camps and five years internal exile.[34]

In February 1981, issue No 59 was confiscated in the last stages of preparation during a KGB search of the apartment of Leonid Vul, one of the Chronicle's contributing editors. The final issue of the Chronicle, No 65, was dated 31 December 1982.[35] All attempt at continuing publication ceased after the arrest of Yury Shikhanovich on 17 November 1983. As compiling editor he had played an essential role in preparing six of the last issues of the Chronicle.[36]

Successor publications[edit]

A samizdat publication similarly concerned with protest and dissent, Collection V («Сборник В») began to appear in the later 1970s. It was issued for four years (1979-1983) and placed greater emphasis on speed of publication, attempting to appear once a fortnight, if not once every week.

During the second year of Gorbachev's "glasnost" and perestroika, the tradition of human-rights periodicals was revived. On return in 1987 from exile in the Soviet Far East Alexander Podrabinek started the weekly Express-Chronicle newspaper; at the same time Sergei Grigoryants founded the Glasnost' periodical and became its chief editor.[36] Neither of these publications sought or received official permission for their activities.

The Editors of the Chronicle, 1968 to 1983[edit]

The circumstances of the Chronicle's existence meant there could be no editorial board performing the usual functions of an officially constituted magazine. It was "a system devoid of directives and commands, as well editorial assignments".[37]:121 A list of those who compiled the successive issues has been put together and made public by Memorial. It includes both the editors responsible for the final version of each issue (the chief editors for lack of a better term), as well as the contributing editors who oversaw particular sections and verified the information they contained.

  • The names of the chief editors in the list below, i.e. those who compiled and finalised the contents of each issue, are followed by the numbers of the issues under their supervision. (Issues 59 and 65 of the Chronicle were confiscated during searches and were not put into wider circulation.)
  • The information on the terms of imprisonment in labour camps and succeeding period of internal exile imposed on the chief editors includes only those sentences specifically relating to charges concerning the Chronicle.[38]
  • The list of contributing editors (by surname in Russian alphabetical order - ABVGD etc) includes those who edited sub-sections and typed the zero-generation editions of the Chronicle.
  • Not included in either list are the many people who contributed information and reports to the Chronicle, or were sentenced for distributing samizdat including the Chronicle.

Content and Style[edit]

The bulletin strove for maximum precision and completeness of information, and was marked by an objective and restrained style. Issue 5 of the Chronicle expressed this concern:

The Chronicle makes every effort to achieve a calm, restrained tone. Unfortunately, the materials with which the Chronicle is dealing evoke emotional reactions, and these automatically affect the tone of the text. The Chronicle does, and will do, its utmost to ensure that its strictly factual style is maintained to the greatest degree possible, but it cannot guarantee complete success. The Chronicle tries to refrain from making value judgments — either by not making them at all, or by referring to judgments made in samizdat documents.[53]:55[54]

Each issue of the Chronicle was divided into two parts.

The first part contained a detailed presentation of what, in the compiler's opinion, were the most important events since the previous issue. The second part consisted of a number of regular headings: "Arrests, Searches, Interrogations", "Extra-Judicial Persecution", "In Prisons and camps", "Samizdat update", "Short reports", "Corrections and supplements".

Over time, the number of headings was expanded as new issues came to the attention of the authors. The heading "Persecution of believers" soon appeared, as did "Persecution of Crimean Tatars" and "Repressive measures in Ukraine". In early 1972, the category "Persecution of believers in Lithuania" was added, being modified and expanded in the middle of the same year into a new, and more general title "Events in Lithuania". These all became a regular feature, appearing whenever there was news or an update to report.[36]

In later issues, the Chronicle also included summaries of other samizdat bulletins, such as the Information Bulletins of the dissident civic group Working Commission to Investigate the Use of Psychiatry For Political Purposes, and the documents of the Moscow Helsinki Group.[55]:148

Western editions[edit]

A Chronicle of Current Events Nos 1-58, 60-64 (London)[edit]

All but two of the 65 issues of the Chronicle were translated into English and published at the time.

Nos 1-11, covering 1968 and 1969, formed The Annotated Text of the Unofficial Moscow Journal, "A Chronicle of Current Events", in a book titled Uncensored Russia. This 1972 volume was produced by British academic Peter Reddaway who edited and translated the texts, apportioning the items to thematic sections in his book (e.g. Chapter 12, "The Crimean Tatars") rather than preserving the sequence and structure of the original issues. The book was provided with extensive annotations.[56] Reddaway subsequently translated and circulated issues 12 to 15 but they were never published.

From 1971 onwards Amnesty International periodically released booklets containing English translations of the Chronicle. The series began in 1971 with No 16 (31 October 1970, Moscow) and ended in 1984 with No 64 (30 June 1982, Moscow). The erratic and uncertain transfer of the texts to the West, and the time needed for translation into English, meant there was always a lag of months between the appearance of the latest issue in the USSR and its publication in English. The printed volumes might comprise one[57] or more of the successive numbers. (For reasons described above, see Section 3.2 "Case No 24", translations of Nos 28-30, dated 1972 and 1973, appeared in a single volume much later than their nominal dates in Russian.)

The production of these translations was organised by Zbyněk Zeman, a British historian of Czech origin, and over a period of almost ten years covered the issues from No 17 (Moscow, 31 December 1970) to No 58 (Moscow, 31 October 1980).[58] Amnesty also published the last four issues of the Chronicle, Nos 60-64, translation of No 64 (30 June 1982) appearing on the eve of perestroika in 1984.[59]

The very last issue of A Chronicle of Current Events, No 65 (31 December 1982), has never been translated into English. No 59 (15 November 1980) was confiscated on 20 February 1981 by the KGB in the final stages of preparation. The text has recently been recovered from the KGB files on Yury Shikhanovich.[60]

A dedicated website that brings all these translations together for the first time will be launched in the autumn of 2015.[61]

A Chronicle of Human Rights in the USSR (New York)[edit]

During the break forced on the Moscow editors during 1972 and 1973 by "Case No 24", an offshoot of the Chronicle of Current Events began publication in New York. The editor was Valery Chalidze, and the editorial board members were Edward Kline and Pavel Litvinov, with Peter Reddaway as the London correspondent. Although the contents of The Chronicle of Human Rights in the USSR were analogous to those of the Chronicle of Current Events, and adopted its style and tone, they were never a straight reprint or translation. The New York periodical contained numerous thematic articles, by Chalidze (founder and chief editor in Moscow of the Social Issues periodical) and others, that never appeared in the Chronicle of Current Events.

Valery Chalidze was a physicist and prominent Soviet dissident. In 1972 the USSR authorities deprived him of his Soviet citizenship when he was on a government-approved lecture tour in the USA. In spring 1973 Chalidze, with the financial backing of Ed Kline, an American businessman with an interest in Soviet human rights, began publishing A Chronicle of Human Rights in the USSR.[62]

USSR News Brief: Human Rights, 1978–88 (Munich)[edit]

A similar model was followed between 1978 and 1988 by the USSR News Brief: Human Rights («Вести из СССР - права человека»)[63] issued in Russian and English in Munich. It was founded, compiled and edited by Kronid Lyubarsky (1934–1996), a former contributing editor of the Chronicle.[64] He also set up and edited the quarterly journal Strana i mir.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bowring, Bill (2008). "European Minority Protection: The Past and Future of a "Major Historical Achievement"". International Journal on Minority and Group Rights 15 (2): 413–425. doi:10.1163/157181108X332686. 
  2. ^ Brodersen, Ingke (Summer 1998). "East-West clash in publishing non-fiction". Publishing Research Quarterly 14 (2): 53–56. doi:10.1007/s12109-998-0024-5. 
  3. ^ Reddaway, Peter (12 October 1978). "KGB Psychiatry". The New York Review of Books 25 (15): 70–71. PMID 11662655. 
  4. ^ Suslensky, Yakov (1983). "The treatment of activities of Russian and non‐Russian dissidents by the soviet regime: A comparative analysis". Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity 11 (2): 232–243. doi:10.1080/00905998308407969. 
  5. ^ Harding, Ted (1974). "Kiev workers protest to the central committee". Critique: Journal of Socialist Theory 2 (1): 71–77. doi:10.1080/03017607408413120. 
  6. ^ Andrew, Christopher (2000). "The Mitrokhin archive". RUSI Journal 145 (1): 52–56. doi:10.1080/03071840008446488. 
  7. ^ Ried, Allan (2003). "'Nothing turns out right, but something still emerges': On the Poetry of Natalia Gorbanevskaia". Canadian Slavonic Papers: Revue Canadienne des Slavistes 45 (3-4): 351–370. doi:10.1080/00085006.2003.11092332. 
  8. ^ Tismaneanu, Vladimir (2 December 2013). "The indomitable Natalia Gorbanevskaya: A noble voice of the Soviet dissident movement passes from the stage". FrontPage Magazine. 
  9. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events No 4, 31 October 1968 — 4.1 "The trial of the [Red Square] demonstrators"
  10. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events: No 15, 31 August 1970 — 15.1 "The trial of Natalya Gorbanevskaya".
  11. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events No 24, 5 March 1972 — 24.10 "News in brief". Uncensored Russia – The Human Rights Movement in the Soviet Union. Peter Reddaway (ed). London: Andre Deutsch, 1972. pp 159-160
  12. ^ Choi Chatterjee, Beth Holmgren, eds. (2012). "The Moscow Correspondents, Soviet Human Rights Activists, and the Problem of the Western Gift". Americans Experience Russia: Encountering the Enigma, 1917 to the Present. Routledge studies in cultural history. New York ; London: Routledge. pp. 139–160. ISBN 9780415893411. 
  13. ^ Anatoly Marchenko, My Testimony, Pall Mall Press: London, 1969 (Penguin: London, 1971).
  14. ^ a b c ""Параллели, события, люди". Третья серия. Хроника текущих событий (часть первая)". www.golos-ameriki.ru. Voice of America. 02:10. 
  15. ^ Toker, Leona (2000). Return from the Archipelago: narratives of Gulag survivors. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253337879. 
  16. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events, No 1, 30 April 1968 — 1.1 "The Trial", 1.2 "Protests about the Trial", and 1.3 "Repressive Measures in Response to the Protests"; and see Reddaway, Uncensored Russia (1972), Chapter 3, "The Galanskov-Ginzburg Trial", pp. 72-94.
  17. ^ Feldbrugge, F. J. M. (1975). Samizdat and political dissent in the Soviet Union. Leyden: A. W. Sijthoff. 
  18. ^ Alexeyeva, Lyudmila (1987). Soviet Dissent: Contemporary Movements for National, Religious, and Human Rights. Carol Pearce, John Glad (trans.). Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 0-8195-6176-2. 
  19. ^ See Andropov report to Politburo, 11 July 1968, http://www.bukovsky-archives.net/pdfs/dis60/dis60-e.html
  20. ^ See A Chronicle of Currents Events No 14, 30 June 1970, for typical headings.
  21. ^ A Chronicle of Currents Events No 5, 31 December 1968 — 5.6 "Human Rights Year continues!"
  22. ^ Reddaway, Uncensored Russia (1972), p. 54.
  23. ^ A Chronicle of Currents Events, No 5, 31 December 1968 — 5.6 "Human Rights Year continues!".
  24. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events, No 1, 30 April 1968 — 1.6 "The Leningrad Trial".
  25. ^ Boobbyer, Philip (2005). Conscience, dissent and reform in Soviet Russia. BASEES/Routledge series on Russian and East European studies. London ; New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415331869. 
  26. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events, No 11, 31 December 1969 — 11.1 "The trial of Natalya Gorbanevskaya"; and see Reddaway, Uncensored Russia, pp. 159-160.
  27. ^ a b c Gilligan, Emma (2004). Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov, Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969–2003. London. ISBN 978-0415546119. 
  28. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events :(1) No 28, 31 December 1972 — 28.3 "A Chronicle of Case No. 24"; (2) No 29, 30 June 1973 — 29.8 "A Chronicle of Case No 24 (II)"; (3) No 30, 31 December 1973 — 30.1 "The Trial of P. Yakir and V. Krasin. (Statement by the Action Group on Human Rights)."
  29. ^ "Chronicle of Current Events, No. 28 (1973):8". Chronicle of Current Events. 1973. 
  30. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events No 28, 31 December 1972 — 28.1 "To readers of the Chronicle"
  31. ^ Bailey, George (1989). The making of Andreĭ Sakharov. Allen Lane. p. 363. ISBN 0713990333. 
  32. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events No 38, 31 December 1975 — 38.2 "Before the trials of Kovalyov and Tverdokhlebov".
  33. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events No 40, 20 May 1976 — 40.1 "Statement by Tatyana Khodorovich".
  34. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events No 56, 30 April 1980 — 56.7 "The case of Tatyana Velikanova", and No 58, October 1980 — 58.1 "The trial of Tatyana Velikanova".
  35. ^ Williams, Michael; Hyman, Anthony; Sully, Melanie (February 1987). "Notes of the Month". The World Today 43 (2): 19–23. 
  36. ^ a b c "Chronicle of Current Events". www.memo.ru. Retrieved 2015-08-07. 
  37. ^ Hopkins, Mark W. (1983). Russia's underground press: the Chronicle of current events. New York: Praeger. ISBN 0030620139. 
  38. ^ Бабицкий, Андрей; Макаров, Алексей (2013-04-26). "Свобода неволи". Журнал "Коммерсантъ Weekend" (15). p. 8. Retrieved 2015-08-09. 
  39. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events No 58, // October 1980 — 58.2 "Trial of Vyacheslav Bakhmin".
  40. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events No 58, // October 1980 — 58.2 "Trial of Vyacheslav Bakhmin".
  41. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events No 58, // October 1980 — 58.2 "Trial of Vyacheslav Bakhmin".
  42. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events No 58, // October 1980 — 58.2 "Trial of Vyacheslav Bakhmin".
  43. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events No 58, // October 1980 — 58.2 "Trial of Vyacheslav Bakhmin".
  44. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events No 58, // October 1980 — 58.2 "Trial of Vyacheslav Bakhmin".
  45. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events No 30, 31 December 1973 — 30.1 "The Trial of Yakir and Krasin".
  46. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events No 58, // October 1980 — 58.2 "Trial of Vyacheslav Bakhmin".
  47. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events No 58, // October 1980 — 58.2 "Trial of Vyacheslav Bakhmin".
  48. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events No 58, // October 1980 — 58.2 "Trial of Vyacheslav Bakhmin".
  49. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events No 58, // October 1980 — 58.2 "Trial of Vyacheslav Bakhmin".
  50. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events No 58, // October 1980 — 58.2 "Trial of Vyacheslav Bakhmin".
  51. ^ It was here, it seems («И будто здесь же»), Moscow, 2001.
  52. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events No 30, 31 December 1973 — 30.1 "The Trial of Yakir and Krasin".
  53. ^ Reddaway, Peter (1972). Uncensored Russia: Protest and Dissent in the Soviet Union. The Unofficial Moscow Journal, A Chronicle of Current Events. New York: American Heritage Press. ISBN 0070513546. 
  54. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events No 8, 30 June 1969 — 8.16 "Reply to a Reader".
  55. ^ van Voren, Robert (2010). Cold War in Psychiatry: Human Factors, Secret Actors. Amsterdam—New York: Rodopi. ISBN 90-420-3046-1. 
  56. ^ Peter Reddaway, Uncensored Russia. The Human Rights Movement in the Soviet Union, Jonathan Cape: London, 1972, 499 pages, incl. index.
  57. ^ See, for example, issue No 27, https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/.../eur460041972eng.pdf
  58. ^ A Chronicle of Current Events. Zbynek Zeman, Amnesty International, London. Nos. 17-58.
  59. ^ Hurst, M.R.L. (5 April 2014). "'Uncensored Russia' Peter Reddaway and Soviet Dissent". Kent Academic Repository. British Association of Slavonic and Eastern European Studies 2014 Conference. Retrieved 2015-08-13. 
  60. ^ http://www.memo.ru/d/224150.html 12 February 2015, Memorial conference (in Russian) "Round Table on the Latest Finds and Losses".
  61. ^ http://www.pushkinhouse.org/events/2015/9/16/chronicle-event-at-pushkin-house
  62. ^ A Chronicle of Human Rights in the USSR. Valery Chaldize, Edward Kline, and Peter Reddaway. New York: Khronika Press, 1973-82.
  63. ^ Vesti iz SSSR - prava cheloveka http://dc.lib.unc.edu/cdm/item/collection/rbr/?id=20152
  64. ^ Institute, International Press. "International Press Institute: Kronid Lyubarsky". www.freemedia.at. Retrieved 2015-08-10. 

Bibliography[edit]

In English[edit]

A Chronicle of Current Events

  • Uncensored Russia – The Human Rights Movement in the Soviet Union. Peter Reddaway (ed). London: Andre Deutsch, 1972. Nos. 111.
  • "A Chronicle of Current Events". Peter Reddaway (tr.), London. Nos. 1215 (unpublished).
  • A Chronicle of Current Events. Zbynek Zeman (ed), Amnesty International, London. Nos. 1658. ISSN 0254-6175 OCLC 474527391
  • A Chronicle of Current Events. Amnesty International, London. Nos. 6064.
  • A Chronicle of Current Events. Nos 1–58, 60–64. Posted online, 2015.

Khronika Press edition

  • A Chronicle of Human Rights in the USSR. Valery Chaldize, Edward Kline, and Peter Reddaway (ed). New York: Khronika Press, 1973–82.

Literature about the Chronicle of Current Events

  • Peter Reddaway (ed), Uncensored Russia – The Human Rights Movement in the Soviet Union: The Annotated Text of the Unofficial Moscow Journal 'A Chronice of Current Events', London: Andre Deutsch, 1972. Nos. 1-11. (UK edition)
  • Peter Reddaway (ed), Uncensored Russia – Protest and Dissent in the Soviet Union. The Unofficial Moscow Journal, A Chronicle of Current Events. New York: American Heritage Press. 1972. Nos. 1-11. (US edition, ISBN 0070513546)
  • Hopkins, Mark W. (1983). Russia's Underground Press: The Chronicle of Current Events. New York: Praeger. ISBN 0030620139. 

In Russian[edit]

Re-published abroad, 1969–82

  • Posev quarterly (Munich), issues 1–27 reprinted.
  • Khronika tekushchikh sobytii. Amsterdam: Alexander Herzen Foundation, 1979. Nos. 115.
  • Khronika tekushchikh sobytii. New York: Khronika Press, 1981–82. Nos. 60, 61, 62.

Online archive

  • Khronika tekushchikh sobytii («Хроника текущих событий»), Moscow: Memorial, 2008. Nos 1–58, 60–65. Issue Nos 1–27 were posted online in 1998, Nos 28–65 in 2002. (Tatyana Kudryavtseva and Alexander Cherkasov)

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