Defiance (TV series)
|Country of origin||United States|
|No. of seasons||3|
|No. of episodes||38 (list of episodes)|
|Production location(s)||Toronto, Ontario, Canada|
85 min ("Pilot")
|Original release||April 15, 2013– August 28, 2015|
The show takes place in a post-apocalyptic future on a radically transformed Earth containing new species, some having arrived from space, many others the result of haphazard contamination by the alien race the Votans terraforming technology, which has transformed native flora and fauna in unforeseen ways. The story begins in the year 2046 when earth has been considerably changed, with new topography, the extinction of plant and animal species and the emergence of new species. The series follows Joshua Nolan (Grant Bowler) his adopted alien daughter Irisa (Stephanie Leonidas) and the town's new mayor, Amanda Rosewater (Julie Benz) in addition to an ensemble of actors portraying different characters in the growing town. in the city-state of Defiance, built on the ruins of St. Louis.
The series was broadcast in the United States on the cable channel Syfy and in various international markets. It premiered on April 15, 2013, in the United States and that same week in most countries that picked up the series. Defiance was renewed for a 13 episode third season on September 25, 2014, which premiered on June 12, 2015.
On October 16, 2015, the show was cancelled by Syfy citing financial reasons after having completed its third season. However, the companion video game, Defiance, continues to be supported; on March 1, 2016, Trion Worlds announced a major update for the game, promoted as season four of the show. They also stated they had no plans of making a sequel, instead they will continue to update the game with new content. The new version, named "Defiance 2050", will come out in 2018 for PC, Xbox One, and PS4, and recreates the original game (set in 2046) into the year 2050, 20 years after the Human-Votan war-ending Arkfall event.
The series is set in the near future, where aliens, known collectively as Votans, have come to Earth seeking a new home after their star system was destroyed in a stellar collision. When the Votans left their solar system 5,000 years ago, their instruments detected no signs of technology on Earth, so they thought Earth was uninhabited. Upon their arrival in 2013, they discovered otherwise. The humans responded to them with hostility and suspicion.
A limited number of Votans were allowed to settle in a colony in Brazil, and eventually in three other colonies, but millions of Votans remained in hypersleep aboard their ships in orbit around the Earth, as negotiations dragged on with Earth governments to establish a full-scale settlement.
Tensions rose for ten years, but the Votan and human governments were on the verge of negotiating a peaceful settlement, when in 2023 the Votan ambassador to the United Nations was assassinated by a disgruntled human supremacist on live television outside of the United Nations Headquarters in New York City. This sparked a disastrous global conflict between humans and the aliens, known as the Pale Wars.
The wars tore apart the planet for seven years, until their culmination in 2030 in the apocalyptic "Arkfall" event, when the Ark fleet in orbit mysteriously exploded. The aliens think a rogue human commander was responsible, while humans suspect it was an alien weapons experiment gone wrong. Millions of Votans died. During the Arkfall, destroyed Arks rained down on Earth and accidentally released Votanformer technology.
While the Votans had intended to use their terraforming technology in a carefully planned manner, the Arkfall haphazardly unleashed chaotic and radical changes to the biosphere and even the geology of Earth, making the planet dangerous to both humans and the aliens. The earth was scorched, chasms opened in the ground, new mountain ranges were raised, and the surface of the planet was covered with dust and debris.
Animal and plant species from the Votan star system were introduced to Earth, and both native and alien animal species were horribly mutated by the uncontrolled terraforming technology, creating bizarre and dangerous hybrids and new species.
The war continued until the Battle of Defiance in San Francisco in 2031 which sparked a worldwide peace movement following a group of Earth Military Coalition soldiers, the "Iron Demons", and members of the Votanis Ekaru Kome banding together to protect civilian lives. Word of their defiance spread and soon many refused to fight and instead called for an armistice. The Earth Military Coalition was disbanded and replaced with the Earth Republic and an armistice line was declared across Mexico, with the E-Rep to the north and Votanis Collective to the south.
The debris from the destroyed Ark fleet now forms an artificial "Ark belt" in Earth orbit, which periodically rains down in small-scale "Arkfalls", which present a hazard for survivors on the surface, but also provide valuable opportunities to salvage advanced technology aboard the Arks. More frequently, most of the debris breaks up on re-entry into shards of metal shrapnel, a dangerous phenomenon known as "razor rain". Electromagnetic distortion created by the malfunctioning Votanformers have rendered most long-distance communication and air transit impossible, isolating far-flung regions much as they would have been isolated in the 19th century. Low-flying aircraft such as helicopters are still safe to fly, and will still function, but high-altitude long-distance flights are too dangerous; neither the humans nor the Votans are capable of launching vehicles into Earth's orbit anymore, as it is not only dangerous, but prohibitively expensive for societies that only just managed to pull themselves back from complete collapse. Fifteen years after the armistice, a new proposed maglev train line is being built with the goal of re-establishing regular transit between the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North America. Short-range radio stations will still function within the localized area of a town, as will personal smartphone-like devices known as hailers, but otherwise, the disruption of long-range telecommunications means that information must be sent between different regions by courier. At best, an unreliable method known as "text relay" can be used, in which local radio-stations rebroadcast a message received from a neighboring station to reach other regions of the continent, but this can take days or weeks.
In 2046, fifteen years after the armistice, both humans and Votans struggle to rebuild on this shattered world. In the western hemisphere, the Votanis Collective controls much of Central and South America, while the new unified Earth Republic has a major foothold in the populous cities of northeastern North America, now reorganized as a territorial unit known as "Columbia" (a combination of the United States' Boston-to-Washington megalopolis and Canada's Quebec City–Windsor Corridor, along with the Canadian Maritime Provinces), with its capital being in New York City. Otherwise, much of North America remains a badlands region, a "New Frontier" slowly being recolonized by several small independent republics and city-states. One such community is the independent city-state of Defiance, located in the heart of the continent, built over the ruins of St. Louis, Missouri.
In 2047 an Ark-Brain, the Kaziri, activated some of the Arks terraforming technology, destroyed New York and replaced it with a newly terraformed jungle. The Earth Republic was severely crippled and eventually abandoned the town of Defiance. Seven months later a ship, the Tsuroz, arrived in orbit bringing the Omec - a race left behind by the Votans and forgotten by most. The Omec claimed to be searching the galaxy for the rest of their kind but were attempting to repower their ship and bring the rest of their people out of stasis to eat the weaker Votans. Their plan was stopped and their ship was piloted away from Earth to find them another world to colonize.
- Grant Bowler as Joshua Nolan
- Julie Benz as Amanda Rosewater
- Stephanie Leonidas as Irisa Nyira
- Tony Curran as Datak Tarr
- Jaime Murray as Stahma Tarr
- Graham Greene as Rafe McCawley
- Mia Kirshner as Kenya Rosewater (season 1; guest season 2)
- Jesse Rath as Alak Tarr (seasons 2–3; recurring season 1)
- James Murray as Niles Pottinger (season 2; special guest season 3)
- Anna Hopkins as Jessica "Berlin" Rainier (season 3; recurring season 2)
- Nichole Galicia as Kindzi (season 3)
- Trenna Keating as Doc Yewll
- Dewshane Williams as Tommy LaSalle
- Justin Rain as Quentin McCawley
- Nicole Muñoz as Christie McCawley Tarr
- Fionnula Flanagan as Nicolette "Nicky" Riordon (season 1)
- Brittany Allen as Tirra (season 1)
- Gale Harold as Connor Lang (seasons 1–2)
- Noah Danby as Sukar (season 2; co-star season 1)
- William Atherton as Viceroy Mercado (season 2)
- Amy Forsyth as Andina (seasons 2-3)
- Linda Hamilton as Pilar McCawley (seasons 2–3)
- Ryan Kennedy as Josef (season 2)
- Kristina Pesic as Deirdre Lamb (season 2)
- Douglas Nyback as Sgt. Frei Poole (seasons 2–3)
- Robin Dunne as Cai (season 2) / Reimlu (guest season 2) / Miko (guest season 1)
- America Olivo as Alethea (season 2)
- Lee Tergesen as General Rahm Tak (season 3)
- Conrad Coates as T’evgin (season 3)
- Billy MacLellan as Lieutenant Bebe (season 3)
- Tony Nappo as Indur (season 3)
- Rainbow Sun Francks as Uno (season 3)
- Demore Barnes as Dos (season 3)
|First aired||Last aired|
|1||12||April 15, 2013||July 8, 2013|
|2||13||June 19, 2014||August 28, 2014|
|3||13||June 12, 2015||August 28, 2015|
In June 2011, Syfy announced that they would be producing a television series which was being developed by Rockne S. O'Bannon and would be produced by Universal Cable Productions. It was also announced that the TV series would be connected to a video game being produced by Trion Worlds. It was later confirmed that Syfy had ordered thirteen episodes for the show's first season, which would premiere in either late 2012 or the summer of 2013. In July 2012, the network announced that the series and game would debut in April 2013.
Casting announcements began in January 2012, with Grant Bowler being the first to be cast. Bowler plays Joshua Nolan, "the law keeper in a bustling frontier boomtown that is one of the new world's few oases of civility and inclusion." On February 8, TVWise revealed profiles for five of the main characters. It was later reported that Gillian Anderson had been briefly considered by the show's producers to play either Amanda or Stahma. However, that casting did not move forward as they assumed she would not be interested in returning to episodic television. On March 8, 2012, it was announced that Julie Benz, Stephanie Leonidas, Tony Curran and Jaime Murray had been cast in the series. Julie Benz plays Amanda Rosewater, the mayor of Defiance; Stephanie Leonidas plays Irisa, "a beautiful warrior who is part of an alien race called the Irathients"; Tony Curran plays Datak Tarr, "the right hand to Amanda"; and Jaime Murray plays Stahma Tarr, "Datak’s beautiful and proper wife".
For season 1, linguist David J. Peterson developed two full languages for the different alien races, for the Castithans and the Irathients. Basic language sketches were prepared for two of the other races, the Indogenes and the Liberata. By the end of the series, David J. Peterson had developed three full languages (the addition being the Omec language, Kinuk'aaz) in addition to the development of four different scripts for Kastíthanu, L'Irathi, Indojisnen, and Kinuk'aaz.
- Castithans: The Castithans are an aristocratic and ethereal race from the planet Daribo. Known for their pale skin and beautiful features, they have a cunning intelligence and unbridled ambition that helped them adapt to life on Earth. Very conservative in many aspects of life, including politics and a rigid caste system, Castithans are liberal with sexuality. They are disliked by the other members of the collective for their perceived arrogant and imperialist manner. In season 2, it was confirmed that they can reproduce with humans.
- Irathients: Irathients are the most common Votan race living on Earth, hailing from the planet Irath. Other races, including Humans, often view them as feral due to their tribal nature and love of the natural world. Irathients have deep red hair, highly athletic builds and bronze skin covered in naturally occurring contrasting patterns. While they're quite able to succeed at any occupation, most Irathients prefer to be farmers in order to honor their forefathers. Irathients are able to produce viable offspring with humans.
- Indogenes: Indogenes are a manufactured species. They tend to be slender, bald, with hexagonal-patterned skin, which is called "protoform" and it can heal injuries in Omecs, of a solid color (most often pure white) who augment their bodies with a variety of cybernetic implants specifically designed for their chosen profession. They revere science and knowledge above all, and invented most of the technology used by the other alien races.
- Sensoth: The Sensoth physically resemble apes and giant sloths, being fur covered, and originated in a specific region of Irath. They have many of the Earth's sloth-like characteristics, speaking and acting quite slowly. They have great physical strength and imposing presence, so they can be intimidating to many, despite almost always having kind personalities. This strength of body leads to many of them being hard laborers, more often than not in the employ of a Castithan.
- Liberata: The Liberata are physically short and stocky with thick hair around their head and face. They often fill the role of servants for the other races, performing menial tasks and labor. The other Votan races look down on them due to their history of greed and avarice. They breathe nitrogen instead of oxygen.
- Gulanee: The Gulanee are the biggest mystery of the Votan races. Many believe they are beings of pure energy, appearing as large balls of light; however this is just an image projected by their "encapsulation suits", required to sustain Gulanee life. There are very few Gulanee on Terraformed Earth as most Gulanee stayed on their home Gula, confident they'd survive the destruction of the Votanis system. Most other races know very little about the Gulanee, as they have only recently established relationships with the other races.
- Volge: The Volge are feared by humans and Votans alike for their warmongering attitude. Originating from a different system from the Votans, the Volge conquered the Votan planet Omec. Volge stand over eight feet tall and always wear armor, which sustains them on Earth because they cannot breathe oxygen. During the Votan exodus, the other races chose to leave the Volge behind – their appearance during the Pale Wars was a surprise to all. They are seldom seen since the Armistice, having retreated to underground caves.
- Omec: The Omec developed on the planet Omec, possessing technology long before the other Votan races. Every 76 years their planet would come into range of the other Votan worlds and the Omec would raid them, collecting the other Votans to be used as slaves, sexual playthings and eventually food. They are a vampire-like race that preys on other sentient beings. Physically they have purple skin and white hair, and much greater physical strength and resistance to injury. At some point they were conquered by the Volge but a few of them survived and made the journey to Earth. They are considered devils and enchanters by the other Votan races and are widely feared for their predatory natures.
Other non-human races include:
- Hellbugs: The Hellbugs are a once harmless crustacean race that were mutated with Butterfly DNA during the Terraforming. They are vicious predators who live in large collectives. They have a very similar hierarchy to ants or bees, headed by a Matron who commands Warriors, Archers, Skitterlings, and Monarchs. While very dangerous and always posing a threat to sentient life, they are not eradicated as they produce a valuable energy source: Petrohol.
- Biomen: Biomen are not aliens, but were commissioned as a super-soldier product by Earth's human militaries during the Pale Wars. Biomen are tall and very well muscled, coming in a range of colors and skin tones, but always with a batch number branded across their chest. All Biomen have an off switch somewhere in their bodies. Now effectively useless since the Armistice, they still suffer from the rage built into their personae and need to be given a focused outlet. They have trouble integrating into peacetime, and are stigmatized by humans and Votans alike.
The musical score for both the series and the game was assigned to Bear McCreary. Bear said that he had to be sure that each version (for the series and the game) had its own unique characteristics, suited to its needs, but also that musical threads united the franchise. He also stated that scoring a project like Defiance was a rare situation for a composer. "Heavy synths and ethnic soloists played a key role in defining the sound of Defiance, but the cinematic quality came from working with a string orchestra.[...] I was asked to help bring the alien cultures to life by developing a distinct musical heritage for each. I fashioned Votan instrumentation and lyrics into a variety of popular songs and ceremonial pieces. I wrote pieces for street musicians that float through open-air marketplaces. I produced alien classical music, jingles, jazz, rock-anthems and torch songs."
Defiance was aired in multiple countries around the world without much delay, atypical of global syndication norms.
- The series premiered on April 15, 2013, in the U.S. on Syfy and Canada on Showcase.
- The show also premiered in the United Kingdom and Ireland on Syfy, in France on Syfy and in Germany on Syfy Universal on April 16, 2013.
- In Australia, the pay tv premiere was on April 18, 2013, on SF (now Syfy Australia), while the free-to-air premiere was almost a year later on February 12, 2014, on the Seven Network.
Defiance received a "fresh" rating from Rotten Tomatoes of 61% for the first season, a score that rose to 76% over the three seasons. The first season of Defiance was rated "mixed or average" by Metacritic, with a 57% rating according to 17 reviews. Maureen Ryan of The Huffington Post called it "a smart, well-crafted TV show with a good cast and an adventurous flavor" and added "it's also indisputably science fiction, which is a relief," saying that she felt too many science fiction shows were "watered-down ... genre-lite dramas". She also praised the casting, performances and the production design. Ellen Gray of the Philadelphia Daily News noted that "the TV show may not break new ground ... but it does stand on its own as a watchable sci-fi series, with a Wild West vibe mixed with a bit of "Farscape-meets-West Side Story." Conversely, David Hinckley of the New York Daily News gave it one star out of five and found it to be "incomprehensible", but said "if you’re a sci-fi fan for whom this stuff can never be too complex, have at it." Other reviewers gave Defiance average reviews and noted its similarity to previous television series, while at the same time praising its "breathtaking" landscapes and "impressively rendered" monsters; its "intriguing" cast and setting; its digital effects and performances; and its mythology and "interesting" story.
- Porter, Rick (April 15, 2013). "'Defiance' Review: New Syfy Drama Comes Out With Guns Blazing". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- Munn, Patrick (February 21, 2012). "Exclusive: Details On Syfy's New Series Defiance". TVWise. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
- "'Defiance' to Premiere on Monday, April 15 on Syfy" (Press release). New York: Syfy. January 7, 2013. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
- "Defiance Renewed For Season 3 By Syfy!". Seriable. September 25, 2014. Retrieved September 25, 2014.
- "Defiance Season 3 Premieres June 12 at 8/7c - Defiance". trionworlds.com.
- Porter, Rick (October 16, 2015). "'Defiance' follows 'Dominion' to cancellation at Syfy". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
- Porter, Rick (October 16, 2015). "Defiance: Cancelled by Syfy; No Season Four". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
- "Dark Metamorphosis is Live in Defiance - Defiance".
- Chalk, Andy (February 27, 2018). "'Defiance 2050 is a 'reimagined' sci-fi shooter coming this summer". PC Gamer. Retrieved June 22, 2018.
- Defiance, episode 1.8, "I Just Wasn't Made For These Times"
- "Inside Defiance: Episode 9". Defiance.
- "Defiance". Syfy.
- Gorman, Bill (January 17, 2012). "Grant Bowler Signs On For Lead In SyFy's Upcoming Epic Science Fiction Series, Defiance". TVByTheNumbers. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Jensen, Jeff (May 17, 2013). "Defiance Review". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved Sep 18, 2013.
- Andreeva, Nellie (March 8, 2012). "Julie Benz Gets Female Lead In Syfy Series 'Defiance', Pilot 'Rewind' Casts First Actor". Deadline. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- Munn, Patrick (March 8, 2012). "Four Actors Join Cast Of Syfy's Defiance". TVWise. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- "Oscar Nominee Graham Greene Joins the Cast of Syfy's Series "Defiance"". The Futon Critic. March 27, 2012. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- Andreeva, Nellie (April 20, 2012). "Mia Kirshner And Fionnula Flanagan Join Syfy Series 'Defiance'". Deadline. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- Munn, Patrick (Sep 26, 2014). "Syfy Returns To Defiance For Season 3 And More Alien Action". TVWise. Retrieved Sep 26, 2014.
- Topel, Fred (June 19, 2014). "Exclusive Interview: Jesse Rath on 'Defiance' Season 2". Crave Online. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
- Richenthal, Matt (July 31, 2013). "James Murray Cast as Series Regular on Defiance Season 2". TV Fanatic. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
- Bibel, Sara (September 5, 2013). "William Atherton & Anna Hopkins Join Cast of Syfy's 'Defiance'". Zap2It. Retrieved June 27, 2014.
- Bernstein, Robert; Johnson, Jen (April 24, 2013). "Our Interview with Trenna Keating aka Defiance's Doc Yewll". Den Of Geek. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
- Ghostbusters News (August 30, 2013). "Interview with Dewshane Williams & Julie Benz from Defiance". You Tube. Retrieved June 27, 2014.
- Eramo, Steve (June 24, 2013). "Lost & Found: Interview with Defiance's Justin Rain". SciFiAndTvTalk. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
- The Arts Guild (October 4, 2013). "Nicole Munoz chats about 'Defiance', Dance and More - Exclusive Interview". You Tube. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
- Bibel, Sara (August 23, 2013). "Brittany Allen Joins Syfy's 'Defiance' in Recurring Role". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
- Griffin, Jennifer (May 6, 2013). "Gale Harold Talks Politics in the Post Apocalypse, New Movie 'Thirst' & More with ScreenSpy". Screen Spy. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
- Danby, Noah (July 1, 2013). "#DanbyDoodad Happy B'day Canada from Sukar! Watch #Defiance tonight". Twitter. Retrieved June 27, 2014.
- Seikaly, Andrea (April 10, 2014). "Linda Hamilton Tapped for Season Two of Syfy's 'Defiance'". Variety. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- Bryant, Adam (July 9, 2014). "Major Crimes Scoop: Meet Capt. Raydor's Son!". TV Guide. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- "Kristica Pesic Bio". Hallmark Channel. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- Nyback, Douglas (June 11, 2014). "Some pics of my new character in Season 2 of @DefianceWorld to come". Twitter. Retrieved June 27, 2014.
- Nyback, Douglas (June 26, 2014). "Enter the #EReps! Tonight on @DefianceWorld with @AnnaBananaHops". Twitter. Retrieved June 27, 2014.
- Sparkythewoodchuck (August 20, 2014). "DEFIANCE: In the Future…There Shall be Cross-Dressing". SciFi4Me. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- Eichinger, Elle. "Five minutes with… America Olivo". Splash Suntimes. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- Bibel, Sarah (February 2, 2015). "Syfy's 'Defiance' Season 3 Begins Production in Toronto". TV Guide. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- Gorman, Bill (June 6, 2011). "Trion And Syfy Reveal Defiance, The First Interconnected Video Game And Television Series". TVByTheNumbers. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Bibel, Sara (July 23, 2012). "Syfy's 'Defiance' Commences Production in Toronto July 24". SyFy Press Release. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- Andreeva, Nellie (January 17, 2012). "Grant Bowler Cast As The Lead In New Syfy Series 'Defiance'". Deadline. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Munn, Patrick (February 8, 2012). "Exclusive: Gillian Anderson Was Considered For Lead Role In Syfy's Defiance". TVWise. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Glines, Carole (April 15, 2014). "Defiance SyFy Star Julie Benz Says Series is an "Addictive Experience" – Exclusive!". Wetpaint. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- "Forbes.com". Forbes.com. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- Peterson, David J. (December 1, 2015). "Remembering Defiance" (PDF). Fiat Lingua: FL-000033-00. Retrieved August 29, 2016.
- Hibberd, James (May 10, 2013). "'Defiance' Renewed By Syfy". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved Sep 18, 2013.
- Seat42f (May 10, 2013). "Syfy Renews DEFIANCE For A Second Season". Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- episode "The Last Unicorns"
- Bear McCreary (April 16, 2013). "Defiance: TV Series – Music".
- "DEFIANCE TO PREMIERE MONDAY, APRIL 15 at 10 PM ET/PT ON SHOWCASE". July 19, 2012.
- Munn, Patrick (January 31, 2013). "Syfy UK Acquires Rights To 'Defiance'". TVWise. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
- "Express from the US: 'Defiance' to premiere on SF". April 3, 2013.
- Defiance Rotten Tomatoes
- "Defiance: Season 1". Metacritic. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- Ryan, Maureen (April 15, 2013). "'Defiance' Review: New Syfy Drama Comes Out With Guns Blazing". The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- Gray, Ellen (April 15, 2013). "'Awkward,' 'Defiance': Strangers in a strange world". Philadelphia Daily News. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- Hinckley, David (April 13, 2013). "'Defiance': Television Review". New York Daily News. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- Wagner, Curt (April 14, 2013). "TV review: 'Defiance' a messy mash-up, with potential". RedEye.com. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- Bark, Ed (April 11, 2013). "Syfy's Defiance a visual plus but often an audio minus". UncleBarky.com. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- Owen, Rob (April 14, 2013). "Tuned In: Weak story development torpedoes Syfy's new 'Defiance'". Phittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- Wiegand, David (April 12, 2013). "'Defiance' review: Interspecies feudin'". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- "Defiance". The AV Club. April 15, 2013. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
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