Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) a fluorine-based plastic. It was designed to have high corrosion resistance and strength over a wide temperature range. ETFE is a polymer and its source-based name is poly(ethene-co-tetrafluoroethene). ETFE has a relatively high melting temperature, excellent chemical, electrical and high-energy radiation resistance properties. When burned, ETFE releases hydrofluoric acid.
Chemical, mechanical, physical, and thermal properties
ETFE is effectively the high-strength version of the other three in this group, often featuring slightly diminished capacities in other fields by comparison.
Combustion of ETFE occurs in the same way as a number of other fluoropolymers, in terms of releasing hydrofluoric acid (HF). HF is extremely corrosive and toxic, and so appropriate caution must be exercised.
ETFE film is self-cleaning (due to its nonstick surface) and recyclable. It is prone to punctures by sharp edges and therefore mostly used for roofs. In sheet form as commonly employed for architecture, it is able to stretch to three times its length without loss of elasticity. Employing heat welding, tears can be repaired with a patch or multiple sheets assembled into larger panels.
ETFE has an approximate tensile strength of 42 N/mm² (6100 psi), with a working temperature range of 89 K to 423 K (−185 °C to +150 °C or −300 °F to +300 °F).
ETFE resins are resistant to ultraviolet light. An accelerated weathering test (comparable to 30 years’ exposure) produced almost no signs of film deterioration.
An example of its use is as pneumatic panels to cover the outside of the football stadium Allianz Arena or the Beijing National Aquatics Centre (a.k.a. the Water Cube of the 2008 Olympics) – the world's largest structure made of ETFE film (laminate). The panels of the Eden Project are also made from ETFE, and the Tropical Islands have a 20,000 m² window made from this translucent material.
Another key use of ETFE is for the covering of electrical and fiber-optic wiring used in high-stress, low-fume-toxicity and high-reliability situations. Aircraft and spacecraft wiring are primary examples. Some small cross-section wires like the wire used for the wire-wrap technique are coated with ETFE.
As a dual laminate, ETFE can be bonded with FRP as a thermoplastic liner and used in pipes, tanks, and vessels for additional corrosion protection.
ETFE is commonly used in the nuclear industry for tie or cable wraps and in the aviation and aerospace industries for wire coatings. This is because ETFE has better mechanical toughness than PTFE. In addition, ETFE exhibits a high-energy radiation resistance and can withstand moderately high temperatures for a long period of time. Commercially deployed brand names of ETFE include Tefzel by DuPont, Fluon by Asahi Glass Company, Neoflon ETFE by Daikin, and Texlon by Vector Foiltec.
Due to its high temperature resistance ETFE is also used in film mode as a mold-release film. ETFE film such as PMP film by Honeywell is used in aerospace applications such as carbon fiber pre-preg curing as a release film for molds or hot high-pressure plates.
Notable buildings and designs using ETFE as a significant architectural element
- Allianz Arena, Munich, Germany
- Beijing National Aquatics Centre, (the Water Cube) Beijing, China
- Eden Project, Cornwall, United Kingdom
- Khan Shatyr Entertainment Center, Astana, Kazakhstan
- U.S. Bank Stadium, Minneapolis, Minnesota
- National Space Centre, Leicester, United Kingdom
- Cuauhtémoc Stadium, Puebla, México.
- Midland Metropolitan Hospital, Smethwick, Birmingham, United Kingdom
Other notable constructions using ETFE
- Avenues Phase-III, Al-Rai, Kuwait
- Dworzec Tramwajowy Centrum, tram station in Łódź, Poland.
- Solaris, Clamart, France
- Discovery College, Lantau Island, Hong Kong
- Green 18, Hong Kong Science Park, Hong Kong
- Pavilion, Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, United Kingdom
- BC Place, Vancouver, Canada
- River Culture Pavillon The ARC, Daegu, South Korea
- Munich's municipal waste management department, Munich, Germany
- Beijing National Stadium, Beijing, China
- FestiveWalk, Resorts World at Sentosa, Singapore
- Dolce Vita Tejo Shopping Centre, Amadora, Lisbon, Portugal
- roof, dedicated underground rail station at the Heathrow Airport Terminal 5, London, United Kingdom
- Manchester Victoria station concourse, Manchester, United Kingdom
- Forsyth Barr Stadium at University Plaza, Dunedin, New Zealand
- Islazul Shopping Centre, Madrid, Spain
- Kansas City Power & Light District, Kansas City, Missouri, United States
- South Campus skylight structures, Art Center College of Design, Pasadena, California, United States
- Tanaka Business School, London, United Kingdom
- Tropical Islands, Brandenburg, Germany
- Barnsley Interchange, Barnsley, United Kingdom
- The Mall Athens, Athens, Greece
- Newport railway station, Newport, United Kingdom
- The Elements, Livingston, United Kingdom
- Experimental Media and Performing Arts Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, United States
- Arena Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil
- Sandton City, Sandton, South Africa
- Key West Shopping Centre, Krugersdorp, South Africa
- Oceanus Casino, Macau, Special Administrative Region of China.
- Masdar city, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
- ISS Building Lancaster University
- Empire City Casino, Yonkers, New York
- The SSE Hydro, Glasgow, Scotland
- Anaheim Regional Transportation Intermodal Center, California (12-13-14)
- National Stadium, Singapore
- Orto Botanico di Padova Biodiversity Garden roof, Padua, Italy
- Guangzhou South Railway Station, China
- Yujiapu Railway Station, China
- Avenues Phase IV & IVB, Al-Rai, Kuwait
- Jungle Exhibit, Sedgwick County Zoo, Wichita, Kansas (2015)
- Dockside Pavilion, Sydney Australia 2014
- Baku Olympic Stadium, Baku, Azerbaijan (2015)
- Australian Embassy, Jakarta, 2014
- Wharf Retail, Bluewaters Island, DUBAI (2016)
- Fluoropolymer Comparison - Typical Properties DuPont
- Tefzel ETFE Specifications
- Stoelker, Tom (17 August 2012). "STUDIO V Bets on a Curving Lattice Porte-Cochere in Yonkers". Archpaper.com. Architect’s Newspaper. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- Gruver, Deb (20 August 2014). "New roof will help save jungle exhibit at Sedgwick County Zoo". Wichita Eagle. Retrieved 20 August 2014.