From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Flickr - Dario Sanches - GUARACAVA-DE-BARRIGA-AMARELA (Elaenia flavogaster).jpg
Yellow-bellied elaenia (Elaenia flavogaster)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Tyrannidae
Genus: Elaenia
Sundevall, 1836
Type species
Pipra flavogaster
Thunberg, 1822

see text

Elaenia is a genus of passerine birds in the tyrant flycatcher family which occur in Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. Except by voice, specific identification is often difficult since many species are very similar.

Elaenia flycatchers are typically brownish, greyish or olive above, and off-white and/or pale yellow on the belly, with a white or pale yellowish eye-ring of variable strength and two or three wing bars. Some species show a crest; often with a semi-concealed white patch/streak.


The genus Elaenia was introduced by the Swedish zoologist Carl Jakob Sundevall in 1836.[1] The type species was subsequently designated as the yellow-bellied elaenia.[2] The name of the genus is from the Ancient Greek ελαινεος elaineos "of olive-oil" or "oleaginous".[3]

The genus contains 22 species:[4]

Image Scientific name Common Name Distribution
Elaenia flavogaster1.jpg Yellow-bellied elaenia Elaenia flavogaster Central and South America as far as northern Argentina, and on Trinidad and Tobago.
Caribbean Elaenia.jpg Caribbean elaenia Elaenia martinica West Indies and parts of Central America.
Elaenia spectabilis-Large Elaenia.JPG Large elaenia Elaenia spectabilis western Amazonia to eastern Brazil and central Bolivia.
Elaenia ridleyana.jpg Noronha elaenia Elaenia ridleyana Fernando de Noronha
White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps) (15934867376).jpg White-crested elaenia Elaenia albiceps Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, and northernmost Chile.
Elaenia albiceps chilensis.jpg Chilean elaenia Elaenia chilensis southern Bolivia to Tierra del Fuego.
Elaenia parvirostris -Piraju, Sao Paulo, Brazil-8.jpg Small-billed elaenia Elaenia parvirostris Argentina, Aruba, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Netherlands Antilles, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela.
Olivaceous elaenia (cropped).jpg Olivaceous elaenia Elaenia mesoleuca Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay.
Slaty elaenia Elaenia strepera western Amazon Basin, Colombia and Venezuela.
Elaenia gigas - Mottle-backed elaenia.jpg Mottle-backed elaenia Elaenia gigas Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.
Elaenia pelzelni - Brownish elaenia, Iranduba, Amazonas, Brazil.jpg Brownish elaenia Elaenia pelzelni Brazil, Peru, Colombia, and Bolivia.
Elaenia cristata - Plain-crested elaenia; Serra da Canastra National Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil.jpg Plain-crested elaenia Elaenia cristata Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela.
Lesser elaenia (Elaenia chiriquensis chiriquensis).jpg Lesser elaenia Elaenia chiriquensis Argentina, Aruba, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Netherlands Antilles, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela.
Coopman's elaenia Elaenia brachyptera southwestern Colombia and northwestern Ecuador.
Elaenia ruficeps - Rufous-crowned Elaenia (cropped).jpg Rufous-crowned elaenia Elaenia ruficeps Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, and Venezuela.
Elaenia frantzii Elaenia montañera Mountain Elaenia (11280238045).jpg Mountain elaenia Elaenia frantzii Guatemala to Colombia and western Venezuela
Tucão (Elaenia obscura) - Highland Elaenia.jpg Highland elaenia Elaenia obscura southeastern Ecuador to Bolivia and northwestern Argentina
Elaenia obscura sordida - Highland elaenia; Bertioga, São Paulo, Brazil.jpg Small-headed elaenia Elaenia sordida southeastern Brazil, eastern Paraguay, and northeastern Argentina.
Great elaenia Elaenia dayi Venezuela and far northern Brazil, and may also occur in Guyana.
Sierran Elaenia - South Ecuador.jpg Sierran elaenia Elaenia pallatangae Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, and Venezuela.
Tepui elaenia Elaenia olivina Guyana and Venezuela
Greater Antillean Elaenia (Elaenia fallax) (8082788028).jpg Greater Antillean elaenia Elaenia fallax Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti) and Jamaica.

See also[edit]

  • Myiopagis, another genus of tyrant flycatchers commonly known as elaenias


  1. ^ Sundevall, Carl Jakob (1836). "Elaenia". Kungl. Svenska vetenskapsakademiens handlingar. series 3 (in Latin). 23: 89.
  2. ^ Traylor, Melvin A. Jr, ed. (1979). Check-list of Birds of the World. Vol. 8. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. pp. 26–27.
  3. ^ Jobling, J.A. (2018). del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A.; de Juana, E. (eds.). "Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  4. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2018). "Tyrant flycatchers". World Bird List Version 8.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 1 July 2018.