Elijah (German: Elias), Op. 70, MWV A 25, is an oratorio written by Felix Mendelssohn. It premiered in 1846 at the Birmingham Festival. It depicts events in the life of the Biblical prophet Elijah, taken from the books 1 Kings and 2 Kings of the Old Testament.
Music and its style
This piece was composed in the spirit of Mendelssohn's Baroque predecessors Bach and Handel, whose music he loved. In 1829 Mendelssohn had organized the first performance of Bach's St Matthew Passion since the composer's death and was instrumental in bringing this and other Bach works to widespread popularity. By contrast, Handel's oratorios never went out of fashion in England. Mendelssohn prepared a scholarly edition of some of Handel's oratorios for publication in London. Elijah is modelled on the oratorios of these two Baroque masters; however, in its lyricism and use of orchestral and choral colour the style clearly reflects Mendelssohn's own genius as an early Romantic composer.
The work is scored for four vocal soloists (bass-baritone, tenor, alto, soprano), full symphony orchestra including trombones, ophicleide, organ, and a large chorus singing usually in four, but occasionally eight or three (women only) parts. The title role is for bass-baritone and was sung at the premiere by the Austrian bass Joseph Staudigl.
Mendelssohn had discussed an oratorio based on Elijah in the late 1830s with his friend Karl Klingemann, who had provided him with the libretto for his comic operetta Die Heimkehr aus der Fremde, which resulted in a partial text that Klingemann was unable to finish. Mendelssohn then turned to Julius Schubring, the librettist for his earlier oratorio St. Paul, who quickly abandoned Klingemann's work and produced his own text that combined the story of Elijah as told in the Book of Kings with Psalms. In 1845, the Birmingham Festival commissioned an oratorio from Mendelssohn, who worked with Schubring to put the text in final form and in 1845 and 1846 composed his oratorio to the German text. He had it promptly translated into English by William Bartholomew, who was not only a poet but a composer who could work with the score as he translated. The oratorio premiered in its English version. The German version premiered on the composer's birthday, February 3, 1848, in Leipzig a few months after Mendelssohn's death, conducted by Niels Wilhelm Gade.
Mendelssohn uses Biblical episodes relating to Elijah, which in the original, 1 Kings 17:19 and 2 Kings 2:1, are narrated in rather laconic form, to produce intensely dramatic scenes, by adding several related biblical texts, mostly taken from the Old Testament. These were doubtless well fitted to the taste of Mendelssohn's time, and a Victorian sentimentality also seems detectable in places.
Among the episodes is the resurrection of a dead youth. A dramatic episode is the contest of the gods, in which Jehovah consumes an offered sacrifice in a column of fire, while a sequence of increasingly frantic prayers by the prophets of the god Baal failed. Part I is concluded by the bringing of rain to parched Israel through Elijah's prayers. Part II depicts the prosecution of Elijah by Queen Jezebel, his retirement to the desert, his vision of God appearing, his return to his work, and his ascension on a fiery chariot into heaven. The work ends with prophecies and praise.
The work in two parts opens with a declamation by Elijah, after which the overture is played. The sections are listed in the following table, with the text in both German and English, a biblical source for the passage (the dramatic action highlighted by a background colour), and the voices. The choir is mostly four-part SATB, but up to eight parts. The soloists are Elijah (baritone); soprano (S), often also singing the Widow, the Youth and Angel II; alto (A), often also singing Angel I and the Queen; and tenor (T), often also singing the parts of Obadiah and Ahab. Mendelssohn counted on several soloists, requesting Soprano I and II in movement two, additionally Alto I and II in movement 35, but the work is often performed with four soloists.
Some movements are simple oratorio forms such as recitative and aria, others explore hybrid combinations, such as recitative with choir, for dramatic effect. The fugal overture leads attacca to the first choral movement. The choir acts as the people ("Das Volk"), but also comments, like the choir in Greek drama.
|Introduction||So wahr der Herr, der Gott Israels lebet||As God the Lord of Israel liveth||1 Kings 17:1||Elijah|
|1||Chorus||Hilf, Herr!||Help, Lord!||SATB|
|2||Duet with choir||Herr, höre unser Gebet!||Lord! bow thine ear to our prayer!||S A SATB|
|3||Recitative||Zerreißet eure Herzen||Ye people, rend your hearts||Obadiah|
|4||Aria||So ihr mich von ganzem Herzen suchet||If with all your hearts||Obadiah|
|5||Chorus||Aber der Herr sieht es nicht||Yet doth the Lord see it not||SATB|
|6||Recitative||Elias, gehe von hinnen||Elijah! get thee hence||1 Kings 17:2-4||Angel I|
|7||Double quartet||Denn er hat seinen Engeln befohlen||For he shall give his angels||Psalms 91:11||Angels: SSAATTBB|
|Recitative||Nun auch der Bach vertrocknet ist||Now Cherith's brook is dried up||1 Kings 17:7-9||Angel I|
|8||Recitative, aria and duet||Was hast du mir getan||What have I to do with thee?||1 Kings 17:18-24||Widow, Elijah|
|9||Chorus||Wohl dem, der den Herrn fürchtet||Blessed are the men who fear him||SATB|
|10||Recitative with choir||So wahr der Herr Zebaoth lebet||As God the Lord of Sabaoth liveth||1 Kings 18:15-25||Elijah, Ahab, SATB|
|11||Chorus||Baal erhöre uns!||Baal, we cry to thee; hear and answer us!||1 Kings 18:26||SSAATTBB|
|12||Recitative with choir||Rufet lauter! Denn er ist ja Gott!||Call him louder, for he is a god!||1 Kings 18:27||Elijah, SATB|
|13||Recitative with choir||Rufel lauter! Er hört euch nicht.||Call him louder! he heareth not!||1 Kings 18:28||Elijah, SATB|
|14||Aria||Herr, Gott Abrahams, Isaaks und Israels||Lord God of Abraham, Isaac and Israel!||1 Kings 18:36-37||Elijah, SATB|
|15||Quartet||Wirf dein Anliegen auf den Herrn||Cast thy burden upon the Lord||Psalms 55:23||S A T B|
|16||Recitative with choir||Der du deine Diener machst zu Geistern||O thou, who makest thine angels spirits||1 Kings 18:3840||Elijah, SATB|
|17||Aria||Ist nicht des Herrn Wort wie ein Feuer||Is not his word like a fire?||Elijah|
|18||Arioso||Weh ihnen, dass sie von mir weichen!||Woe unto them who forsake him!||Hosea 7:13||A|
|19||Recitative with choir||Hilf deinem Volk, du Mann Gottes!||O man of God, help thy people!||1 Kings 18:43-44||Obadiah, Elijah, SATB, Youth|
|20||Chorus||Dank sei dir, Gott||Thanks be to God||SATB|
|21||Aria||Höre, Israel||Hear ye, Israel!||Deuteronomy 6:4||S|
|22||Chorus||Fürchte dich nicht, spricht unser Gott||Be not afraid, saith God the Lord||SATB|
|23||Recitative with choir||Der Herr hat dich erhoben||The Lord hath exalted thee||1 Kings 19:2||Elijah, Queen, SATB|
|24||Chorus||Wehe ihm, er muss sterben!||Woe to him, he shall perish||Obadiah, Elijah|
|25||Recitative||Du Mann Gottes, laß meine Rede||Man of God, now let my words||T|
|26||Aria||Es ist genug, so nimm nun, Herr, meine Seele||It is enough; Lord take my life||1 Kings 19:4||Elijah|
|27||Recitative||Siehe, er schläft||See, now he sleepeth||T|
|28||Trio||Hebe deine Augen auf zu den Bergen||Lift thine eyes||S S A|
|29||Chorus||Siehe, der Hüter Israels schläft noch schlummert nicht||He, watching over Israel, slumbers not||Psalms 121:4||SATB|
|30||Recitative||Stehe auf, Elias, denn du hast einen großen Weg vor dir||Arise, Elijah, for thou hast a long journey||1 Kings 19:7||Angel I, Elijah|
|31||Aria||Sei stille dem Herrn||O rest in the Lord||Angel I|
|32||Chorus||Wer bis an das Ende beharrt, der wird selig.||He that shall endure to the end, shall be saved.||Matthew 10:22||SATB|
|33||Recitative||Herr, es wird Nacht um mich||Night falleth round me, Lord!||1 Kings 19:11-25||Elijah, Angel II|
|34||Chorus||Der Herr ging vorüber||Behold! God the Lord passeth by!||1 Kings 19:11||SATB|
|35||Chorus||Seraphim standen über ihm; Heilig ist Gott der Herr||Above him stood the Seraphim; Holy is God the Lord||Isaiah 6:2||A; S S A A SATB|
|36||Choir recitative||Gehe wiederum hinab! Ich gehe hinab||Go, return upon thy way! I go on my way||1 Kings 19:15-16||SATB, Elijah|
|37||Arioso||Ja, es sollen wohl die Berge weichen||For the mountains shall depart||Isaiah 54:10||Elijah|
|38||Chorus||Und der Prophet Elias brach hervor||Then did Elijah the prophet break forth||2 Kings 2:1||SATB|
|39||Aria||Dann werden die Gerechten leuchten||Then shall the righteous shine forth||T|
|40||Recitative||Darum ward gesendet der Prophet Elias||Behold, God hath sent Elijah||S|
|41||Chorus||Aber einer erwacht von Mitternacht||But the Lord, from the north hath raised one||Isaiah 41:25||SATB|
|Quartet||Wohlan, alle, die ihr durstig seid||O come everyone that thirsteth||S A T B|
|42||Chorus||Alsdann wird euer Licht hervorbrechen||And then shall your light break forth||1 Kings 19:2-25||SATB|
|Herr, unser Herrscher||Lord, our Ruler||Psalms 8:1||SATB|
Elijah was popular at its premiere and has been frequently performed, particularly in English-speaking countries, ever since. It is a particular favourite of amateur choral societies. Its melodrama, easy appeal and stirring choruses have provided the basis for countless successful performances. Prince Albert inscribed a libretto for the oratorio Elijah in 1847: "To the noble artist who, surrounded by the Baal-worship of false art, has been able, like a second Elijah, through genius and study, to remain true to the service of true art." A number of critics have treated the work harshly, emphasizing its conventional outlook and undaring musical style. Bernard Shaw wrote:
- I sat out the performance on Wednesday to the last note, an act of professional devotion which was no part of my plan for the evening ... You have only to think of Parsifal, of the Ninth Symphony, of Die Zauberflöte, of the inspired moments of Bach and Handel, to see the great gulf that lies between the true religious sentiment and our delight in Mendelssohn's exquisite prettiness.
Its popularity has changed over the years. After Boston's Handel and Haydn Society presented the work for the first time in February 1848, its success resulted in eight more performances that spring. In the mid-1920s, however, H.T. Parker, the city's principal music critic, described how members of the audience gazed upward at a recent performance: "How many of those eyes were there in rapture, or were counting the four dead lights in the central sunburst of the ceiling?.... Elijah is hopelessly, awfully, irremediably mid-Victorian.
Mendelssohn wrote the soprano part in Elijah for the 'Swedish Nightingale', Jenny Lind. Lind was devastated by the composer's premature death in 1847. She did not feel able to sing the part for a year afterwards. She resumed singing the piece at Exeter Hall in London in late 1848, raising £1,000 to fund a scholarship in his name. After Arthur Sullivan became the first recipient of the Mendelssohn Scholarship, she encouraged him in his career.
Charles Salaman adapted "He that Shall Endure to the End" from Elijah as a setting for Psalm 93 (Adonai Malakh), sung on most Friday nights at the sabbath-eve service of the London Spanish & Portuguese Jewish community.
- Todd, R. Larry (1991). Mendelssohn and His World, p. 304. Princeton University Press
- Program notes for Concert Opera Boston performance of Son and Stranger, March 15, 2009, accessed November 23, 2009
- Smither, Howard E. (2000). A History of the Oratorio: The Oratorio in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, p. 168. University of North Carolina Press
- Schwarm, Betsy. "Elijah, Op. 70". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
- Peter Mercer-Taylor, The Life of Mendelssohn (Cambridge University Press, 2000), 200
- Bernard Shaw in The World, 11 May 1892
- Teresa M. Neff and Jan Swafford, eds., The Handel and Haydn Society: Bringing Music to Life for 200 Years (Jaffrey, NH: David R. Godine, 2014), pp. 63, 161
- Rosen, Carole. "Lind, Jenny (1820–1887)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, accessed 7 Dec 2008
- Elijah, Op. 70: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
- Free scores of this work in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki)
- Full-text English-language libretto
- Three short musical excerpts from Elijah by a Swiss choir
- The History of Mendelssohn's Oratorio "Elijah" (1896)
- Conference program with abstracts: "Viewing Mendelssohn, Viewing Elijah", Arizona State University (2009)