Psalm 91 (Greek numbering: Psalm 90), referred to by its Latin title Qui habitat (after its first line, "Whoso dwelleth under the defence of the Most High"), is known as the Psalm of Protection. As a religious song, this Psalm is commonly invoked in times of hardship. The author of this psalm is unknown.
- Is recited during the Pesukei Dezimra on Shabbat, Yom Tov, and Hoshana Rabbah.
- Is recited following Motzei Shabbat Maariv.
- Is recited before bed.
- Is read seven times during a burial ceremony.
- Is recited during some exorcism rituals.
In Western Christianity it is often sung or recited during services of Compline. In the Revised Common Lectionary (Year C) the psalm is appointed for the first Sunday in Lent, linking it to the temptation of Christ, where the devil quotes this psalm.
In the medieval Western Church it was included in the readings for Good Friday.
Christ treading on the beasts
Verse 13, in the King James Version "Thou shalt tread upon the lion and adder: the young lion and the dragon shalt thou trample under feet" was the origin of the iconography of Christ treading on the beasts, seen in the Late Antique period, and revived in Carolingian and Anglo-Saxon art.
In popular culture
- Sinéad O'Connor's debut album The Lion and the Cobra includes a recitation of verses 11 to 13 in Irish by singer Enya on the song "Never Get Old".
- Canadian metal band Cryptopsy quotes this psalm in the song "The Pestilence That Walketh in Darkness" on their 2005 album Once Was Not.
- Tommie Harris writes PSALMS 91 on his Breathe Right nose strip.
- Psalm 91 is known as the Soldier's Psalm. Soldiers, sailors, airmen, and marines often carry a wallet-sized copy with them when deployed.
- Brazilian-American metal band Soulfly covered this psalm in Portuguese on the bonus track "Salmo-91" on their fifth album Dark Ages.
- Baltimore Ravens linebacker Ray Lewis exposed his black with gold lettering "Psalms 91" undershirt following his final home game on January 6, 2013 and the Ravens' Super Bowl win on February 3, 2013.
- Hershel Greene reads the Psalm in Season 3 of AMC's The Walking Dead.
- The Jerry Garcia Band references verses 5-6 in its song "My Sisters and Brothers."
- Madonna use this reference to the Virgin Mary (Intro) on her The MDNA Tour on 2012.
- Favreau, Robert (1991). "Le thème iconographique du lion dans les inscriptions médiévales". Comptes-rendus des séances de l'année - Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres (in French) 135 (3): 613–636. doi:10.3406/crai.1991.15027. Retrieved 2010-03-13.
- Bible Study , Psalm 91 - He who dwells in the secret place of the Most High, accessed August 12, 2013.
- Spurgeon, Charles H., The Treasury of David, 2001, accessed March 21, 2011.
- The Complete Artscroll Siddur page 380
- The Complete Artscroll Siddur page 594
- The Complete Artscroll Siddur page 290
- Belanger, Jeff (November 29, 2003). "Dybbuk - Spiritual Possession and Jewish Folklore". Ghostvillage.com. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
- Dennis, Geoffrey. "Jewish Exorcism". Retrieved April 9, 2014.
- "An Order for Night Prayer (Compline)". Church of England. Retrieved 2007-12-08.
- The Christian Year: Calendar, Lectionary and Collects. Church House Publishing, Church of England. 1997. ISBN 0-7151-3799-9.
- "Si Players Lineup". CNN.
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- Tehillim - Psalm 91 (Judaica Press) — translation with Rashi's commentary at Chabad.org
- Text of Psalm 91 according to the 1928 Psalter
- Bible.org on the religious significance of the text