Psalm 34

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Psalm 34
"I will bless the LORD at all times"
Lilien Psalm 34.jpg
Other name
  • Psalm 33
  • "Benedicam Dominum in omni tempore"
Writtenby David
LanguageHebrew (original)

Psalm 34 is the 34th psalm of the Book of Psalms, beginning in English in the King James Version: "I will bless the LORD at all times: his praise shall continually be in my mouth." The Book of Psalms is part of the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament. In the slightly different numbering system used in the Greek Septuagint and Latin Vulgate translations of the Bible, this psalm is Psalm 33. In Latin, it is known as "Benedicam Dominum in omni tempore".[1]

Psalm 34 is attributed to David. The Psalm's subtitle, A Psalm of David when he pretended madness before Abimelech, who drove him away, and he departed,[2] derives from when David was living with the Philistines, but the account of this event in 1 Samuel 21 refers to the king as Achish, not Abimelech.[3] The psalm is an acrostic poem in the Hebrew Alphabet, one of a series of songs of thanksgiving. It is the first Psalm which describes angels as guardians of the righteous.

The psalm forms a regular part of Jewish, Catholic, Lutheran, Anglican and other Protestant liturgies. It has inspired hymns based on it, and has been set to music.

Text[edit]

Hebrew Bible version[edit]

Following is the Hebrew text of Psalm 34:[4]

Verse Hebrew
1 .לְדָוִד-- בְּשַׁנּוֹתוֹ אֶת-טַעְמוֹ, לִפְנֵי אֲבִימֶלֶךְ; וַיְגָרְשֵׁהוּ, וַיֵּלַךְ
2 .אֲבָרְכָה אֶת-יְהוָה בְּכָל-עֵת; תָּמִיד, תְּהִלָּתוֹ בְּפִי
3 .בַּיהוָה, תִּתְהַלֵּל נַפְשִׁי; יִשְׁמְעוּ עֲנָוִים וְיִשְׂמָחוּ
4 .גַּדְּלוּ לַיהוָה אִתִּי; וּנְרוֹמְמָה שְׁמוֹ יַחְדָּו
5 .דָּרַשְׁתִּי אֶת-יְהוָה וְעָנָנִי; וּמִכָּל-מְגוּרוֹתַי הִצִּילָנִי
6 .הִבִּיטוּ אֵלָיו וְנָהָרוּ; וּפְנֵיהֶם, אַל-יֶחְפָּרוּ
7 .זֶה עָנִי קָרָא, וַיהוָה שָׁמֵעַ; וּמִכָּל-צָרוֹתָיו, הוֹשִׁיעוֹ
8 .חֹנֶה מַלְאַךְ-יְהוָה סָבִיב לִירֵאָיו; וַיְחַלְּצֵם
9 .טַעֲמוּ וּרְאוּ, כִּי-טוֹב יְהוָה; אַשְׁרֵי הַגֶּבֶר, יֶחֱסֶה-בּוֹ
10 .יְראוּ אֶת-יְהוָה קְדֹשָׁיו: כִּי-אֵין מַחְסוֹר, לִירֵאָיו
11 .כְּפִירִים, רָשׁוּ וְרָעֵבוּ; וְדֹרְשֵׁי יְהוָה, לֹא-יַחְסְרוּ כָל-טוֹב
12 .לְכוּ-בָנִים, שִׁמְעוּ-לִי; יִרְאַת יְהוָה, אֲלַמֶּדְכֶם
13 .מִי-הָאִישׁ, הֶחָפֵץ חַיִּים; אֹהֵב יָמִים, לִרְאוֹת טוֹב
14 .נְצֹר לְשׁוֹנְךָ מֵרָע; וּשְׂפָתֶיךָ, מִדַּבֵּר מִרְמָה
15 .סוּר מֵרָע, וַעֲשֵׂה-טוֹב; בַּקֵּשׁ שָׁלוֹם וְרָדְפֵהוּ
16 .עֵינֵי יְהוָה, אֶל-צַדִּיקִים; וְאָזְנָיו, אֶל-שַׁוְעָתָם
17 .פְּנֵי יְהוָה, בְּעֹשֵׂי רָע; לְהַכְרִית מֵאֶרֶץ זִכְרָם
18 .צָעֲקוּ, וַיהוָה שָׁמֵעַ; וּמִכָּל-צָרוֹתָם, הִצִּילָם
19 .קָרוֹב יְהוָה, לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי-לֵב; וְאֶת-דַּכְּאֵי-רוּחַ יוֹשִׁיעַ
20 .רַבּוֹת, רָעוֹת צַדִּיק; וּמִכֻּלָּם, יַצִּילֶנּוּ יְהוָה
21 .שֹׁמֵר כָּל-עַצְמוֹתָיו; אַחַת מֵהֵנָּה, לֹא נִשְׁבָּרָה
22 .תְּמוֹתֵת רָשָׁע רָעָה; וְשֹׂנְאֵי צַדִּיק יֶאְשָׁמוּ
23 .פֹּדֶה יְהוָה, נֶפֶשׁ עֲבָדָיו; וְלֹא יֶאְשְׁמוּ, כָּל-הַחֹסִים בּוֹ

King James Version[edit]

  1. I will bless the LORD at all times: his praise shall continually be in my mouth.
  2. My soul shall make her boast in the LORD: the humble shall hear thereof, and be glad.
  3. O magnify the LORD with me, and let us exalt his name together.
  4. I sought the LORD, and he heard me, and delivered me from all my fears.
  5. They looked unto him, and were lightened: and their faces were not ashamed.
  6. This poor man cried, and the LORD heard him, and saved him out of all his troubles.
  7. The angel of the LORD encampeth round about them that fear him, and delivereth them.
  8. O taste and see that the LORD is good: blessed is the man that trusteth in him.
  9. O fear the LORD, ye his saints: for there is no want to them that fear him.
  10. The young lions do lack, and suffer hunger: but they that seek the LORD shall not want any good thing.
  11. Come, ye children, hearken unto me: I will teach you the fear of the LORD.
  12. What man is he that desireth life, and loveth many days, that he may see good?
  13. Keep thy tongue from evil, and thy lips from speaking guile.
  14. Depart from evil, and do good; seek peace, and pursue it.
  15. The eyes of the LORD are upon the righteous, and his ears are open unto their cry.
  16. The face of the LORD is against them that do evil, to cut off the remembrance of them from the earth.
  17. The righteous cry, and the LORD heareth, and delivereth them out of all their troubles.
  18. The LORD is nigh unto them that are of a broken heart; and saveth such as be of a contrite spirit.
  19. Many are the afflictions of the righteous: but the LORD delivereth him out of them all.
  20. He keepeth all his bones: not one of them is broken.
  21. Evil shall slay the wicked: and they that hate the righteous shall be desolate.
  22. The LORD redeemeth the soul of his servants: and none of them that trust in him shall be desolate.

Structure[edit]

The psalm could be structured in the following manner:[5]

  1. Vers 2-4: Hymn introduction
  2. Vers 5: Basic praising, preaching the fate of the Psalmist
  3. Vers 6-11: teaching, which is evident from his fate
  4. Vers 12-22: didactic poem 1
  5. Vers 13-15: Question - answer:
  6. Vers 16-22: Collection of wise sayings.

It is an acrostic poem in the Hebrew Alphabet, with each letter of the Hebrew alphabet beginning a verse in sequential order; the lone exception is waw ( ו ), which begins the second clause of verse six. Verse 22, the concluding statement, begins with pe, outside the acrostic scheme. The Old Testament scholar Hermann Gunkel felt that the acrostic nature of the Psalm made any historical, or theological analysis impossible.[6] This psalm is an acrostic of confidence, as is Psalm 25, with which it has many similarities.

Verse 11[edit]

Come, you children, listen to me;
I will teach you the fear of the Lord.[7]

The psalmist is now "teacher";[5] "children" is the customary term for students in wisdom literature.[8]

Uses[edit]

Judaism[edit]

Psalm 34 in the Parma Psalter.

New Testament[edit]

Some verses of Psalm 34 are referenced in the New Testament:

Catholicism[edit]

According to the Rule of St. Benedict around 530,[15] this psalm was traditionally sung at the office of Matins on Mondays in monasteries.[16][17]

Currently, in the Liturgy of the Hours, Psalm 34 is recited on Saturdays in the first and third weeks of the four weekly cycle of readings and for the holy celebrations. It is often used as a responsorial psalm.

Book of Common Prayer[edit]

In the Church of England's Book of Common Prayer, this psalm is appointed to be read on the evening of the sixth day of the month.[18]

Musical settings[edit]

Heinrich Schütz composed a choral setting on a German metred paraphrase of Psalm 34, "Ich will bei meinem Leben rühmen den Herren mein", as part of the Becker Psalter.

Several musical settings focus on the verse 8, "Taste and see", which is suitable as music for the Eucharist. Vaughan Williams set it, titled "O taste and see", for soprano and mixed choir with organ introduction, for the Coronation of Elizabeth II in Westminster Abbey on 2 June 1953.[19] It was included as No. 3 of the 2015 album Psalms II by Shane & Shane, and as No. of the 2017 album Fractures by Sons of Korah.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Parallel Latin/English Psalter / Psalmus 33 (34) Archived 7 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine medievalist.net
  2. ^ Sub-title, NKJV Version
  3. ^ 1 Samuel 21:10–15
  4. ^ "Psalms Chapter 126 תְּהִלִּים". mechon-mamre.org. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  5. ^ a b Corinne Lanoir in Römer, Macchi et Nihan 2009, p. 346.
  6. ^ Herman Gunkel, Die Psalmen, (61986), 142f.
  7. ^ Psalm 34:11: New King James Version
  8. ^ Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Inc. (1970), Footnote c at Psalm 34:12 in the New American Bible Revised Edition
  9. ^ The Complete Artscroll Siddur, page 376
  10. ^ The Complete Artscroll Siddur, page 141
  11. ^ The Complete Artscroll Siddur, page 195
  12. ^ The Complete Artscroll Siddur, page 119
  13. ^ a b c Kirkpatrick, A. F. (1901). The Book of Psalms: with Introduction and Notes. The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Book IV and V: Psalms XC-CL. Cambridge: At the University Press. p. 838. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  14. ^ Nolland, John, The Gospel of Matthew: a commentary on the Greek text, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2005 p. 199
  15. ^ Règle de saint Benoît, traduction de Prosper Guéranger, (Abbaye Saint-Pierre de Solesmes, réimpression 2007) p. 46.
  16. ^ Psautier latin-français du bréviaire monastique (1938/2003) p. 137.
  17. ^ Mont des Cats Abbey, La distribution des Psaumes dans la Règle de Saint Benoît, accessed 29 October 2021
  18. ^ Church of England, Book of Common Prayer: The Psalter as printed by John Baskerville in 1762, pp. 196ff
  19. ^ "O Taste and See (Vaughan Williams, Ralph)". IMSLP. Retrieved 29 May 2020.

External links[edit]