Ensemble de Lancement Soyouz
|Launch site||Guiana Space Centre|
|First launch||21 October 2011
Soyuz-STB/Fregat / Galileo-IOV PFM/Galieo-IOV FM1
|Last launch||18 December 2014
Soyuz-STB/Fregat / O3b
The Ensemble de Lancement Soyouz (ELS) (in English; Soyuz Launch Complex), is a launch complex at the Guiana Space Centre in Kourou/Sinnamary, French Guiana. It is used by Soyuz-ST rockets: modified versions of the Soyuz-2 optimised for launch from Kourou.
The site's equatorial latitude allows a greater payload mass to be delivered into geosynchronous transfer orbit compared to existing Soyuz launch facilities at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.
ELS is fifteen kilometres north-west of the launch facilities used by Ariane rockets.
It consists of a single launch pad, with a horizontal assembly and processing facility, or MIK, located 700 metres away. As with the Soyuz launch complexes at Baikonur and Plesetsk, the pad is connected to the MIK by means of a wide gauge railway, along which the rocket is transported before erection at the pad.
Unlike other Soyuz launch complexes, the pad features a mobile service tower, where the payload is integrated when the rocket is in the vertical position; at Baikonur and Plesetsk the payload is horizontally integrated in the MIK before the rocket is moved to the pad. The tower shrouds the rocket during integration, but is moved back to a safe distance (again on rails) prior to launch.
ELS also differs in having a fixed launch mount, rather than one which can be rotated, meaning that the rocket may need to execute a roll manoeuvre during its ascent to orbit. Earlier rockets in the R-7 family were incapable of rolling, so their launch complexes were built to allow launch azimuth to be adjusted before launch.
In 2015 after the quantity of payload orders requiring fuelling at the launch complex S3B site had been identified as a possible bottleneck in flight operations FCube, a new clean room fuelling facility dedicated to the Fregat upper stage and potentially additional small satellite payloads was built which will cut fuelling times from five weeks to as little as one.
|VS01||21 October 2011||10:30||Soyuz-STB/Fregat||Success||Galileo IOV-1 & IOV-2||Navigation satellites|
|VS02||17 December 2011||02:03||Soyuz-STA/Fregat||Success||Pleiades 1A
ELISA (4 satellites)
Earth observation satellite for Chile
Electronic Intelligence Satellites
|VS03||12 October 2012||18:15||Soyuz-STB/Fregat||Success||Galileo IOV-3 & IOV-4||Navigation satellites|
|VS04||2 December 2012||02:02||Soyuz-STA/Fregat||Success||Pleiades 1B||Imaging Satellite|
|VS05||25 June 2013||19:27||Soyuz-STB/Fregat||Success||O3b 1/2/3/4||Low Earth orbit communication satellites|
|VS06||19 December 2013||09:12||Soyuz-STB/Fregat||Success||Gaia||Lissajous orbit - Space observatory|
|VS07||3 April 2014||21:02||Soyuz-STA/Fregat||Success||Sentinel-1A||Sun-synchronous orbit - Earth observation|
|VS08||10 July 2014||18:55||Soyuz-STB/Fregat||Success||O3b 5/6/7/8||Low Earth orbit communication satellites|
|VS09||22 August 2014||12:27||Soyuz-STB/Fregat||Partial failure||Galileo FOC-1 & FOC-2||Navigation satellites|
|VS10||18 December 2014||18:37||Soyuz-STB/Fregat||Success||O3b 9/10/11/12||Low Earth orbit communication satellites|
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- "“The journey begins” with a lift from Arianespace: O3b Networks’ first four satellites are in orbit". Arianespace. 25 June 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
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- Graham, William; Bergin, Chris (3 April 2014). "Arianespace Soyuz ST-A launches Sentinel-1A mission". Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- "Arianespace launches O3b satellites on Soyuz mission" (Press release). Kourou: Arianespace. 10 July 2014. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- "Galileo satellites experience orbital injection anomaly on Soyuz launch: Initial report" (Press release). Kourou: Arianespace. 23 August 2014. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- "Arianespace launch a success, orbiting four more satellites in the O3b constellatio" (Press release). Kourou: Arianespace. 18 December 2014. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
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