Gamma Cygni

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Gamma Cygni
Location of γ Cyg (circled)
Observation data
Epoch J2000      Equinox J2000
Constellation Cygnus
Right ascension 20h 22m 13.70184s[1]
Declination +40° 15′ 24.0450″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V) 2.23[2]
Spectral type F8 Iab[3]
U−B color index +0.54[2]
B−V color index +0.67[2]
Variable type suspected[4]
Radial velocity (Rv)-7.5[5] km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: +2.39[1] mas/yr
Dec.: -0.91[1] mas/yr
Parallax (π)1.78 ± 0.27 mas[1]
Distanceapprox. 1,800 ly
(approx. 560 pc)
Absolute magnitude (MV)−4.54[6]
Mass12.11±0.71[7] M
Radius174[8][a] R
Luminosity (bolometric)32,073.7[8] L
Surface gravity (log g)1.02±0.10[9] cgs
Temperature5,863[8] K
Metallicity [Fe/H]+0.02[6] dex
Rotational velocity (v sin i)15[10] km/s
Age12[9] Myr
Other designations
Sadr, Sadir, Sador, 37 Cyg, HR 7796, BD+39°4159, HD 194093, SAO 49528, FK5 765, HIP 100453, WDS J20222+4015A.
Database references

Gamma Cygni (γ Cygni, abbreviated Gamma Cyg, γ Cyg), officially named Sadr /ˈsædər/,[11][12] is a star in the northern constellation of Cygnus, forming the intersection of an asterism of five stars called the Northern Cross. Based upon parallax measurements obtained during the Hipparcos mission, it is approximately 1,800 light-years (560 parsecs) from the Sun.[1]

It forms the primary or 'A' component of a multiple star system designated WDS J20222+4015 (the secondary or 'BC' component is CCDM J20222+4015BC, a close pair of stars 40" away from γ Cygni[13]).


γ Cygni (Latinised to Gamma Cygni) is the star's Bayer designation. WDS J20222+4015A is its designation in the Washington Double Star Catalog.

It bore the traditional name Sadr (also rendered Sadir /ˈsdər/ or Sador), derived from the Arabic صدر ṣadr "chest", the same word which gave rise to the star Schedar (Alpha Cassiopeiae). In 2016, the International Astronomical Union organized a Working Group on Star Names (WGSN)[14] to catalogue and standardize proper names for stars. The WGSN decided to attribute proper names to individual stars rather than entire multiple systems.[15] It approved the name Sadr for this star (WDS J20222+4015A) on 21 August 2016 and it is now so included in the List of IAU-approved Star Names.[12]

In the catalogue of stars in the Calendarium of Al Achsasi al Mouakket, this star was designated Sadr al Dedjadjet, (صدر الدجاجة / ṣadr al-dajājati), which was translated into Latin as Pectus Gallinǣ, meaning the hen's chest.[16]

In Chinese, 天津 (Tiān Jīn), meaning Celestial Ford, refers to an asterism consisting of Gamma Cygni, Delta Cygni, 30 Cygni, Alpha Cygni, Nu Cygni, Tau Cygni, Upsilon Cygni, Zeta Cygni and Epsilon Cygni.[17] Consequently, the Chinese name for Gamma Cygni itself is 天津一 (Tiān Jīn yī, English: the First Star of Celestial Ford).[18]


γ Cygni (center star) and surroundings. Image by Jeff Johnson.

With an apparent visual magnitude of 2.23,[2] Gamma Cygni is among the brighter stars visible in the night sky. The stellar classification of this star is F8 Iab, indicating that it has reached the supergiant stage of its stellar evolution. Since 1943, the spectrum of this star has served as one of the stable anchor points by which other stars are classified.[19]

Compared to the Sun this is an enormous star, with 12 times the Sun's mass and about 150 times the Sun's radius.[7] It is emitting over 33,000 times as much energy as the Sun, at an effective temperature of 6,100 K in its outer envelope.[7] This temperature is what gives the star the characteristic yellow-white hue of an F-type star. Massive stars such as this consume their nuclear fuel much more rapidly than the Sun, so the estimated age of this star is only about 12 million years old.[9]

The spectrum of this star shows some unusual dynamic features, including variations in radial velocity of up to 2 km/s, occurring on a time scale of 100 days or more. Indeed, on the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, Gamma Cygni lies close to the instability strip and its spectrum is markedly like that of a Cepheid variable.[3] This star is surrounded by a diffuse nebula called IC 1318, or the Gamma Cygni region.


  1. ^ Radius calculated using a luminosity of 32073.7 L and a temperature of 5863 Kelvin.


  1. ^ a b c d e f van Leeuwen, F. (November 2007). "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 474 (2): 653–664. arXiv:0708.1752. Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357. S2CID 18759600.
  2. ^ a b c d Johnson, H. L.; et al. (1966), "UBVRIJKL photometry of the bright stars", Communications of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, 4 (99): 99, Bibcode:1966CoLPL...4...99J
  3. ^ a b Gray, David F. (November 2010), "Photospheric Variations of the Supergiant γ Cyg", The Astronomical Journal, 140 (5): 1329–1336, Bibcode:2010AJ....140.1329G, doi:10.1088/0004-6256/140/5/1329
  4. ^ Samus, N. N.; Durlevich, O. V.; et al. (2009). "VizieR Online Data Catalog: General Catalogue of Variable Stars (Samus+ 2007-2013)". VizieR On-line Data Catalog: B/GCVS. Originally Published in: 2009yCat....102025S. 1. Bibcode:2009yCat....102025S.
  5. ^ Evans, D. S. (June 20–24, 1966). "The Revision of the General Catalogue of Radial Velocities". In Batten, Alan Henry; Heard, John Frederick (eds.). Determination of Radial Velocities and their Applications. IAU Symposium no. 30. Vol. 30. University of Toronto: International Astronomical Union. p. 57. Bibcode:1967IAUS...30...57E.
  6. ^ a b Kovtyukh, V. V.; Gorlova, N. I.; Belik, S. I. (2012). "Accurate luminosities from the oxygen λ7771-4 Å triplet and the fundamental parameters of F-G supergiants". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 423 (4): 3268–3273. arXiv:1204.4115. Bibcode:2012MNRAS.423.3268K. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21117.x. ISSN 0035-8711. S2CID 118683158.
  7. ^ a b c Hohle, M. M.; Neuhäuser, R.; Schutz, B. F. (April 2010), "Masses and luminosities of O- and B-type stars and red supergiants", Astronomische Nachrichten, 331 (4): 349, arXiv:1003.2335, Bibcode:2010AN....331..349H, doi:10.1002/asna.200911355, S2CID 111387483
  8. ^ a b c McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Boyer, M. L. (2012-11-01). "Fundamental parameters and infrared excesses of Hipparcos stars". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 427: 343–357. arXiv:1208.2037. Bibcode:2012MNRAS.427..343M. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21873.x. ISSN 0035-8711.
  9. ^ a b c Lyubimkov, Leonid S.; et al. (February 2010), "Accurate fundamental parameters for A-, F- and G-type Supergiants in the solar neighbourhood", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 402 (2): 1369–1379, arXiv:0911.1335, Bibcode:2010MNRAS.402.1369L, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15979.x, S2CID 119096173
  10. ^ Bernacca, P. L.; Perinotto, M. (1970). "A catalogue of stellar rotational velocities". Contributi Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova in Asiago. 239 (1): 1. Bibcode:1970CoAsi.239....1B.
  11. ^ Kunitzsch, Paul; Smart, Tim (2006). A Dictionary of Modern star Names: A Short Guide to 254 Star Names and Their Derivations (2nd rev. ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Sky Pub. ISBN 978-1-931559-44-7.
  12. ^ a b "Naming Stars". Retrieved 1 March 2018.
  13. ^ "CCDM J20222+4015BC -- Double or multiple star", SIMBAD, Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg, retrieved 2018-03-01
  14. ^ IAU Working Group on Star Names (WGSN), International Astronomical Union, retrieved 22 May 2016.
  15. ^ "WG Triennial Report (2015-2018) - Star Names" (PDF). p. 5. Retrieved 2018-07-14.
  16. ^ Knobel, E. B. (June 1895), "Al Achsasi Al Mouakket, on a catalogue of stars in the Calendarium of Mohammad Al Achsasi Al Mouakket", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 55 (8): 429, Bibcode:1895MNRAS..55..429K, doi:10.1093/mnras/55.8.429
  17. ^ (in Chinese) 中國星座神話, written by 陳久金. Published by 台灣書房出版有限公司, 2005, ISBN 978-986-7332-25-7.
  18. ^ (in Chinese) 香港太空館 - 研究資源 - 亮星中英對照表 Archived August 18, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Hong Kong Space Museum. Accessed on line November 23, 2010.
  19. ^ Garrison, R. F. (December 1993), "Anchor Points for the MK System of Spectral Classification", Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 25: 1319, Bibcode:1993AAS...183.1710G, archived from the original on 2019-06-25, retrieved 2012-02-04

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