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Historical site
Montage of Gandikota clockwise from top to bottom: Gandikota Fort Main Entrance, Grand Penna River Canyon, AP Tourism Resort, Jumma Masjid
Montage of Gandikota clockwise from top to bottom: Gandikota Fort Main Entrance, Grand Penna River Canyon, AP Tourism Resort, Jumma Masjid
Gandikota is located in Andhra Pradesh
Location in Andhra Pradesh, India
Gandikota is located in India
Gandikota (India)
Coordinates: 14°48′48″N 78°17′05″E / 14.813433°N 78.284757°E / 14.813433; 78.284757Coordinates: 14°48′48″N 78°17′05″E / 14.813433°N 78.284757°E / 14.813433; 78.284757
Country India
StateAndhra Pradesh
Established1370 A. D.
Founded byPemmasani Kumara Timma Nayaka
 • OfficialTelugu
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Telephone code08560
Vehicle registrationAP04

Gandikota is a village on the right bank of the river Pennar, 15 km from Jammalamadugu in Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Gandikota was ruled by Pemmasani Nayaks, for more than 200 years.[1][2][3][4][5]


The fort of Gandikota acquired its name due to the 'gorge' (in Telugu it is called 'gandi'), formed between the Erramala range of hills, also known as Gandikota hills and the river Pennar that flows at its foot, reducing its width to a mere 300 ft (look for the river image in the montage/main image).


Early history[edit]

Gandikota is a village on the right bank of the river penna, 15km from jammalamudugu in kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh ,India Gandikota area was first identified and made Sand fort in 1123 by Kapa Raja of nearby Bommanapalle village and a subordinate of Ahavamalla Someswara I, the Western Chalukyan king of Kalyana.[citation needed]

The village transformed into major fort after the emergence of the Kamma kings.[6][7][8][9]

Recently, Obul Reddy, a Mydukur-based historian, discovered a copper plate inscription on the history of Gandikonda Fort. The inscription dates back to 16th century.[10]

Vemana, the Telugu poet, native of Kadapa district and believed to have lived in Gandikota area for a short period.[citation needed]

Efforts are being put forth to give Gandikota a world heritage status.[11]

Major structures[edit]

In the fort are two ancient temples, dedicated to Madhava and Ranganatha. They are in ruins and the fort area is full of the debris of ages and many ancient structures in varying stages of decay. The large granary, with a vaulted roof, is now used as watchman's quarters. The Jamia Masjid has two adjacent minarets. A heritage festival is held every year in the fort area.[12]

The other structures in the fort, include another large granary, a magazine, a graceful 'pigeon tower' with fretted windows and an extensive palace built by bricks with some plastered decorations and some wells. There is an old cannon lying in the fort. There is the 'Rayalacheruvu' with its perennial springs irrigating some lime and plantain gardens. It is said that this 'Cheruvu' was connected to a fountain in Jamia Masjid by pipes, traces of which can still be seen.

There were other gardens and springs. There is an undated inscription on a boulder, near the 'Nagajhari' outside the fort, recording the gift of two gardens at the place to the temple. There was a garden called 'Parebagh' with a waterfall at the foot of the hills, on the bank of the Penneru.

There are multiple camping areas outside the Fort and on the banks of the Pennar river.

Access and transportation[edit]

Panoramic view of Penna river near Gandikota

The nearest railway station is 26 km away at Muddanuru (railway code: MOO) in Kadapa District. There are number of trains from Gooty Junction.

The nearest town is Jammalamadugu.[13] There are buses available from Jammalamadugu Old Bus Stand (Gandhi Statue Junction) to Gandikota.

Inside the fort there is no means of transportation except to walk by foot. It is ideal to engage a guide as the fort area is huge. There is a good downhill trek through the canyon that leads to the riverbed. There is a dam upstream (Gandikota Dam) and a dam downstream (Mylavaram Dam).


In November 2015, Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh,Nara Chandrababu Naidu cited a plan to develop Gandikota as next major tourist hub of Andhra Pradesh.[14] Minister for Marketing and Animal husbandry C Adinarayana Reddy laid the foundation stone and performed bhumipooja for the rope way project proposed at Gandikota.


  1. ^ Reporter, Staff. "Stone from Gandikota fort to be used". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
  2. ^ Sri Krishna Deva Rayalu Vamsha Moolalu, Muthevi Ravindranath, 2017, Savithri Publications
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ Gandikota, by Tavva Obul Reddy, 2016, Telugu Samajam publishment
  6. ^ Sewell, Robert. "A Forgotten Empire (Vijayanagar): A contribution to the History of India".
  7. ^ "K. A. Nilakanta sastry: Further Sources of Vijayanagar History". 1946.
  8. ^ Stein, Burton (1989). Vijayanagara. Cambridge University Press. p. 92. ISBN 0-521-26693-9.
  9. ^ "Tidings of the king: a translation and ethnohistorical analysis of the Rayavachakamu by Phillip B. Wagoner". Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 1993. pp. 138–139. ISBN 0-8248-1495-9.
  10. ^ "Copper plate inscription about Gandikonda Fort found".
  11. ^ "Heritage status for Gandikota fort sought". The Hindu. 21 April 2008. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  12. ^ "Gandikota Heritage festival from October 26". The Hindu. 19 September 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  13. ^
  14. ^

Further reading[edit]

  • Article about this visiting Gandikota: Grand Canyon at Gandikota, Deccan Chronicle newspaper (Hyderabad edition), 6 April 2012, Wanderlust Page: 21

External links[edit]