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Historical site, Archaeological Survey of India
Gandikota canyon
Gandikota canyon
Gandikota is located in Andhra Pradesh
Location in Andhra Pradesh, India
Gandikota is located in India
Gandikota (India)
Coordinates: 14°48′48″N 78°17′05″E / 14.813433°N 78.284757°E / 14.813433; 78.284757Coordinates: 14°48′48″N 78°17′05″E / 14.813433°N 78.284757°E / 14.813433; 78.284757
Country India
StateAndhra Pradesh
Established12th Century A. D.
Founded byKaka Raja, subordinate of Kalyani Chalukya dynasty (small sand fort)
Pemmasani Ramalinga Nayaka, (101 towers huge rock fort)
 • OfficialTelugu
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Telephone code08560
Vehicle registrationAP04

Gandikota is a village and historical fort on the right bank of the Penna river, 15 km from Jammalamadugu in Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The fort was the center of power for various dynasties, such as the Kalyani Chalukyas, Pemmasani Nayakas, and the Golconda Sultanate. Gandikota was the capital of Pemmasani Nayakas for more than 300 years.[1][2][3][4][5] Pemmasani Ramalinga Nayaka constructed the huge fort at Gandikota with 101 towers replacing the previous sand fort constructed by Kaka Raja, Vassals of Kalyani Chalukya rulers. Various additions of Islamic architecture were made during subsequent Muslim rule.


The fort of Gandikota acquired its name due to the 'gorge', formed between the Erramala range of hills, also known as Gandikota hills and the river Pennar that flows at its foot, reducing its width to a mere 300 ft (look for the river image in the montage/main image).


Early history[edit]

Gandikota is a village on the right bank of the river Penna, 15 km from Jammalamudugu in Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Gandikota area was first identified and made Sand fort in 1123 by Kakatiya Raja of nearby Bommanapalle village and a subordinate of Ahavamalla Someswara I, Kalyani Chalukya ruler. Gandikota came under the rule of Kakatiya dynasty from 1239 A.D to 1304 A.D and ruled by their various subordinates. Gandikota became the capital of Pemmasani Nayakas who ruled the fort and Gandikota region for more than 300 years. In 1652 A.D Pemmasani Timma Nayaka lost Gandikota battle with the attack of Mir Jumla, military general of Qutb shahi dynasty. Gandikota then came under the power of Golconda sultanate and Timma Nayaka became their feudatory king.Mir jumla came into agreement with Pemmasani timma nayaka That He will be given Goooti(guti) fort if he agrees to leave Gandikota fort to Mir jumla and Even after the supporters of Timma Nayaka Said That Mir jumla may betray us, Timma Nayaka Didn't listen to their words and agreed to the Agreement and left out the fort of Gandikota first with valuables and God Sculptures and jewelleries followed by Fort Women etc and Remaining were buried in the gandikota Fort itself...after leaving From Fort to Peta(Down Town). Mir jumla Occupied the fort of gandikota and Send Agreement papers to Timma Nayaka by Altering it with the suggestion of his supporters As Renaming Gooti (guti) to "Hanumanagutti" Village of Once Kamalapuram Takuka (For Details Search google Hanumanagutti or HanumanalaGutti or Hanumaguru on Archives .org .Thus TimmaNayudu Duped. After the fort captured by Abdul Nawab Khan, it became the part of British India[citation needed]. Many families fled Gandikota to escape the persecution under the rule of Abdul Nawab Khan.

The village transformed into major fort after the emergence of Pemmasani Nayakas.[6][7][8][9]

Recently, Tavva Obul Reddy, a Mydukur-based historian, discovered a copper plate inscription on the history of Gandikonda Fort. The inscription dates back to 16th century.[10]

Vemana poet, native of Kadapa district and believed to have lived in Gandikota area for a short period. Jean Baptiste Tavernier visited the fort during his travel to Golconda sultanate.[citation needed]

Efforts are being put forth to give Gandikota a world heritage status.[11]

Major structures[edit]

In the fort are two ancient temples, dedicated to Madhava and Ranganatha. They are in ruins and the fort area is full of the debris of ages and many ancient structures in varying stages of decay. The large granary, with a vaulted roof, is now used as watchman's quarters. The Jamia Masjid has two adjacent minarets. A heritage festival is held every year in the fort area.[12]

The other structures in the fort, include another large granary (used for storing food and grains late back), a magazine, a graceful 'pigeon tower' with fretted windows and an extensive palace built by bricks with some plastered decorations and some wells. There is an old cannon lying in the fort. There is the 'Rayalacheruvu' with its perennial springs irrigating some lime and plantain gardens. It is said that this 'Cheruvu' was connected to a fountain in Jamia Masjid by pipes, traces of which can still be seen.

There were other gardens and springs. There is an undated inscription on a boulder, near the 'Nagajhari' outside the fort, recording the gift of two gardens at the place to the temple. There was a garden called 'Parebagh' with a waterfall at the foot of the hills, on the bank of the Penneru.

There are multiple camping areas outside the Fort and on the banks of the Pennar river.

The other main attractions at the fort includes House of the Drum (drums were used to alert the army in case of invasion), Charminar, Jail (where in the prisoners were held captive) and Red Koneru (Also known as pond of Swords, The huge lake in front of the mosque, where the warriors used to dip their swords in this lake and the waters used to turn blood red after the war).

Access and transportation[edit]

Panoramic view of Penna river near Gandikota
Gandikota Canyon

The nearest railway stations are Muddanuru which is 26 km (railway code: MOO) and Jammalamadugu (JMDG) in Kadapa District. There are number of trains from Gooty Junction. Recently the town of Jammalamadugu which is closest to Gandikota fort [13] also got railway connectivity due to the completion of Nandyal–Yerraguntla section railway line. However frequency of trains on this line is very low.

There are buses available from Jammalamadugu Old Bus Stand (Gandhi Statue Junction) to Gandikota.

Inside the fort there is no means of transportation except to walk by foot. It is ideal to engage a guide as the fort area is huge. There is a good downhill trek through the canyon that leads to the riverbed. There is a dam upstream (Gandikota Dam) and a dam downstream (Mylavaram Dam).

There is a Haritha hotel run by Andhra Pradesh Tourism department which has lodging facilities. However the facilities are limited during the weekdays as the visitors during weekdays are low


In November 2015, Andhra Pradesh government cited a plan to develop Gandikota as next major tourist hub of Andhra Pradesh.[14] Minister for Marketing and Animal husbandry C Adinarayana Reddy laid the foundation stone and performed bhumipooja for the rope way project proposed at Gandikota.


  1. ^ Staff Reporter. "Stone from Gandikota fort to be used". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ Gandikota, by Tavva Obul Reddy, 2016, Telugu Samajam publishment
  6. ^ Sewell, Robert. "A Forgotten Empire (Vijayanagar): A contribution to the History of India". Archived from the original on 2 December 2005. Retrieved 3 March 2007.
  7. ^ "K. A. Nilakanta sastry: Further Sources of Vijayanagar History". 1946.
  8. ^ Stein, Burton (1989). Vijayanagara. Cambridge University Press. p. 92. ISBN 0-521-26693-9.
  9. ^ "Tidings of the king: a translation and ethnohistorical analysis of the Rayavachakamu by Phillip B. Wagoner". Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 1993. pp. 138–139. ISBN 0-8248-1495-9.
  10. ^ "Copper plate inscription about Gandikonda Fort found".
  11. ^ "Heritage status for Gandikota fort sought". The Hindu. 21 April 2008. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  12. ^ "Gandikota Heritage festival from October 26". The Hindu. 19 September 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  13. ^
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 July 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

Further reading[edit]

  • Article about this visiting Gandikota: Grand Canyon at Gandikota, Deccan Chronicle newspaper (Hyderabad edition), 6 April 2012, Wanderlust Page: 21

External links[edit]