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Kadapa District
కడప జిల్లా
Kadapa
District of Andhra Pradesh
Madhavaraya Swamy temple at Gandikota
Madhavaraya Swamy temple at Gandikota
Location in Andhra Pradesh, India
Location in Andhra Pradesh, India
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
Region Rayalaseema
Named for Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy
Area
 • Total 15,379 km2 (5,938 sq mi)
Elevation 378.7 m (1,242.5 ft)
Population (2001)
 • Total 2,601,797
 • Density 169/km2 (440/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Telugu, Urdu[1]
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-AP-
Website kadapa.ap.nic.in
Gandikota Mosque
Gandikota Penna Canyon

Kadapa District (formerly Kadapa District)[2] (Telugu: వైయస్సార్ కడప జిల్లా, Urdu: کڈپہ ضلع‎) is one of the 23 districts of Andhra Pradesh, India.

The city of Kadapa is the district headquarters.

History[edit]

Rock paintings[edit]

Paleolithic rock paintings found at Chintakunta[3] caves near Muddanuru in Kadapa district are said to be the second largest group of paintings in India after Bhimbetika rock art paintings. The rock paintings with mystic figures are also found at Dappalle[4] village near Mailavaram Dam in Jammalamadugu Taluk of the district.

Prehistoric Culture[edit]

Many Paleolithic sites were found along the length and breadth of kadapa district, as the surroundings of Jammalamadugu, Mailavaram Dam[4] and Gandikota.
Some megalithic burial sites were explored near Porumamilla, Sankhavaram and also at Yellatur[5] village near Kadapa. The surroundings of Vontimitta are also noted as Megalithic cultural sites.
The section of Rayachoti consists of many documented and undocumented Megalithic sites and stone circles. A noted megalithic site at Devandlapalli[6] in Tsundupalle taluk of the district.

Temple of Kondandarama swamy as known as Sree Rama

Buddhism & Jainism[edit]

Kadapa has historical importance since BC era. It was connected with Mouryans in BC era and Sathavahanas. Buddhism must have flourished here for many years along the banks of rivers Cheyyeru and Penna. Nandalur[7] is an important Buddhist site in the district along with Tallapaka, Rajampeta, Konduru, Khazipeta in the district.
Jainism also had enough patronage in Kadapa district history, the remnants of buried Jain Temple are found at Danavulapadu[8] village on the banks of river Penna.

Medieval history[edit]

It was part of the area ceded to the British by Nizam. The District was formed by splitting the Ceded Districts into two in 1808 during the British rule, the other district being Bellary.[9] The British spelt the district as Cuddapah.

The district is part of Rayalaseema, commemorating the name of Rayulu (Kings) of the Vijayanagar Empire, who ruled the area in 16th century. Gandikota fort located on the bank of Penna river was the citadel of Pemmasani Nayaks, commanders of Vijayanagar army and who won the battles of Raichur and Gulbarga for the Vijayanagar kings.

The old records of the district reveal that Kadapa previously called Gadapa which means in Telugu language threshold. The ancient village of Kadapa with its large tank and temple of Lord Venkateswara at Devuni Kadapa was convenient camping place for the myriads of pilgrims travelling to the holy shrine of Tirupathi. There was a belief that the pilgrims have to first visit Devuni Kadapa, before going to Tirupathi to pray of Saint Annamacharya and Saint Potuluri Veera Brahmam who foretold about the future and advocated a classless society. The ancient temple at Vontimitta which inspired Pothana to compose Andhra Maha Bhagavatham is also in the district. In olden of oldendays Kdapa called "Heranyanagaram".

Recent historical records reveal that in Jyothi village located in Sidhout mandal has 108 Shiva lingas on the bank of Penna river.

Geography[edit]

Kadapa district occupies an area of 15,938 square kilometres (6,154 sq mi),[10] comparatively equivalent to Canada's Prince Patrick Island.[11]

The main rivers in this district are Penna, Chitravathi, Kunderu, Papagni, Sagileru, Bahuda and Cheyyeru.

Economy[edit]

Besides its historical importance, the district has occupied an important place in the industrial map of Andhra Pradesh with its highly valued rich mineral resources.

Black corson soil lands are 24%, black soil 19%, sandy soil lands 4%, red soil lands 25%. The first variety lands are very fertile. Sand soil lands are not so fertile. 'Korra', orange, lime and betel leaf are the special crops. They are cultivated near river beds. Starting at Sunkesula Dam on Tungabadra river Cuddapah-Kurnool (K.C) Canal flows through Cuddapah and Kurnool districts providing water to 40 km² of cultivable land. The main source of drinking water to this district is Galer-Nagari-Sujalasravanthi Canal.

This district is the repository of mineral wealth. As per the 1983 survey of geological survey of India 3 million tons of lead, 74,000,000 tons of barytes, 27000 tons of asbestos deposits are there. It is estimated that 70 million tons of barytes deposits might be there in Mangampet. There are clay deposits in Rajampet. This is used to make stone implements. Limestone is available in Yerraguntla, M/s. Coramandal Fertilizers established a cement factory with an annual yield of 1 million tons. Bharat cement corporation increases its capacity to 1 million tons. National mineral development corporation is extracting asbestos in Brahman palli and barieties in Mangampet. Kadapa is also famous for its stone called as "nellore stone" used in building construction and for slabs especially in the south India. In Tummalapalle, there are 49,000 tonnes of confirmed uranium deposits which are mined and processed locally.[12][13]

In 2006 the Indian government named nellore district as one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).[14] It is one of the thirteen districts in Andhra Pradesh currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).[14]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Mandals[edit]

There are fifty-one mandals in Kadap district.[15]

Assembly constituenties[edit]

  • Kadapa- Ahmmedulla - Cong - Minister for Minorities Welfare, Wakf, Urdu Academy.
  • Mydukur- Dr. Duggireddy Lakshmireddy Ravindra Reddy Cong.
  • Jammalamadugu- Chadipiralla Adi Narayana Reddy - YSR congress party.
  • Kamalapuram- Gandluru Veera Siva Reddy - Cong.
  • Badvel- P. Kamalamma - cong (SC Reserved).
  • Pulivendula- Y.S. Vijayalakhmi - YSR congress party President
  • Railway Koduru- Koramutla Srinivasulu - YSR congress party(sc reserved).
  • Rayachoti- Gadikota Srikanth Reddy - YSR congress party.
  • Rajampet- Akepati Amaranath Reddy - YSR congress party.
  • Proddatur- Mallela Lingaareddy - TDP.

Industries[edit]

Institutions[edit]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 census Kadapa district has a population of 2,884,524, Hindus are 83.7%, Muslims are 14% & Christians are 2.3%[16] roughly equal to the nation of Jamaica[17] or the US state of Arkansas.[18] This gives it a ranking of 132nd in India (out of a total of 640).[16] The district has a population density of 188 inhabitants per square kilometre (490 /sq mi) .[16] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 10.87%.[16] Kadapa district has a sex ratio of 984 females for every 1000 males,[16] and a literacy rate of 67.88%.[16]

Culture[edit]

Attractions[edit]

The District is home to many temples and forts, each has its uniqueness in design and architecture with its own history.[19][20]

Shahi Mosque at Mydukur
  • Gandi - Anjaneya swamy temple and ysr ghat.
  • Veerapunayana palle - Sangameswara alayam.
  • Puspagiri - Chennakeswara alayam and puspagiri matam.
  • Nandaluru - Sowmyanatha swamy alayam.
  • Rayachoti - Sree veerabadra swamy temple.
  • Alladupalle Devalalu - Sree Veerabadra Swamy Temple. It is one of the famous temples of Veerabadra Swamy and it is very nice place and situated beside kundhu river. Every year Maha Sivarathri festival is done very well here.
  • Devuni kadapa - venkateswara swaamy temple.
  • Sivalapalli - Sri KasiVishweswara Temple
  • Chilamakur - Sri Agastheswara Swamy Temple
  • LEKKALAVARIPALLI - Sree Bhairava Kondaih swamy temple.
  • MUNNELLI -Sree Mahankali Temple. * MUNNELLI — Sree LakshmiChennakesava Swamy temple Sree umaMaheswara Swamy temple.

Notable personalities[edit]

Flora and fauna[edit]

The forest area is 5,050 km². It is 32.87% of the district area. It is learnt that elephants required for Golconda army were supplied from here. In the northeast part of the district rainfall is high. Red Sanders Pterocarpus santalinus (Fabaceae), an endemic and endangered tree species of medicinal value is available in plenty in this area. This is the only area in India where Red Sanders, Often referred to as 'Rakta-chandanam' or 'Yerra-chandanam' (red sandalwood) is available. A National park is set up in Seshachalam hills for prospecting wild animals. Zuari Cements, India Cement Ltd, Corus India Ltd are the other industries.

Orphanages[edit]

Operating in Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India since 2006, Haleema Sadiya Muslim Girls Orphanage is caring for around 100 orphan/destitute girls. This orphanage render proper care, and impart both Islamic and worldly education Haleema Sadiya Muslim Girls Orphanage (www.haleemasadiya.org)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Organisation Info. APOnline. Retrieved on 20 May 2012.
  2. ^ "Kadapa district". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 16 July 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  3. ^ Subramanyam, M.V. (25 July 2012). "Second largest rock art painting site explored". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 
  4. ^ a b http://asi.nic.in/nmma_reviews/Indian%20Archaeology%201976-77%20A%20Review.pdf
  5. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=yK8D8c5-HXAC&pg=PA124&lpg=PA124&dq=megalithic+sites+in+cuddapah&source=bl&ots=RSa3c2mykV&sig=2kn2kpvPDCK-eErtM6394c7b8fo&hl=en&sa=X&ei=XuyRUf-gGYqIrAfkkoCAAQ&ved=0CF8Q6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=megalithic%20sites%20in%20cuddapah&f=false
  6. ^ "Megalithic burial site found in Kadapa". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 24 June 2012. 
  7. ^ http://asi.nic.in/nmma_reviews/Indian%20Archaeology%201979-80%20A%20Review.pdf
  8. ^ http://asihyd.ap.nic.in/cuddapah.html
  9. ^ The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 7. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1908-1931 [vol. 1, 1909]. pp. 158–176. 
  10. ^ Srivastava, Dayawanti et al. (ed.) (2010). "States and Union Territories: Andhra Pradesh: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. pp. 1111–1112. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7. 
  11. ^ "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 18 February 1998. Retrieved 11 October 2011. "Prince Patrick Island 15,848" 
  12. ^ "Tummalapalle uranium mill to start operation by March 2011". Article from the Times of India. WISE Uranium Project. 24 October 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  13. ^ "India: 'Massive' uranium find in Andhra Pradesh". BBC News – South Asia (BBC). 19 July 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  14. ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme". National Institute of Rural Development. Retrieved 27 September 2011. 
  15. ^ "List of Short Distance Charging Areas (SDCA) in Caddapah district" (xls). Department of Telecommunications, Ministry of Communications & IT, Government of India. April 2009. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011. 
  17. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011. "Jamaica 2,868,380 July 2011 est" 
  18. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 September 2011. "Arkansas 2,915,918" 
  19. ^ Welcome to Frontline : Vol. 29 :: No. 10. Hinduonnet.com. Retrieved on 20 May 2012.
  20. ^ Welcome to Frontline : Vol. 29 :: No. 10. Hinduonnet.com. Retrieved on 20 May 2012.

External links[edit]