Kadapa

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Kadapa
కడప
Cuddapah
City
Montage of Kadapa city. clockwise from Top Left: A Clock tower in Kadapa, Railway Station, An Industry near Kadapa, RIMS Dental College in Kadapa
Montage of Kadapa city. clockwise from Top Left: A Clock tower in Kadapa, Railway Station, An Industry near Kadapa, RIMS Dental College in Kadapa
Nickname(s): Gadapa
Kadapa is located in Andhra Pradesh
Kadapa
Kadapa
Coordinates: 14°28′N 78°49′E / 14.47°N 78.82°E / 14.47; 78.82Coordinates: 14°28′N 78°49′E / 14.47°N 78.82°E / 14.47; 78.82
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
Region Rayalaseema
District Kadapa
Founded 1808 AD[1]
Government
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Body Kadapa Municipal Corporation
 • MP Y. S. Avinash Reddy
 • MLA Amzath Basha S.B
 • Mayor Suresh Babu
 • Municipal Commissioner P.Chandramouliswara Reddy[2]
Area[3]
 • Total 164.08 km2 (63.35 sq mi)
Area rank 4th (in AP)
Elevation 138 m (453 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 341,823
 • Rank 130th (India)
7th (Andhra Pradesh)
 • Density 2,100/km2 (5,400/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Telugu, Urdu[4]
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 516001,516002,516003,516004 [5]
Telephone code 08562[6]
Vehicle registration AP-04
Website Kadapa Municipal Corporation

Kadapa (formerly known as Cuddapah) is a city in the Rayalseema region of the south-central part of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is the district headquarters of Kadapa district. As of 2011 Census of India, the city had a population of 344,078. It is located 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of the Penna River. The city is surrounded on three sides by the Nallamala and Palakonda hills lying on the tectonic landscape being sandwiched between the Eastern and Western ghats. Black and Red ferrous soils occupy the region. The city is nicknamed "Gadapa" ('threshold') since it is the gateway from the west to the sacred hills of Tirumala.

Kadapa has been under the rule of different kingdoms, including the Cholas, the Vijayanagara Empire. It is also well known for its spicy and culinary food.[7]

Etymology[edit]

The city's name originated from the Telugu word "Gadapa" meaning threshold or gate. It acquired this name with its relation to the Tirumala Hills; one had to pass through Cuddapah in olden days to reach Tirumala Hills.[7] In old Telugu the word Kadapa meant a threshold which in modern standard Telugu is evolved to gadapa while the city's name retained the old flavour. It was spelled "Cuddapah" but was changed to "Kadapa" on 19 August 2005 to reflect the local pronunciation of the name.[8]

History[edit]

Post classical era (200-800 AD)[edit]

The history of Kadapa dates back to the 2nd century BC. Although it is nearly impossible to have data of that time, but the evidences of archeological survey suggests that it started with Mourya and Satavahana dynasty. And since then it has remained battle field for numerous dynasties including Chalukya, Cholas and Pallava. Among all of these dynasties, first one to rule over Kadapa was Pallava dynasty. Pallava kings ruled over the city during the 5th century after penetrating into North of Kadapa. After that Cholas ruled till the 8th century after defeating Pallavas. Later Banas came into existence as the next dynasty to rule over Kadapa.

Medieval era(8th to 18th centuries AD)[edit]

Rashtrakutas ruled over Kadapa after Banas. Among the popular rulers of Kadapa was King Indra III, who served during the period of 915 AD. In his period, Kadapa gained a lot of power and influence, which declined with his death later. Telugu Cholas, were the next one to rule over Kadapa. Their kingdom has its palmier days in first half of the 13th century. Ambadeva ruled over Kadapa in the latter half of the 13th century. He had taken over the crown of Kadapa on a temporarily basis and ruled from Vallur, which is located at a distance of about 15 km from Kadapa.

After the death of Ambadeva, Kakatiya king Prataparudra II became the ruler of the place till the early 14th century. Later Prataparudra was defeated by Muslims in the reign of Khilji emperor Alla Uddin, who became the next ruler of Kadapa after giving imprisonment to Prataparudra. Later in the mid-13th century, Hindus of Vijayanagar dynasty drove the Muslims out of Warangal and subsequently Kadapa as well and ruled for around two centuries till they get defeated by the King of Golkonda. The most illustrious ruler during this time was Pemmasani Thimma Nayudu (1422 CE) who developed the region and constructed many tanks and temples here. Muslims of Golkonda conquered the region in 1594 when Mir Jumla II raided Gandikota fort and defeated Chinna Thimma Nayudu by treachery. Marathas took over the city in 1740 after defeating the Nawab of Kurnool and Cuddapah. Hyder Ali also ruled over the city before it fell in the hands of Nizam by the treaties of Mysore and Srirangapatnam.[9] Later the British took control of Kadapa District in 1800 CE. Although the town is an ancient one, it was probably extended by Neknam Khan, the Qutb Shahi commander, who called the extension "Neknamabad". The name "Neknamabad" was used for the town for some time but slowly fell into disuse and the records of the 18th century refer to the rulers not as Nawabs of basireddy but Nawabs of Kadapa. Except for some years in the beginning, Kadapa District was the seat of the Mayana Nawabs in the 18th century. With the British occupation of the tract in 1800 CE it became the headquarters of one of the four subordinate collectorates under the principal collector Sir Thomas Munro. Monuments from the rule of the Kadapa District Nawabs are still found in the town. Most prominent among these are two towers and the dargahs. In 2004, Kadapa was recognized as a municipal corporation.[10]

Geography[edit]

Topography[edit]

Kadapa is located at 14°28′N 78°49′E / 14.47°N 78.82°E / 14.47; 78.82 about 412 km from Hyderabad, in the Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh.[11] The city is situated in the Bugga or Ralla Vanka which is bordered by the Palakondas to the south and to the east by a patch of the same hills casting north for the Lankamalas on Penneru`s other side.[12] It has an average elevation of 138 metres (452 ft).[13] The hills of western and eastern ghats stand on either sides, shielding it from the extreme winds of summer and winter.[12]

Climate[edit]

Kadapa has a tropical wet and dry climate characterized by year round high temperatures. Kadapa has a record of reaching more than 50 degree Celsius. Summers are especially uncomfortable with hot and humid climate. During this time temperatures range from a minimum of 34 °C and can rise up to a maximum of 40 °C. Temperatures are range in the mid thirties during the day. Humidity is around 75% during the summer months. Monsoon season brings substantial rain to the area. Kadapa gets rainfall from both the South west monsoon as well as the North East Monsoon. June to October is usually the monsoon. Winters are comparatively milder and the temperatures are lower after the onset of the monsoons. During this time the temperatures range from a maximum of 25 °C and can rise up to a maximum of 35 °C. Humidity is much lower during the winter season. Winter season is the best time to visit the place.[14]

Climate data for Kadapa
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30.8
(87.4)
34.2
(93.6)
37.6
(99.7)
39.7
(103.5)
40.1
(104.2)
36.9
(98.4)
35.0
(95)
34.0
(93.2)
33.4
(92.1)
32.4
(90.3)
30.3
(86.5)
29.3
(84.7)
34.48
(94.05)
Average low °C (°F) 19.1
(66.4)
20.9
(69.6)
23.8
(74.8)
27.3
(81.1)
28.6
(83.5)
26.8
(80.2)
25.7
(78.3)
25.4
(77.7)
25.0
(77)
23.8
(74.8)
21.2
(70.2)
19.0
(66.2)
23.88
(74.98)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0
(0)
1
(0.04)
5
(0.2)
17
(0.67)
48
(1.89)
76
(2.99)
121
(4.76)
114
(4.49)
133
(5.24)
148
(5.83)
67
(2.64)
23
(0.91)
753
(29.66)
[citation needed]

source="http://en.climate-data.org/location/968121/"

Administration[edit]

Local Government[edit]

Kadapa city is the headquarters of YSR District. The Municipal Corporation of Kadapa was previously a municipal council which has been converted to a corporation in 2005. The Kadapa Municipal Corporation oversees the civic infrastructure of the city. The Municipal Corporation of Kadapa is the largest is the largest in Rayalaseema region and the second largest in Andhra Pradesh. The City encompass 50 municipal wards. Each ward is represented by a corporator, elected by popular vote. The corporators elect the Mayor, who is the titular head of KMC.[15] In the year 2010-2011, Kadapa Municipal Corporation has issued a 72.2 Crore Rupee amount to improve Sewage systems; 29.23 Crores for water supply improvements. Municipal Corporation of Kadapa provides employment for 1292 people, including 13 Senior Officials, 51 ministerial employees and 16 field level employees etc. The District court is located in the city itself.

Culture[edit]

Since Kadapa was ruled by different kings like the Kakatiyas, Vijayanagara Kings, Pallavas, Nizam Nawabs and Cholas it has managed to develop a rich culture. People of various ethnicity can be found to live here. As a result, one can witness various festivals, rituals and customs in Kadapa. The urban population consists of different religions including Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Christianity. Due to his rich historical past, one can also see a dominance of Buddhism and Jainism in the culture of Kadapa. A Chinese traveler namely Huen Tsang, gives clear existence of Nirgantha heretics (Jain) and Sangharams (Buddhist monasteries) through his travel in the 7th century AD in Kadapa. Muslims are known to have their existence from the 14th century, while Christians came at last in the first half of the 18th century.[16]

Languages[edit]

Telugu is the official,largest spoken as well as the main language in the city. Just like any other part of Andhra Pradesh, majority of the people in the city speak Telugu in their daily routine. Most of the Muslims speak Urdu. HIndi is also spoken in many areas of the city. English is gaining popularity day by day in the city with the its rapid development.[16]

Cuisine[edit]

Ragi Sangati with Natukodi Chicken
Ragi Sangati with Natukodi Chicken is considered as the typical dish of Kadapa.

Kadapa is well known for its spicy and culinary food which is very similar to the South Indian food. People have idly, sambar and chutney in their breafast. Rice, daal and curry is usually served as lunch. Most of the restaurants serve South Indian thali including these dishes in their lunch and dinner menu. Although it has a South Indian touch in its dishes it also has a diverse variety of its own which include Ragi Sangati or Ragi Mudda, Boti Curry, Natukodi Chicken, Paya Curry etc. Ragi sangati with chicken currey is the staple food in Kadapa and is also one of the most famous dishes in the city. Many other varieties of dishes can also be found in the local restaurants. Like many other cities of India fast food is also increasing its reach in the city.[17]

Economy[edit]

Industrial areas, development projects, large scale excavation processes including clusters for various regional profitable business contribute their part in the Kadapa’s economy. The total Investment in all kinds of industries has been approximately amounted to 193 crores.

Agriculture[edit]

The City's economy is mainly based on agriculture. The Andhra Pradesh State Financial Corporation estimates the total share of agriculture in the revenue of Kadapa to be more than 70%. Industries including both medium and small scale sectors and agriculture add to the economical growth of the city. Both the micro and medium scale industries are being registered every day. Approximately an average of 150 new industries including micro as well as medium scale industries are registered every year.

The economy of the district is predominantly agrarian in nature. Around 75% of the population is enagaged in agricultural and allied activities for their livelihood

Though there is a shortage of water for agriculture purposes, a considerable extent of area is under agriculture in the district. The Principal crops grown in the district are Paddy, Jowar, Groundnut, bajra, Red gram, Sunflower, Turmeric, Chillics, Cotton, Coriander anCuddapah District is one of the most potential district for the development of various horticultural crops. The soil and climate conditions of the district are most suitable for growing horticultural crops. Cuddapah district despite having low rainfall has proned to be a congenial place for Citrus Plantations and Mango orchards, Onions etc. The important fruits grown in the district are Mango, Sweet Orange, Lime, Banana, Guava, Sapota and Papayya

Cuddapah district is endowed with rich mineral resources particularly Barytes, Asbestos, Lime Stone, Clay etc. The Barytes deposits in Management area are considered to be the best and largest in the World. Pulivendla area is engaging monopoly in superior christolite asbestos deposits in the State. Limestone, clay, quartz and dolomite are also available for benefication.The state also is known for cudapah slabs.

Mining[edit]

Mining is also one of the major large scale businesses. There are about 2664 mining industries in Kadapa according to government records in 2011-12. The geographical advantages of the Kadapa basin has made this particular industry flourish. Abundant minerals of barytes, limestone etc. is a huge attractor of investors from all over the country. Besides these, Tourism, Agriculture also contribute significant revenues to the economy. The City is full of many commercial and rare minerals which made the Mining Industry to gain command over the economy of Kadapa. There was also the discovery of Fullerene deposits in the Kadapa Basin. The estimated revenue that’s going to be generated by the mining of Fullerene minerals is very high. Early estimates reveal deposits of 74 million tonnes of fullerene. Each gram of fullerene costs around $2000 which vaguely accounts for 120 billion rupees.

Other[edit]

The other industrial segments of Kadapa are cement manufacturing, steel, oil and natural gas. Agro industries like Cotton, Sugar and Gunny Bag Industries also provide a major share in the city's economy. All these industries are under the estates of APIIC, AEP, etc. The leading number of Mining Industries is followed by Agro Industries (554 registered) which is further followed by electronics industry.[18]

Demographics[edit]

Kadapa population 
Census Pop.
1961 49,027
1971 66,195 35.0%
1981 103,125 55.8%
1991 121,463 17.8%
2001 287,093 136.4%
2011 344,893 20.1%
Kadapa Municipal Corporation

Kadapa is one of the largest and fastest developing cities in Andhra Pradesh. As per the 1991 census the population of the town was 1,21,463. It didn't increase much as per the 2001 census which recorded 1,26,505 lakhs for 20 wards population with an average decade growth rate of 0.36 per cent.[19] Later it was converted to a Municipal Corporation in 2005. As per provisional data of 2011 census, Kadapa urban agglomeration had a population of 344,078, out of which males were 172,969 and females were 171,109. The literacy rate was 79.34 per cent. The urban population had 75% Hindus, 22% Muslims and 3% Christians.-[20][21]

Education[edit]

There are good number of schools, degree colleges, engineering colleges and universities. These include Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kandula Srinivasa Reddy Memorial College of Engineering, Hyderabad Public School, Fathima Institute of Medical Sciences, S V Degree and PG Colleges and Yogi Vemana University.

Recreation[edit]

There are many recreation centres in Kadapa. These include public parks, movie theatres, hotels and cafes. Shilparamam, a crafts village is located in the outskirts of Kadapa, which also provides recreation to its citizens.[22] Apart from these there are also restaurants and recreation halls in Kadapa. Many cultural fairs and festivals also take place in the city.

Transport[edit]

Road[edit]

Kadapa is Known to have one of the best developed infrastructure of roads. Major transportation in Kadapa is through roads. The APSRTC provides its services in the city. So the city is well connected to all the major cities and towns of Andhra Pradesh. NH-18 passes through Kadapa.

Railway[edit]

Kadapa Railway Station in the city of Kadapa
A view of Kadapa railway station.

Kadapa has its own railway station in the city. The Mumbai-Chennai line which happens to be one of the busiest lines in the south central region passes through Kadapa railway station.

Airport[edit]

Cuddapah Airport in the city's outskirts is located about 10 km from the city's centre. Initially constructed in 1953, it was open for a long period before closing it for its redevelopment. It is now made open to public by Nara Chandrababu Naidu the current chief minister of AP on June 7, 2015 with its first flight to Bangalore operated by Air Pegasus. Operations to Hyderabad will also start soon. The Airport is likely to be named after "Annamayya".[23]

Tourism[edit]

Ameen Peer Dargah is one of the famous Sufi shrines in India
Ameen Peer Dargah is one of the famous Sufi shrines in India.

Kadapa has a good historical past, making it one the antique cities in India. The city has tourist attractions like, Devuni Kadapa, Ameen Peer Dargah, Bhagwan Mahavir Government Museum, etc. Besides these there are many other attractions around Kadapa, like the Sri Lankamalleswara Wildlife Sanctuary, Gandi and many more. [24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Kadapa City, Kadapa Information, Kadapa History, Kadapa India, Kadapa Andhra Pradesh". india4info.com. 
  2. ^ "New Commissioners for Guntur, Kadapa". The Hindu (Hyderabad). 13 August 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015. 
  3. ^ "Brief about Kadapa Municipal Corporation". www.cdma.gov.in. Municipal Administration & Urban Development Department, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 8 October 2013. 
  4. ^ "Language in India". languageinindia.com. 
  5. ^ "India Post- PIN Code Search". http://www.indiapost.gov.in/. Department of Posts, Ministry of Communications & Information Technology, Government of India. Retrieved 8 October 2013. 
  6. ^ "STD Codes (Andhra Pradesh)". Sarkaritel. 2005. Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  7. ^ a b "About Cuddapah". kadapaonline.in. 
  8. ^ "It will be `Kadapa' henceforth". The Hindu. 18 August 2005. Retrieved 8 October 2013. 
  9. ^ "History of Kadapa". kadapaonline.in. 
  10. ^ "Brief about Kadapa Municipal Corporation". Municipal Administration & Urban Development Department, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 27 November 2012. 
  11. ^ "redirect to /world/IN/02/Cuddapah.html". fallingrain.com. 
  12. ^ a b "Geography of Cuddapah, Climate of Cuddapah, Rivers in Kadapa". kadapaonline.in. 
  13. ^ Hussain. "Kadapa City". kadapacityrayalseema.blogspot.com. 
  14. ^ "KADAPA Weather, Temperature, Best Season, Kadapa Weather Forecast, Climate". mustseeindia.com. 
  15. ^ ":: KADAPA MUNICIPAL CORPORATION". ap.gov.in. 
  16. ^ a b "Culture of Kadapa". kadapaonline.in. 
  17. ^ "Cuisine of Kadapa". kadapaonline.in. 
  18. ^ "Business and Economy in Kadapa, Factors for Economic Growth". kadapaonline.in. 
  19. ^ http://theglobaljournals.com/paripex/file.php?val=November_2012_1353430588_c1e2b_21.pdf
  20. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2012-10-20. 
  21. ^ "Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2012-10-20. 
  22. ^ "Y.S.R.-District Panchayat". appr.gov.in. 
  23. ^ "Transport in Kadapa". kadapaonline.in. 
  24. ^ "Kadapa Tourism, Tourism in Cuddapah, Travel in Cuddapah". kadapaonline.in. 

External links[edit]

Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.