Gofraid mac Amlaíb meic Ragnaill

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Gofraid mac Amlaíb meic Ragnaill
King of Dublin
A photograph of the remains of Skuldelev II, an eleventh-century Viking ship.
The remains of Skuldelev II may be evidence that Gofraid aided Anglo-Danish forces against the Norman King of England.
Reign 1072–1075
Predecessor Toirdelbach Ua Briain
Successor Domnall mac Murchada
Dynasty Meic Ragnaill (Uí Ímair)
Died 1075

Gofraid mac Amlaíb meic Ragnaill (died 1075),[1] also known in Gaelic as Goffraid mac Amlaíb meic Ragnaill,[2] Gofraid ua Ragnaill,[3] in Old Norse as Guðrøðr Óláfsson,[4] and in English as Godfrey Olafsson,[5][note 1] was a late eleventh-century King of Dublin. Although the precise identities of his father and grandfather are uncertain, Gofraid was probably a member of the Norse-Gaelic Meic Ragnaill, an apparent branch of the Uí Ímair. As such, Gofraid was likely a kinsman of his royal predecessor, Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, King of Dublin and the Isles. Gofraid lived in an era when control of the Kingdom of Dublin was fought over by competing Irish overlords. In 1052, for example, Echmarcach was forced from the kingdom by the Uí Chennselaig King of Leinster, Diarmait mac Maíl na mBó. When the latter died in 1072, Dublin was seized by the Uí Briain King of Munster, Toirdelbach Ua Briain, a man who either handed the Dublin kingship over to Gofraid, or at least consented to Gofraid's local rule.

Gofraid appears to have had little independence from his Uí Briain overlord, as evidence by surviving correspondence between him, Toirdelbach, and Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury. Gofraid's reign came to an end in 1075, when Toirdelbach drove him overseas from Ireland, perhaps to the Kingdom of the Isles, after which he died within the year. On one hand, it is possible that Gofraid was ejected for involving himself in the Anglo-Danish insurrection against the recently established Norman regime of the Kingdom of England. On the other hand, another possibility is that Gofraid was plotting with the Uí Chennselaig against their Uí Briain overlords. Whatever the case, Gofraid was succeeded in Dublin by Domnall mac Murchada, an Uí Chennselaig dynast. Whether the later ruled with Toirdelbach's consent is likewise uncertain. There is reason to suspect that Gofraid may be identical to Gofraid mac Sitriuc, King of the Isles.

Background[edit]

Locations relating to Gofraid's life and times.

Gofraid was likely a member of the Meic Ragnaill,[11] and a close kinsman of Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, King of Dublin and the Isles (died 1064/1065).[12] In the eleventh- and twelfth-centuries, four candidates to the high-kingship of Ireland managed to gain control of the Kingdom of Dublin, and appoint their intended heirs as its rulers. In effect, control of this Norse-Gaelic coastal kingdom, and the exploitation of its military strength and remarkable wealth, had become a prerequisite for any Irish ruler wishing to stake a claim to the high-kingship.[13]

In 1052, Echmarcach was driven overseas from Ireland by Diarmait mac Maíl na mBó, King of Leinster (died 1072), who thereupon assumed the kingship of Dublin.[14] For the next twenty years, Diarmait controlled the realm,[15] and the town itself served as his capital.[16] About ten years after Diarmait's victory in Dublin, Echmarcach apparently fell prey to Diarmait again, as Mann was raided by Diarmait's son, Murchad (died 1070), who received tribute from a defeated "mac Ragnaill", perhaps Echmarcach himself.[17] Echmarcach eventually died in Rome, in 1064[18] or 1065.[19] On his death, the contemporary chronicler Marianus Scotus (died 1082) described him in Latin as "rex Innarenn",[20] a title that could either mean "King of the Isles",[21] or "King of the Rhinns".[22] If it represents the latter, it could be evidence that Echmarcach's once expansive sea-kingdom had gradually eroded to territory in Galloway only.[23]

On Diarmait's unexpected death in 1072, Toirdelbach Ua Briain, King of Munster (died 1086) gained overlordship of Leinster,[24] and took control of Dublin.[25] The Annals of Inisfallen claims that the kingship of Dublin was offered to Toirdelbach by the Dubliners.[26] Although this record may be mere Uí Briain propaganda, it could instead be evidence of the Dubliners' preference for a distant overlord from Munster rather than one from neighbouring Leinster.[27]

King of Dublin[edit]

Accession and attempted consolidation[edit]

Excerpt from Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 489 (the Annals of Ulster) showing the record of the ill-fated invasion of Mann in 1073, and the resulting deaths of Sitriuc and two grandsons of Brian Bóruma.

Within the year of Toirdelbach's takeover, the Annals of Inisfallen reveal that Gofraid himself held the kingship of Dublin.[32] Toirdelbach evidently consented to this arrangement,[33] or may have even appointed Gofraid himself,[34] perhaps on account of the considerable distance between the kingdoms of Dublin and Munster.[35]

Uí Briain involvement in the Kingdom of the Isles soon followed their acquisition of Dublin. In 1073, an unsuccessful Irish-based invasion of Mann was apparently repulsed by Fingal mac Gofraid, King of the Isles.[36] According to the Annals of Ulster, which notes the incursion, the expedition was led by a certain Sitriuc mac Amlaíb (died 1073) and two grandsons of Brian Bóruma, High King of Ireland (died 1014).[37] The precise identity of these three slain raiders is uncertain, as are the circumstances of the expedition itself.[38] It is very likely, however, that the incursion was closely connected to the recent Uí Briain takeover of Dublin.[39] In fact, there is reason to suspect that Sitriuc was not only a member of the Meic Ragnaill, but perhaps a brother of Gofraid himself.[40]

The Meic Ragnaill and the Uí Briain clearly enjoyed close familial links. Brian's son, Donnchad, King of Munster (died 1065), had previously married Cacht ingen Ragnaill (died 1054), a sister or niece of Echmarcach himself;[41] and Toirdelbach's son, Tadc (died 1086), married Echmarcach's daughter, Mór.[42] It is therefore possible that, following the Dublin ascendancy of the Uí Briain, Sitriuc and his apparent Uí Briain kinsmen attempted to take what they regarded as their Meic Ragnaill patrimony in the Isles.[43]

Ecclesiastical affairs[edit]

Excerpt from Oxford Bodleian Library MS Bodley 569 showing Lanfranc.[44]

Significant ecclesiastical appointments in Ireland were generally subject the to endorsement of local kings.[45] Therefore, when Dúnán, Bishop of Dublin died in 1074, Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury (died 1089) was petitioned by Gofraid, on behalf of the clergy and people of Dublin, to consecrate Gilla Pátraic (died 1084) as Dúnán's successor.[46] When Lanfranc sent Gilla Pátraic to Ireland, he dispatched a letter to Gofraid which urged the king to correct moral laxities among his people (practices such as divorce, remarriage, and concubinage). The archbishop also sent a similar letter to Toirdelbach. These Latin letters call Gofraid gloriosius Hiberniae rex ("the glorious King of Ireland"), and Toirdelbach magnificus Hiberniae rex,[47] and appear to indicate that Lanfranc was aware Gofraid had little independence during his kingship, and that the latter was closely bound to the authority of his Uí Briain overlord.[48] In the eyes of contemporary Gregorian reformers, the eleventh- and twelfth-century Irish Church was remarkably old-fashioned.[49] One such reformer was Lanfranc, who proceeded to reorganise the Church in the Norse-Gaelic enclaves of Ireland, Dublin in particular.[50] Although the Synod of Cashel, convened in 1101 by Toirdelbach's son Muirchertach (died 1119), has sometimes been regarded as the first of the reforming Irish synods, it is likely that there were earlier such assemblies. The deliberations concerning the appointment of Gilla Pátraic, a monk with links to Worcester, may well have been one.[51]

Expulsion overseas[edit]

Excerpt from Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 489 (the Annals of Ulster) showing the record of Gofraid's death in 1075.

Unfortunately for Gofraid, his reign appears to have been rather brief, as the Annals of Innisfallen states that he was banished overseas by Toirdelbach, and that Gofraid died "beyond sea", having assembled a "great fleet" to come to Ireland.[52] Gofraid, therefore, appears to have fled to the Isles, and died whilst gathering a fleet to invade Dublin.[53] At some point after his departure, the kingship was taken up by the Uí Chennselaig, in the person of Diarmait's grandson, Domnall mac Murchada (died 1075). Whether Domnall ruled with the consent of the Uí Briain is uncertain; although what is certain is that he died of illness within the year,[54] after which Toirdelbach appointed his aforesaid eldest son, Muirchertach, as King of Dublin.[55]

Anglo-Danish insurrections in England[edit]

Havhingsten fra Glendalough, a modern Danish reconstruction of Skuldelev II. The original warship, built in Dublin and deliberately sunk in Denmark, dates to Gofraid's floruit.

The precise reason for Gofraid's ejection from Dublin is uncertain.[56] Domnall's brief rise to power immediately after Gofraid's fall could suggest that the latter was involved in an Uí Chennselaig takeover of Dublin.[57] Another possibility is that Gofraid may have been involved in the ongoing native resistance to the regime of William I, King of England (died 1087).[58] In 1066, the latter had toppled the regime of Harold Godwinsson, King of England (died 1066), and dramatically consolidated his control throughout the kingdom.[59] In effect, the Norman Conquest of England resulted in the virtual extirpation of the native Anglo-Danish aristocracy.[60] Even before Harold had originally succeeded to the throne, Diarmait, Gofraid's aforesaid predecessor in Dublin, had been a close ally of the Harold's family.[61] With the fall of Anglo-Saxon England, Diarmait continued to support the Godwinssons, and sheltered two of Harold's sons.[62] From Ireland, the sons launched two significant sea-borne assaults on England's south-western coast. One in 1068, and one 1069.[63] The later attack coincided with a northern English revolt and Danish invasion in the same year.[64][note 2]

In 1075, an English revolt against the Norman regime was led by Roger, Earl of Hereford (fl. 1071–1087), Ralph, Earl of East Anglia (died 1097×1099), and Waltheof, Earl of Northumbria (died 1076). The uprising was timed to take place when William was away on the continent. The revolt was also strengthened by Danish support, in the form of a fleet of two hundred ships, led by Knútr Sveinnsson (died 1086), brother of Haraldr Sveinnsson, King of Denmark (died 1080).[66] Unfortunately for the rebels, the uprising was quelled, largely due to the actions of Wulfstan, Bishop of Worcester (died 1095), and by the time Knútr's fleet reached the English coast, the revolt was utterly crushed.[67] The Irish dimension in previous insurrections against the Norman regime suggests that Gofraid may have been involved in the aforesaid actions of 1075.[68] A twelfth-century eulogy composed for Knútr states that Knútr's fame was known as far as Ireland, and could be evidence of relations between Ireland and Denmark during Toirdelbach's overlordship.[69] In fact, there may be physical evidence of Gofraid's involvment in the form of an eleventh-century longship, Skuldelev II, recovered from Roskilde Fjord in Denmark. Apparently built in Dublin in about 1042, and later repaired in about 1075, the ship may be evidence that Gofraid was at least supplying the Danes with warships.[70][note 3]

Whilst Diarmait supported William's English opponents, Toirdelbach appears to have ushered in an era of close co-operation with William's regime.[75] If Dubliners were indeed involved in the English revolt of 1075, this may well have led to Gofraid's expulsion by his Uí Briain overlord.[76] In fact, it may be relevant that Wulfstan, who played a leading role in repelling the aforesaid uprising of 1175, was a close associate of the recently consecrated Gilla Pátraic, who was in turn on good terms with Toirdelbach.[77] Whatever the case, the aforesaid record of Gofraid's supposed "great fleet" of 1075 may actually refer to Knútr's aforesaid fleet of the same year—a fleet which may have been regarded by the Irish annalist to have been affiliated with the exiled Gofraid.[78]

Gofraid mac Sitriuc[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Fingal mac Gofraid.
An excerpt from folio 32v of British Library MS Cotton Julius A VII (the Chronicle of Mann): "Godredus filius Sytric rex Manniæ".[79]

It is possible that Gofraid is identical to the like-named Gofraid mac Sitriuc, King of the Isles (died 1070).[80] The latter is attested in 1066 by the Chronicle of Mann, which states that he gave sanctuary to Gofraid Crobán following the Norwegian route at the Battle of Stamford Bridge.[81] According to the chronicle, Gofraid mac Sitriuc died in 1070, and was succeeded in the Isles by his aforesaid son, Fingal.[82] Not long after the latter's accession, Gofraid Crobán conquered Mann and seized the kingship for himself.[83] Whether he did so at the expense of Fingal is uncertain.[84]

If Gofraid is identical to Gofraid mac Sitriuc, it could be evidence that Gofraid succeeded Echmarcach in Dublin and the Isles.[85] This identification, if correct, would mean that the Meic Ragnaill controlled the Isles in the 1070s, suggesting that the aforesaid Sitriuc, slain in the ill-fated invasion of Mann in 1073, was unlikely a Meic Ragnaill himself, but perhaps a member of the family's bitter rivals, the Meic Amlaíb.[86] Furthermore, if Gofraid and Gofraid mac Sitriuc are indeed identical, it would mean that Gofraid almost certainly fled to Mann after his expulsion from Dublin,[87] and that Gofraid Crobán, an apparent member of the Meic Amlaíb,[88] seized the kingship of the Isles at some point after his death.[89] That being said, there is also contrary evidence suggesting that Gofraid mac Sitriuc was instead a Meic Amlaíb and kinsman of Gofraid Crobán.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Scholars have rendered Gofraid's personal name variously in recent secondary sources: Godfrey,[6] Godred,[7] Gofraid,[8] Guthric,[9] and Guðrøðr.[10]
  2. ^ Specifically, in regards to the latter Irish-based invasion, Diarmait is stated by Orderic Vitalis (died c.1142) to have supplied a fleet of sixty-six ships. Of this, only two small boatloads are said to have come back alive.[65]
  3. ^ The ship was originally about thirty metres (98 ft) long,[71] with thirty pairs of oars, and a crew of about sixty to seventy-five men.[72] The remarkable size of the ship suggests it was the property of a pre-eminent lord, and was likely a class of warship known in Old Norse as skeið[73] (scegð in Old English).[74]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Moody; Martin; Byrne (2005); Beuermann (2002).
  2. ^ Candon (1991).
  3. ^ Duffy (2006).
  4. ^ Downham (2004).
  5. ^ Hudson, B (2006).
  6. ^ Hudson, B (2006); Hudson, BT (2005).
  7. ^ Hudson, B (2006); Hudson, B (2005).
  8. ^ Flanagan (2008); Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005); Cowdrey (2004); Flanagan (2004); Beuermann (2002); Ó Corráin (2001); Duffy (1992).
  9. ^ Cowdrey (2004); Flanagan (2004)
  10. ^ Downham (2004); Hudson (1994).
  11. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 232.
  12. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 232.
  13. ^ Ó Corráin (2001) p. 26; Duffy (1992).
  14. ^ Hudson, BT (2004); Duffy (1992) p. 94.
  15. ^ Duffy (1993) p. 13.
  16. ^ Duffy (2009) p. 291.
  17. ^ Hudson, BT (2005) p. 129; Hudson, BT (2004); Duffy (1993) p. 14; Duffy (1992) p. 100.
  18. ^ Downham (2007) p. 193 fig. 12; Duffy (2006) p. 57.
  19. ^ Duffy (2006) pp. 53, 57; Hudson, BT (2005) pp. 129, 130 fig. 4.
  20. ^ Flanagan (2010) p. 231 n. 196; Downham (2007) p. 171; Duffy (2006) p. 56–57; Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 229; Hudson, BT (2005) pp. 129, 138; Etchingham (2001) p. 160; Oram (2000) p. 17; Duffy (1992) pp. 98–99; Anderson (1922a) pp. 590–592 n. 2; Waitz (1844) p. 559.
  21. ^ Flanagan (2010) p. 231 n. 196; Duffy (2006) pp. 56–57.
  22. ^ Flanagan (2010) p. 231 n. 196; Downham (2007) p. 171; Duffy (2006) pp. 56–57; Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 229; Hudson, BT (2005) pp. 129, 138; Etchingham (2001) p. 160; Oram (2000) p. 17; Duffy (1992) pp. 98–99.
  23. ^ Woolf (2007) p. 245; Hudson, BT (2005) p. 143; Duffy (1992) p. 100.
  24. ^ Duffy (1992) pp. 101–102.
  25. ^ Bracken (2004b); Hudson, BT (2004); Duffy (1993) pp. 14–15; Duffy (1992) p. 101.
  26. ^ Annals of Inisfallen (2010) § 1072.4; Annals of Inisfallen (2008) § 1072.4; Duffy (1992) p. 102.
  27. ^ Duffy (1992) p. 101.
  28. ^ Duffy (1992) p. 102.
  29. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 232; Hudson, B (2005).
  30. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 233.
  31. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 232; Hudson, B (2005); Hudson, BT (2005) pp. 130 fig. 4; Duffy (1992) p. 105, 105 n. 59.
  32. ^ Annals of Inisfallen (2010) § 1072.6; Annals of Inisfallen (2008) § 1072.6; Duffy (2006) p. 57; Duffy (1992) p. 102.
  33. ^ Hudson, B (2006) p. 113; Duffy (1992) p. 102; Candon (1991) p. 4.
  34. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 232; Candon (1991) p. 4.
  35. ^ Duffy (1993) p. 15.
  36. ^ Duffy (2006) pp. 57–58; Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 232; Hudson, BT (2005) p. 172; Woolf (2004) pp. 100–101; Oram (2000) p. 19.
  37. ^ The Annals of Ulster (2012) § 1073.5; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 1073.5; Duffy (2006) pp. 57–58; Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 232; Hudson, B (2005).
  38. ^ Duffy (1992) p. 102.
  39. ^ Duffy (2006) p. 57; Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 232; Duffy (1992) p. 102.
  40. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 232; Hudson, B (2005); Hudson, BT (2005) pp. 130 fig. 4, 172.
  41. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 232; Hudson, BT (2005) pp. 130 fig. 4; Duffy (1992) p. 97.
  42. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 232; Duffy (1992) p. 105, 105 n. 59.
  43. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 232; Hudson, BT (2005) p. 172.
  44. ^ Cowdrey (2004).
  45. ^ Candon (1991) p. 4.
  46. ^ Gilbert (2012) p. 249; Hudson, B (2006) pp. 113–114; Cowdrey (2004); Flanagan (2004); Hudson (1994) pp. 149–150; Duffy (1992) p. 102 n. 45; Candon (1991) p. 4; Elrington; Todd (n.d.) pp. 488–489.
  47. ^ Flanagan (2008) pp. 904–905; Hudson, B (2006) pp. 114, 221; Cowdrey (2004); Cowdrey (2003) pp. 145–146; Flanagan (2004); Hudson (1994) p. 150; Duffy (1992) p. 102 n. 45; Clover; Gibson (1979) pp. 66–68 (§ 9), 70–72 (§ 10); Munch; Goss (1874b) pp. 266–268; Elrington; Todd (n.d.) pp. 490–491 (§ 26), 492–494 (§ 27).
  48. ^ Flanagan (2008) pp. 904–905; Duffy (1992) p. 102 n. 45; Hudson (1994) p. 150.
  49. ^ Ó Corráin (1996) pp. 41–42.
  50. ^ Hudson, B (2006) p. 114; Ó Corráin (1996) pp. 41–42.
  51. ^ Candon (1991) pp. 4–8.
  52. ^ Annals of Inisfallen (2010) § 1075.2; Duffy (2009) pp. 295–296; Annals of Inisfallen (2008) § 1075.2; Hudson (2005) p. 167; Hudson (1994) p. 152, 152 n. 41; Duffy (1992) p. 102.
  53. ^ Hudson (2005) p. 167; Ó Corráin (1971) p. 21.
  54. ^ Hudson (2005) p. 167; Duffy (1993) p. 15; Duffy (1992) pp. 102–103; Ó Corráin (1971) p. 21.
  55. ^ Hudson (2005) p. 167; Bracken (2004a); Duffy (1993) p. 15; Duffy (1992) pp. 102–103.
  56. ^ Hudson, B (2006) p. 116; Hudson, B (2005); Hudson (2005) p. 167; Hudson (1994) p. 152.
  57. ^ Hudson, B (2006) p. 116; Hudson (1994) p. 152.
  58. ^ Hudson, B (2006) p. 116; Hudson (2005) p. 167; Hudson (1994) pp. 152–153.
  59. ^ Bates (2011).
  60. ^ Barlow (2013) p. 2.
  61. ^ Barlow (2013) p. 59; Hudson (1994) pp. 146, 168.
  62. ^ Hudson (1994) pp. 168–169; Downham (2004) p. 68; Duffy (2009) p. 295; Hudson (1994) p. 146; Hudson (1979) p. 94.
  63. ^ Hudson (1994) p. 169; Downham (2004) p. 68; Hudson (1994) pp. 146–147; Hudson (1979) pp. 94–97.
  64. ^ Downham (2004) p. 68; Hudson (1994) pp. 146–147.
  65. ^ Downham (2004) p. 68.
  66. ^ Hudson, B (2006) pp. 115–116; Hudson (2005) p. 167; Downham (2004) p. 68; Hudson (1994) p. 152, 152 n. 39.
  67. ^ Hudson, B (2006) p. 116; Downham (2004) p. 69; Hudson (1994) p. 152.
  68. ^ Hudson, B (2006) p. 116; Hudson (2005) p. 167; Hudson (1994) p. 152–153.
  69. ^ Hudson, B (2006) p. 116; Hudson (2005) p. 167; Hudson (1994) p. 152.
  70. ^ Downham (2004) pp. 68–69.
  71. ^ Somerville; McDonald (2013) p. 15; Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) pp. 142 n. 58, 165.
  72. ^ Somerville; McDonald (2013) p. 15; Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 165.
  73. ^ Somerville; McDonald (2013) p. 15.
  74. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 165.
  75. ^ Downham (2004) p. 69; Hudson (1994) pp. 155–158.
  76. ^ Hudson (1994) pp. 152–153.
  77. ^ Hudson, B (2006) p. 116; Hudson (1994) p. 153.
  78. ^ Duffy (2009) pp. 295–296.
  79. ^ Munch; Goss (1874a) p. 50; Cotton MS Julius A VII (n.d.).
  80. ^ Moody; Martin; Byrne (2005) p. 468 n. 4; Beuermann (2002).
  81. ^ Duffy (2006) pp. 51, 61; Hudson, BT (2005) p. 171; Anderson (1922b) p. 18 n. 1, 43–44 n. 6; Munch; Goss (1874a) pp. 50–51.
  82. ^ Duffy (2006) p. 51; Hudson, BT (2005) p. 172; Woolf (2004) p. 100; Anderson (1922b) p. 22; Munch; Goss (1874a) pp. 50–51.
  83. ^ Duffy (2006) p. 62.
  84. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 232; Hudson, BT (2005) p. 172; Woolf (2004) pp. 100–101; Oram (2000) p. 19.
  85. ^ Duffy (2006) p. 57.
  86. ^ Duffy (2006) pp. 57–58.
  87. ^ Duffy (2006) p. 58.
  88. ^ Duffy (2006) p. 60.
  89. ^ Duffy (2006) p. 62.

References[edit]

Primary sources[edit]

Secondary sources[edit]

  • Candon, A (1991). "Barefaced Effrontery: Secular and Ecclesiastical Politics in Early Twelfth Century Ireland". Seanchas Ardmhacha: Journal of the Armagh Diocesan Historical Society (Cumann Seanchais Ard Mhacha). Vol. 14 (No. 2): 193–25. JSTOR 29742490 – via JSTOR. (subscription required (help)). 
  • Duffy, S (1993). "Pre-Norman Dublin: Capital of Ireland?". History Ireland (Wordwell). Vol. 1 (No. 4): 13–18. JSTOR 27724114 – via JSTOR. (subscription required (help)). 
  • Duffy, S (2006). "The Royal Dynasties of Dublin and the Isles in the Eleventh Century". In Duffy, S. Medieval Dublin. Vol. 7, Proceedings of the Friends of Medieval Dublin Symposium 2005. Dublin: Four Courts Press. pp. 51–65. ISBN 1-85182-974-1 – via Google Books. 
  • Hudson, B (1994). "William the Conqueror and Ireland". Irish Historical Studies (Irish Historical Publications). Vol. 29 (No. 114): 145–158. JSTOR 30006739 – via JSTOR. (subscription required (help)). 
  • Hudson, B (2005). "Ua Briain, Tairrdelbach, (c. 1009–July 14, 1086 at Kincora)". In Duffy, S. Medieval Ireland: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge. pp. 462–463. ISBN 0-415-94052-4. 

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