High Performance Computing Act of 1991

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High Performance Computing Act of 1991
Great Seal of the United States
Long title An Act to provide for a coordinated Federal program to ensure continued United States leadership in high-performance computing.
Acronyms (colloquial) HPCA
Nicknames Gore Bill
Enacted by the 102nd United States Congress
Effective December 9, 1991
Public law 102-194
Statutes at Large 105 Stat. 1594
Titles amended 15 U.S.C.: Commerce and Trade
U.S.C. sections created 15 U.S.C. ch. 81 § 5501
Legislative history
  • Introduced in the Senate as S. 272 by Al Gore (D-TN) on January 24, 1991
  • Committee consideration by Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Subcommittee and Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space
  • Passed the Senate on September 11, 1991 (passed)
  • Passed the House on November 20, 1991 (passed) with amendment
  • Senate agreed to House amendment on November 22, 1991 (agreed)
  • Signed into law by President George H.W. Bush on December 9, 1991

The High Performance Computing Act of 1991 (HPCA) is an Act of Congress promulgated in the 102nd United States Congress as (Pub.L. 102–194) on December 9, 1991. Often referred to as the Gore Bill,[1] it was created and introduced by then Senator Al Gore, and led to the development of the National Information Infrastructure and the funding of the National Research and Education Network (NREN).[1][2][3]


The act built on prior US efforts of developing a national networking infrastructure, starting with the ARPANET in the 1960s, which laid the foundation for the modern Internet, and the funding of the National Science Foundation Network (NSFnet) in the 1980s. The renewed effort became known in popular language as building the Information superhighway.[2][4]

Development and passage[edit]

Senator Al Gore developed the Act[1] after hearing the 1988 report Toward a National Research Network[5] submitted to Congress by a group chaired by UCLA professor of computer science Leonard Kleinrock, one of the creators of the ARPANET, which is regarded as the earliest precursor network of the Internet.[6]

The bill was enacted on December 9, 1991, and led to the National Information Infrastructure (NII)[7] which Gore referred to as the "Information superhighway". President George H. W. Bush predicted that the Act would help "unlock the secrets of DNA," open up foreign markets to free trade, and a promise of cooperation between government, academia, and industry.[8]

President's Information Technology Advisory Committee[edit]

PITAC was started in 1991 under the High Performance Computing Act of 1991. On May 28, 2003, President George W. Bush extended the committee.[9]


External links[edit]