High Performance Computing Act of 1991
|Long title||An Act to provide for a coordinated Federal program to ensure continued United States leadership in high-performance computing.|
|Enacted by||the 102nd United States Congress|
|Effective||December 9, 1991|
|Statutes at Large||105 Stat. 1594|
|Titles amended||15 U.S.C.: Commerce and Trade|
|U.S.C. sections created||15 U.S.C. ch. 81 § 5501|
The High Performance Computing Act of 1991 (HPCA) is an Act of Congress promulgated in the 102nd United States Congress as (Pub.L. 102–194) on December 9, 1991. Often referred to as the Gore Bill, it was created and introduced by then Senator Al Gore, and led to the development of the National Information Infrastructure and the funding of the National Research and Education Network (NREN).
The act built on prior US efforts of developing a national networking infrastructure, starting with the ARPANET in the 1960s, which laid the foundation for the modern Internet, and the funding of the National Science Foundation Network (NSFnet) in the 1980s. The renewed effort became known in popular language as building the Information superhighway.
Development and passage
Senator Al Gore developed the Act after hearing the 1988 report Toward a National Research Network submitted to Congress by a group chaired by UCLA professor of computer science Leonard Kleinrock, one of the creators of the ARPANET, which is regarded as the earliest precursor network of the Internet.
The bill was enacted on December 9, 1991, and led to the National Information Infrastructure (NII) which Gore referred to as the "Information superhighway". President George H. W. Bush predicted that the Act would help "unlock the secrets of DNA," open up foreign markets to free trade, and a promise of cooperation between government, academia, and industry.
President's Information Technology Advisory Committee
- Computer History Museum – Exhibits – Internet History – 1990s
- Information Superhighway Envisioned-Legislation Pending to Establish National Computer Network Archived 2006-10-01 at the Wayback Machine.
- NREN | Technology Resources
- FCLJ Vol 46, No. 3 – Blake and Tiedrich Archived 2007-06-09 at the Wayback Machine.
- Kleinrock, Leonard; Kahn, Bob; Clark, David; et al. (1988). "Toward a National Research Network". Retrieved 2007-06-01.
- Kleinrock, Leonard; Cerf, Vint; Kahn, Bob; et al. (2003-12-10). "A Brief History of the Internet". Retrieved 2007-06-01.
- Chapman, Gary; Rotenberg, Marc (1993). "The National Information Infrastructure:A Public Interest Opportunity". Retrieved 2007-06-01.
- Bush, George H.W. (9 December 1991). "Remarks on Signing the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991". bushlibrary.tamu.edu. George Bush Presidential Library. Retrieved 2008-01-16.
- Office of the Press Secretary (May 30, 2003). "Extension of the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee and the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology" (PDF). Federal Register. Washington, D.C.: Federal Government of the United States. Archived from the original on May 30, 2003. Retrieved April 9, 2017.
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