2channel

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2channel
2ちゃんねる
Topimage (2ch).png
2channel's logo in 2012, featuring a spittoon surrounded by popular memes from the site
Type of site
Textboard
Available inJapanese
Predecessor(s)Ayashii World
Amezou
OwnerDisputed
Created byHiroyuki Nishimura
URL2ch.net (historically)
Alexa rankIncrease 523
(Global, December 2013)
Increase 26
(Japan, December 2013)
CommercialYes
Users10 million monthly (2010)[1]
Launched30 May 1999; 21 years ago (1999-05-30)[2]
Current statusDisputed
5channel
5ちゃんねる
5ch logo.png
Available inJapanese, with a small minority of boards in English[3]
OwnerJim Watkins
ParentLoki Technology Inc. via Race Queen Inc.
URL5ch.net
Alexa rankSteady 76 (Japan, May 2020)
CommercialYes
Current statusActive
2ch.sc
2ちゃんねる[note 1]
2ch.sc logo.png
Available inJapanese
Founded19 February 2014; 6 years ago (2014-02-19)
OwnerHiroyuki Nishimura
ParentPacket Monster Inc.[4]
URL2ch.sc
Alexa rankSteady 884 (Japan, May 2020)
CommercialYes
Current statusActive

2channel (Japanese: 2ちゃんねる, Hepburn: ni channeru), also known as 2ch,[5] Channel 2,[6][7] and sometimes retrospectively as 2ch.net,[8] was an anonymous Japanese textboard[note 2] founded in 1999 by Hiroyuki Nishimura. Described as "Japan's most popular online community, with around ten million users accessing it each day,"[9] it had a level of influence in society described as comparable to that of traditional mass media such as television, radio, and magazines.[2] In 2007, the site had an annual revenue of around ¥100 million;[10][11] it was then the largest site of its kind in the world, receiving 2.5 million posts per day.[2]

2channel and its successors are more controversial than other social media in Japan;[5] they are extremely popular among Japan's extreme right wing, known as the netto-uyoku, who post xenophobic comments, often targeting Koreans.[9][6] Defamation is of particular concern; by August 2008, Nishimura had received more than one hundred lawsuits for defamatory comments left on the website.[11] Announcements of crimes also have drawn scrutiny towards 2channel and its successors.[12][13][14][15] In 2012, 2channel was accused by the Tokyo Metropolitan Police of allowing its platform to be used by amphetamine dealers,[16] although no charges were filed.[12]

The site was hosted and had its domain registration provided by Jim Watkins in San Francisco, California.[10][1][17] In 2009, the site's ownership was transferred to Packet Monster Inc., but Nishimura remained in control[12][18] until February 2014, when Watkins seized its domain, 2ch.net.[17][19] This domain seizure resulted in two textboards claiming to be the legitimate 2channel:[19] 5channel (5ちゃんねる, go channeru, domain 5ch.net), owned by Watkins through Philippine corporation Loki Technology Inc., and 2ch.sc,[note 1] owned by Nishimura through Packet Monster Inc.[4]

As of May 2020, 5channel had 1,031 boards receiving around 488,000 posts daily,[21] down from more than 1.8 million in 2016.[22] Meanwhile, 2ch.sc then had 826 boards receiving around 5,700 posts daily.[23] A year before the split, 2ch.net received approximately 1.13 million posts per day.[24][note 3]

History[edit]

Ayashii World was laid out something like a non-threaded e-mail client without subjects. All messages were sorted chronologically, and to see the post being replied to, one must follow a link.[25]
Meanwhile Amezou, and 2channel, were laid out in the more familiar textboard format, where threads are ordered by their last post unless the user specifically chooses not to make their post bump the thread.[25]

Predecessors[edit]

Textboards like 2channel were rooted in two earlier technologies: dial-in bulletin boards, known in Japan as grass roots bulletin boards (草の根BBS),[5] and Usenet.[26] 2channel has two direct predecessors: Ayashii World [ja] (あやしいわーるど), created in 1996 by Shiba Masayuki,[26] and Amezou (あめぞう),[25] created in 1997. Ayashii World was the first large anonymous web bulletin board in Japan, while Amezou originated the more familiar "textboard" concept wherein threads are displayed chronologically, with new comments bumping old threads to the top, rather than in a branching tree.[26][25] Ayashii World closed in 1998, leading most of its former users to go to Amezou;[26] Nishimura advertised 2channel in a post on Amezou in May 1999, calling it "Amezou's second channel".[25] From June, Amezou became increasingly unable to handle the load on its servers,[25] until its author felt forced to shut it down after violent threats were posted on it.[26]

Hiroyuki Nishimura, above, founded 2channel in 1999 while a student in Arkansas.

Early history[edit]

2channel was founded on 30 May 1999 in a college apartment in Conway, Arkansas on the campus of University of Central Arkansas[2] by Hiroyuki Nishimura.[1] Success came quickly; many of Amezou's users began using it as soon as it opened.[5] When compared with other bulletin boards, 2channel's technology wasn't much different; what led to its success was instead its being an "outlet for unfettered expression";[10] by being hosted in the United States, 2channel was able to bypass more restrictive Japanese censorship rules, while still being accessible from Japan.[27] The site also enjoyed greater immunity from legal action within Japan due to the location of its servers.[10][28] By 2002, Google said that the most searched word in Japan was "2channel".[29] By 2004, 2channel was already the largest internet forum in Japan.[6]

The name "2channel" is a reference to VHF channel 2, the default setting for the RF modulators used in earlier-generation game consoles (such as Nintendo's Family Computer) when connecting to Japanese television sets.[11] The site's iconic jar logo is a reference to deprecatory remarks some former users of Ayashii World would make about 2channel early on in the site's history, likening it to a spittoon (痰壷).[30][31] Nishimura took this nickname and adopted it as the site's logo by 2002.[31][32]

Jim Watkins [ja], an ex-US army non-commissioned officer (sergeant first class), domain name registrar, and dedicated hosting service provider, hosted 2channel since at least 2004[8] through various corporate identities, including Big-server.com Inc.,[33] Pacific Internet Exchange LLC[34] and N. T. Technology Inc.[35] Before 2channel, Watkins' company primarily specialized in using servers and domains in the United States to serve uncensored pornographic content to users in Japan.[28][35]

Ownership transfer and government scrutiny[edit]

On 2 January 2009, Nishimura claimed to have transferred ownership of 2channel to Packet Monster Inc., a company based in Chinatown, Singapore, and to no longer be involved in the site's management.[36][37] However, Nishimura was charged with violating Japanese narcotic control laws anyway on 20 December 2012.[38][note 4] As part of their case, the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department (MPD) claimed Nishimura remained involved in 2channel's operations, alleging Packet Monster Inc. is a shell company (ペーパーカンパニー).[12] The main thrust of the complaint was that Nishimura allegedly did not delete posts seeking to purchase illicit amphetamine from other 2channel users online; the Internet Hotline Center [ja], an agency of the MPD, alleged that in 2011 97% of its 5,223 deletion requests did not result in deletion.[16] On 19 March 2013, the Public Prosecutors Office decided not to prosecute the case.[12]

In August 2013, the Tokyo Regional Taxation Bureau declared in a tax audit that Nishimura had allegedly failed to declare ¥100 million worth of website revenue which should have been taxed between 2009 and 2012, years in which he financially benefited from Packet Monster Inc.; Nishimura settled the matter by paying a penalty of ¥30 million.[12][39]

Personal information leak[edit]

In August 2013, a hacker using the name sassy etchi (さっしーえっち)[40] leaked [ja] the personal details (including names, addresses, and phone numbers)[41] and credit card numbers of thousands of 2channel users who had used 2channel's paid services into the public domain,[42] exposing the anonymous profiles of various high level personas such as politicians and writers,[43] including 2channel's own attorney, Takahiro Karasawa (唐澤貴洋),[40] and a staff member of AKB48.[44] More than 74,000 users had their personal information exposed by the leak.[45]

The paid service involved in the leak was known as the "2channel viewer" (2ちゃんねるビューア),[40] or maru ().[46][note 5] Its main utility was that it allowed users to read old threads; if a thread on 2channel received 1,000 posts, it would become part of the kako rogu (過去ログ, lit. past log) by a process of ".dat omission" (dat落ち)[note 6] of such threads, after which time a thread was no longer freely accessible.[48][1] 2channel charged ¥3,600 per year for the service, which was typically paid by credit card; logs of these payments were the source of the data leak.[49]

At the time of the leak, Watkins apologized on behalf of N. T. Technology, Inc., saying he was the victim of a "cyber attack" and that "some data [of my] customers was compromised."[41][50]

Domain seizure and split[edit]

On 19 February 2014, Jim Watkins, as chairman of N.T. Technology, Inc., 2channel's domain registrar, seized 2channel's domain. He took full control over the website, relieved Nishimura of all power, and assumed the role of website administrator.[19] Watkins made the kako rogu free to all users shortly after assuming control.[51]

Watkins claimed that Nishimura had failed to pay him money owed which led to the seizure as a way to cover Nishimura's debts,[52] while Nishimura claimed that he had in fact paid everything owed and that the domain transfer was an illegal domain hijacking.[53] In response, Nishimura created his own clone of 2channel at 2ch.sc [ja],[54] scraping the contents of the entire 2channel website and updating 2ch.sc as new posts appeared on 2ch.net. In a Q&A session on 4chan shortly after becoming the site's owner, Nishimura claimed that 2channel was stolen by Watkins.[55]

Nishimura has attempted to repossess the domain both through WIPO's Uniform Domain-Name Dispute-Resolution Policy[56] and through the Japanese court system.[8][57] Through the Japan Patent Office, Nishimura owns the trademark "2channel",[58] though the WIPO refused to intervene on his behalf on account of that, suggesting the parties go to court instead as it was not, in its view, a case of "cybersquatting" but rather a "business dispute".[56] In 2018, Nishimura won a lawsuit against Watkins in the Tokyo District Court.[57][8]

On 1 October 2017, 2ch.net began redirecting to 5ch.net, a domain owned by Loki Technology, Inc.[59] The chairman of Loki Technology Inc. is also Jim Watkins;[60] his wife, Liziel, is the treasurer and majority shareholder.[35] Ron Watkins, his son, in 2016 registered the trademark "5channel" in Japan.[61] According to a press release, the name was changed to 5channel to avoid potential legal issues due to Nishimura's ownership of the "2channel" trademark.[62]

Culture[edit]

A Nintendo DSi browsing a thread on 2channel's automobile board as it appeared in 2008.

Due to its large number of boards, the types of information exchanged on 2channel are very diverse.[2] There are boards for topics as diverse as sports, sex, celebrity gossip, computer programming[10] and ongoing earthquakes;[63] even some academic research has gotten its start on 2channel.[64]

As of May 2020, 5channel had 1,031 boards receiving around 488,000 posts daily,[21] down from more than 1.8 million in 2016.[22] Meanwhile, 2ch.sc then had 826 boards receiving around 5,700 posts daily.[23] A year before the split, 2ch.net received approximately 1.13 million posts per day.[24][note 3]

Anonymous posting[edit]

One of the most distinctive features of 2channel is its use of anonymous posting.[2] Nishimura explained his reasons for preferring anonymity online to USC Annenberg's Japan Media Review thus:[7]

If there is a user ID attached to a user, a discussion tends to become a criticizing game. On the other hand, under the anonymous system, even though your opinion/information is criticized, you don't know with whom to be upset. Also with a user ID, those who participate in the site for a long time tend to have authority, and it becomes difficult for a user to disagree with them. Under a perfectly anonymous system, you can say, "it's boring," if it is actually boring. All information is treated equally; only an accurate argument will work.

However, a frequent criticism directed toward anonymous textboards like 2channel, most notably by Kazuhiko Nishi, is that their anonymous nature make them mere "toilet graffiti" (便所の落書き).[65][30] 2channel's anonymity is a departure from most English language internet forums which require some form of registration, usually coupled with email verification for further identification of an individual;[9] its anonymity in part inspired the creation of 4chan.[66] On 2channel, a name field is available, but it is seldom used.[67]:PT26 However, as open proxies such as the Tor network are banned from posting on 2channel, the administrators have some degree of ability to help law enforcement unmask users if necessary.[68][1]

Revenue[edit]

While 2channel and its successors are commercial, 2channel was moderated by volunteers.[5] For revenue, the site relied on subscription services like the aforementioned maru, but also on advertisements from "obscure" companies.[6] As early as 2004, companies such as Dentsu were data mining the website for their clients, keeping them informed of how they were being portrayed by 2channel users;[6][note 7][69] by 2006, 75% of the content Dentsu analyzed on behalf of its customers was posted to 2channel.[18] Another source of revenue is a subscription service, rōnin (浪人), that allows people outside Japan to post on 2channel; this service also hides ads from its subscribers.[70][71]

Matome[edit]

2channel historically allowed anyone to use its data,[72] providing it in an easily parseable format;[note 6] this made it simple to create third party "dedicated browsers" (専用ブラウザ, sen'yō burauza) for posting on and using 2channel. The openness of the data allowed for the proliferation of matome saito (まとめサイト, summary websites) and afi burogu (アフィブログ, affiliate blogs), which summarize 2channel threads and attempt to collect what they see as the "best of" 2channel.[19] In 2012, due to growing discontentment towards such sites, Nishimura added a board which marked every post with the phrase tensai kinshi (転載禁止, reproduction prohibited), /poverty/.[note 8] This caused many users to abandon other boards for that board.[73]

Watkins made it a priority to combat "piracy" of 5channel by third-party matome sites in March 2014,[74] adding tensai kinshi to many popular boards.[19] Such sites siphon users from 2channel itself, with some receiving in excess of 100 million monthly pageviews;[19] in one case a matome site earned its owner ¥300,000 per month.[74] Watkins followed up the rule change by restricting access to 2channel's data in March 2015, by requiring that dedicated browser authors use a special API to access 2channel's, and later 5channel's, thread data.[70][75][76]

Phenomena[edit]

Densha Otoko[edit]

Densha Otoko is a Japanese franchise consisting of a movie, television series, manga, and other media, all based on the purportedly true story of a 23-year-old man who intervened when a drunk man started to harass several women on a train. The man ultimately begins dating one of the women. The event and the man's subsequent dates with the woman, chronicled on 2channel, directly inspired the franchise.[77] Whether or not the original 2channel story is actually true is debated.[78]:27

Shift_JIS art[edit]

2channel and its successors, being textboards, cannot have images posted to them. Users get around this, however, by posting a more expressive form of ASCII art: Shift_JIS art.[79][note 9] Below is a small sample:

Gikoneko, predated 2channel, yet used on it as well. Frequently appears with the tagline itte yoshi (逝ってよし, fuck off).[26]
Mona, an early example, appeared first in 2000. Derives its name from its frequent tagline, omae mo na (お前もな, I know you are, but what am I?).[79]

Controversies[edit]

Debito Arudou, above, won a ¥1,100,000 libel judgment against 2channel in 2006 after Nishimura refused to delete posts calling Arudou a white supremacist.[80]

Slander and legal issues[edit]

During Hiroyuki's administration, he was often openly defiant of Japanese law, especially around libel, and his duty to follow it, telling Yomiuri Shimbun in March 2007:[2]

I don't have any intention of paying up to a country whose laws I don't respect. As long as they're not handing me the death sentence, I'm not backing down.

By May 2008, Nishimura had lost more than fifty libel lawsuits in Japanese civil courts, and had been assessed millions of dollars in penalties;[10] by August, according to him, he'd received more than one hundred lawsuits.[11] While according to the official pages of the website, slander was prohibited,[81] activists such as Debito Arudou claimed that the site did not actually respond to requests to delete posts in his case, returning mail unopened.[82] After the transfer to Packet Monster Inc., Arudou, who had still not received any of the court ordered penalty, wrote in an op-ed that Nishimura had only transferred his assets to increase his "unaccountability".[83] While Nishimura at that point had never paid any of the compensation courts ordered in his cases, in 2010 one of his plaintiffs was successful in getting compensated through the publisher of one of Nishimura's books.[1]

Crime announcements[edit]

Crime announcements (犯行予告) were a regular occurrence on 2channel, including of mass suicides and murders.[12] After the 2000 Neomugicha incident, in which a bus was hijacked by a man who posted on 2channel, police officers started regularly policing 2channel;[2] such surveillance only increased after the Akihabara massacrer announced his 2008 attack on 2channel as well.[84][13] Former superintendent of the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Tateshi Higuchi called the site a "den of iniquity".[85] According to The Japan Times, however, 2channel cooperated with police in the past to aid them in catching criminals using 2channel by giving police their IP addresses, from which their locations were determined.[1]

Such crime announcements have continued to be a problem on 5channel:[14][15] it was speculated that the man who carried out the Kyoto Animation arson attack posted an advance warning of the crime on 5channel.[86]

Nationalism and hate speech[edit]

2channel, with its massive size and anonymous posting, is abundant with slander, hate speech[6][87] and defamation against public figures, institutions, minorities, and specific ethnic groups.[88][89] Far-right users of 2channel are referred to as netto-uyoku, a term roughly analogous to "alt-right". Though the site has a rule to delete illegal postings defined under Japanese law, the scale and anonymous nature of the site makes a prompt response difficult. On occasion, 2channel has been accused of being reluctant to remove defamatory postings.[90][91]:676 The discussion boards are also often used to coordinate real-life demonstrations; as an example, 2channel users organized an August 2011 rally against Fuji Television, their complaint being that the channel was broadcasting too many Korean television shows.[92] Sankei Shimbun reported in 2018 that 5channel, which received most of 2channel's users, has the same reputation for attracting netto-uyoku.[93]

2channel netto-uyoku frequently make racist comments against Koreans.[9][89] In 2009, it was even discovered that an Asahi Shimbun employee had posted racist remarks towards Koreans on 2channel.[94] After the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, fake news proliferated on 2channel, falsely accusing Chinese people of "plundering" evacuation centers.[95]

Technology[edit]

2channel operated on forum software that was considered innovative at the time of its founding, originally written by Hiroyuki himself,[96] but later replaced through the collective effort of his Unix-savvy users; the software is known as read.cgi.[2] It was a major departure from Usenet; however, when compared to other Japanese textboards at the time, such as Amezou, 2channel's format was not much different.[25][10]

Boards in the textboard software have their threads sorted by the time of their last post, so making a post would "bump" (上げ, age) the thread to the top of the board index. However, when posting in a thread, users may use a function known as sage (下げ, lit. lowering) to avoid bumping a thread in this way.[5][97] Often times, posters will use sage on purpose, to avoid unwanted attention.[5]

Major outages[edit]

2010–2011 Korean DDoS[edit]

In response to racism towards Koreans by 2channel users, especially against Yuna Kim, an athlete who defeated Japan in the 2010 Vancouver Olympics, the site suffered an extended outage in March 2010 due to a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack conducted by a Korean hacking group.[84] The attack against Jim Watkins' Pacific Internet Exchange LLC affected other sites on the shared network as well, including some belonging to US government agencies; it is estimated to have cost US$2.5 million.[98] Watkins requested the American government investigate the event as an instance of "cyberterrorism";[33] according to him, sporadic DDoS attacks by Koreans continued into 2011.[99]

2015 8chan DDoS[edit]

Beginning on 8 January 2015, 8chan, also owned by Jim Watkins and hosted on the network of N. T. Technology, Inc., suffered an outage due to a DDoS attack. Due to the attack, 2ch.net, then owned by Watkins but not yet operated under the name 5channel, went down as well.[100] The attacks against the messageboards lasted until at least 13 January, leading "many 2channel users to become angry with the management".[101]

Societal impact[edit]

The 2channel forum is a Japanese internet phenomenon. This single site has more influence on Japanese popular opinion than the prime minister, the emperor and the traditional media combined. On one level, it serves as a fun, informative place for people to read product reviews, download software and compare everything from the size of their poop to quiz show answers. But conversations hosted here have also influenced stock prices, rallied support for philanthropic causes, organized massive synchronized dance routines, prevented terrorism and driven people to their deathbeds.

Lisa Katayama, Wired (2008)[2]

Children's use of 2channel[edit]

Use of sites like 2channel by minors is a major concern in Japan.[5] Some children's search sites, such as Kids Goo (キッズgoo), filtered textboards like 2channel.[102] In Tokyo, a local ordinance requires that internet service providers develop filters to prevent minors from accessing sites which could harm the "sound and wholesome fostering [of their youth]"; they must also confirm before installing a connection if any minors live in the household.[5]

Despite this, however, web filter provider Net Star in February 2007 released the results of a survey which showed that the utilization rate of 2channel for primary and secondary students was 12.2%.[103] In response to threads on 2channel about certain schools which were leading to cyberbullying, the Ministry of Education in 2008 released a 65-page manual for teachers and parents on how to handle the issue.[104] Concerned about the popularity of 2channel among children and teenagers, a team of childhood education professors at the University of the Ryukyus in 2009 published a paper making recommendations to lawmakers on how to curb such use.[105]

In February 2020, Nishimura himself wrote an op-ed in Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun warning parents about the dangers of allowing their children unfettered access to social media sites like YouTube and 2channel.[106]

Politicians and 2channel[edit]

Naoto Kan, a future Prime Minister who was then a member of the National Diet, sent a legal notice on 10 May 2000 demanding that 2channel delete a post by someone falsely claiming to be him.[107]

After the Liberal Democratic Party presidential election in 2007, Prime Minister Tarō Asō stated in a Fuji TV interview that he sometimes posts on 2channel.[108] During each election season, supporting posts for perennial candidates Matayoshi Jesus and Mac Akasaka were frequently made on 2channel, turning them into something of a meme,[109][110] similar to the repeated candidacies of Vermin Supreme in the United States. After more than ten failed candidacies for various political offices, including Governor of Tokyo, Akasaka was eventually elected to the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly, representing Minato, in April 2019.[109] Asahi Shimbun credited Akasaka's online fame with helping him win the surprise victory.[109]

2channel in the media[edit]

Japanese news organizations often relied on 2channel to determine the issues the public was thinking about, and for leads.[6] However, the mass media reports on it negatively,[78]:23 similar to how it reports on otaku culture in general.[111] The phrase "the online bulletin board says" (インターネットの掲示板で),[note 2] when used in reporting, may refer either to 2channel or to other forums. Movements spawned on 2channel often receive media attention, noting how the methods of 2channel activists break socially normative behavior and bring pressure to bear through sheer numbers.[78]:25 Beyond this, though, 2channel posts were often a basis for media reports in Japan.[78]:25,32,35

TV programs have even featured 2channel's moderators and users;[12][112] comedian Hikari Ōta, for example, criticized Nishimura during a discussion on the Tokyo Broadcasting System's Sandējapon on the ideal limits of free expression as applied to social networks.[113]

Shokun! magazine, during its operation, ran a column known as Kōjimachi Denmō Sokkōjo (麹町電網測候所, lit. Kōjimachi internet weather station) which shared "patriotic" 2channel posts.[114] Weekly Bunshun (週刊文春, published by Bungeishunjū) has been criticized for being seen as overly pro-2channel and relying on its posts too much in its reporting.[115]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b 2ch.sc calls itself 2ちゃんねる, just as the former 2ch.net did. When it is necessary to differentiate 2ch.net from 2ch.sc in Japanese, the form 2ちゃんねる (2ch.sc) is often used.[20]
  2. ^ a b 2channel, and other sites like it, are called keijiban (掲示板) in Japanese. This word literally translates to "bulletin board", but in English, that word only refers to older text-based systems, not web bulletin boards like 2channel. Therefore, the correct translation is "textboard" in English.
  3. ^ a b All statistics in this section are based on officially reported figures.
  4. ^ The full name of the law, Act No. 94 of 1991, is An Act Concerning Special Provisions for the Narcotics and Psychotropics Control Act, etc. and Other Matters for the Prevention of Activities Encouraging Illicit Conducts and Other Activities Involving Controlled Substances through International Cooperation (国際的な協力の下に規制薬物に係る不正行為を助長する行為等の防止を図るための麻薬及び向精神薬取締法等の特例等に関する法律).
  5. ^ The service received the nickname maru (lit. circle) on account of the fact that users of it could signal their support of 2channel by attaching a "●" to their post in the name field, which other users could not do.[47]
  6. ^ a b 2channel threads were encoded in a quasi-open standard known as ".dat". 5channel's official documentation includes examples.
  7. ^ Gala is a division of Dentsu.
  8. ^ Similar to the boards on the sites it inspired, like 4chan's /pol/, boards on 2channel are, by convention, referred to by the ends of their URLs.
  9. ^ "More expressive", here, is used in the sense that more art is possible with Shift_JIS art than would be possible with ASCII art due to the larger character set of the Shift_JIS encoding.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Matsutani, Minoru (6 April 2010). "2channel's success rests on anonymity". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on 9 April 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Katayama, Lisa (19 April 2007). "2-Channel Gives Japan's Famously Quiet People a Mighty Voice". Wired. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  3. ^ "5ちゃんねる掲示板リスト" [5channel board list]. 5channel (in Japanese). Retrieved 22 May 2020. 【大使館 (Embassy)】Anime & Manga / Books / Comics & Cartoons / Computers / [...]
  4. ^ a b Nishimura, Hiroyuki. "2ちゃんねるガイド:基本" [2channel FAQ]. 2ch.sc. Retrieved 18 May 2020. 2ch.sc is managed and operated by PACKET MONSTER INC. and more.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kaigo, Muneo; Watanabe, Isao (1 July 2007). "Ethos in Chaos? Reaction to Video Files Depicting Socially Harmful Images in the Channel 2 Japanese Internet Forum". Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 12 (4): 1248–1268. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00372.x.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Ōnishi, Norimitsu (9 May 2004). "Japanese Find a Forum to Vent Most-Secret Feelings". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  7. ^ a b Furukawa, Hideki (22 August 2003). "Q&A With the Founder of Channel 2". Japan Media Review. USC Annenberg. Archived from the original on 22 December 2003. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  8. ^ a b c d In re: Race Queen Inc., 平成29年(ワ)第3428号 (Tokyo District Court) ("被告は,平成16年から平成29年9月30日まで,継続して本件電子掲示板を管理・運営し [From 2004 to at least September 30, 2017, the defendants operated the textboard.]"). Text
  9. ^ a b c d Sakamoto, Rumi (7 March 2011). "'Koreans, Go Home!' Internet Nationalism in Contemporary Japan as a Digitally Mediated Subculture". The Asia-Pacific Journal. 9 (10). Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Katayama, Lisa (19 May 2008). "Meet Hiroyuki Nishimura, the Bad Boy of the Japanese Internet". Wired. Archived from the original on 27 May 2008. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  11. ^ a b c d Shibui, Tetsuya (26 August 2008). "2channel founder says don't blame him for criminals' posts". Shūkan Gendai. Retrieved 20 May 2020 – via Japan Today.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Adelstein, Jake (26 September 2015). "Will 4Chan's Shady New Owner Weaponize It?". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  13. ^ a b "Four people arrested in Japan for copycat threats". The Canadian Press. 17 June 2008. Retrieved 20 May 2020 – via CTV News.
  14. ^ a b "兵庫県警、5ちゃんねるに大量殺人予告の書き込みをした男を逮捕" [Hyogo Prefecture Police arrests man who wrote of his plan to commit mass murder on 5channel]. Zaikei Shimbun (in Japanese). 17 May 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  15. ^ a b "ネット掲示板でテロ予告 容疑で大学生の男逮捕" [Terrorist plot posted to online textboard, suspect, a university student, is arrested]. Kobe Shimbun (in Japanese). 15 May 2019. Archived from the original on 16 May 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  16. ^ a b "Prosecution of 2channel founder draws flak". The Japan Times. 26 December 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  17. ^ a b McLaughlin, Timothy (6 August 2019). "The Weird, Dark History of 8Chan". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  18. ^ a b Alex Martin. "2channel founder ponders next step after forum's sale". The Japan Times. "Speculation abounds, however, that the move may be a legal trick to deflect further lawsuits filed against Nishimura for the site's frequently libelous content."
  19. ^ a b c d e f Akimoto, Akky (20 March 2014). "Who holds the deeds to gossip bulletin board 2channel?". The Japan Times Online. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  20. ^ For an example, see "「2ちゃんねる」と「5ちゃんねる」は何が違うのか" [What's the difference between 2channel and 5channel?]. Monolith Law Office (in Japanese). 8 May 2020. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  21. ^ a b "SPARROW5ch". 5ch Officially Reported Statistics. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  22. ^ a b "SPARROW AIM-7P Ver.1.00". 2ch Officially Reported Statistics. 13 March 2016. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  23. ^ a b "投稿数統計@2ch掲示板". 2ch.sc Officially Reported Statistics. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  24. ^ a b "すずめ". 2ch Officially Reported Statistics. 24 February 2012. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g Tanahashi, Gō (1 December 2007). "イマジナリー・コミュニケーションI ~顧客間インタラクションと2 ちゃんねる~" [Imaginary Communication I ~Customer interaction and 2channel~]. Nara Sangyo University Journal of Industrial Economics (in Japanese). Nara Sangyo University. 22 (3): 141–160. OCLC 1059584274 – via CiNii.
  26. ^ a b c d e f Stryker, Cole (2011). Epic Win for Anonymous: How 4chan's Army Conquered the Web. New York: The Overlook Press. pp. 133–134. ISBN 9781590207383. 2channel was based on a previous text board called Ayashii World, the first big anonymous text board in Japan... Ayashii World, like many anonymous chan boards, experienced so much downtime that its owner began to receive death threats, prompting him to shut down the board in 1998.
  27. ^ Machkovech, Sam (21 September 2015). "Imageboard sites 4chan, 8chan announce new ownership arrangements". Ars Technica. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  28. ^ a b Chiel, Ethan (19 April 2016). "Meet the man keeping 8chan, the world's most vile website, alive". Splinter News. Retrieved 21 May 2020. They figured out a loophole in Japanese censorship rules," [...] Adult material in Japan has to be censored, but…Japanese people could access content that resides outside of Japan. Bingo. The work we did in the following years was really just marketing uncensored Japanese content to users in Japan.
  29. ^ Matsumura, Naohiro; Miura, Asako; Shibanai, Yasufumi; Ohsawa, Yukio; Nishida, Toyoaki (1 January 2005). "The dynamism of 2channel". AI & Society. 19: 84–92. doi:10.1007/s00146-004-0302-5.
  30. ^ a b Gotō, Masayuki (1 June 2015). 「2ちゃんねる」との対話――新しい世論集団の可能性と問題点 [Conversation with "2channel," a Huge Japanese Internet Bulletin Board Service : Possibilities and Problems of a New-type Public Opinion Group] (in Japanese). Seijo University Literature Department. p. 1. ISSN 0286-5718. 筆者がはじめて、インターネット巨大掲示板「2ちゃんねる」に触れたのは、9・11テロがまさに進行中の時だった。[⋯]この時点で、ネット検索に出てきたのが、当時から「便所の落書き」「痰壷」などと露悪的に自称していた(それゆえに筆者は接触しないようにしていた)「2ch」の書き込みだった。 [I first touched the huge internet bulletin board "2channel" when the 9/11 terror attacks were in progress. Up to then, I had no interest in 2ch as online searches only brought up results deprecating it a "spittoon" and home of "toilet graffitti".]
  31. ^ a b Barubora (ばるぼら) (10 May 2005). 教科書には載らないニッポンのインターネットの歴史教科書 [The history of the Japanese internet you won't find in any textbook] (in Japanese). Shōeisha. p. 271. ISBN 978-4798106571.
  32. ^ Nishimura, Hiroyuki (5 June 2002). "2ちゃんねるへようこそ" [Welcome to 2channel] (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 5 June 2002. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  33. ^ a b "2chサーバのデータセンター、「サイバーテロ」として米機関に調査依頼へ" [2ch data center requests American government investigate "cyber terrorism" against it]. ITmedia NEWS (in Japanese). 2 March 2010. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  34. ^ Watkins, Jim (10 April 2007). 2ちゃんねるのサーバ事情 前編 [2channel server update] (Niconico Douga) (in English and Japanese). 14:13 minutes in. Ni channel will be right here and the next one over. Alright, now we have two facilities, and this is the new facility. This whole area here, about tennis court-sized, is Pacific Internet Exchange, our area. We're going to do it in sections, that's why we moved from the other side where it's all...many different companies. This is our section.
  35. ^ a b c Harwell, Drew; McLaughlin, Timothy (12 September 2019). "From helicopter repairman to leader of the Internet's 'darkest reaches': The life and times of 8chan owner Jim Watkins". Washington Post. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  36. ^ Tachikawa, Yū (2 January 2009). "2ちゃんねる、"言論の自由なき日本"を見捨てた?" [2channel, have you abandoned Japan, "land with no freedom of speech"?]. Sankei Shimbun (in Japanese). MSN. Archived from the original on 21 January 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2009.
  37. ^ Nagai, Michiko (2 January 2009). "西村博之氏、2ちゃんねるを企業に譲渡" [Hiroyuki Nishimura transfers 2channel to a company]. CNET Japan (in Japanese). Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  38. ^ 警察庁長官:悪質管理者「検挙も」…掲示板の違法情報放置 [Commissioner General of the National Police Agency: "Arrest" malicious administrators too... They left illegal content online.]. Mainichi Shimbun (in Japanese). 27 December 2012. Archived from the original on 30 December 2012 – via Livedoor.
  39. ^ Ōta, Seiichi (24 August 2013). 申告漏れ:2ちゃんねる元管理人が1億円 広告収入の一部、譲渡後も関与裏付け [2channel's former administrator failed to declare 100 million yen of advertising revenue and participation in BBS even management after transfer]. Mainichi Shimbun (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 9 August 2013.
  40. ^ a b c 作家は暴言謝罪、不倫もバレる? 2ちゃん情報流出騒動 [The 2channel information leak]. AERA dot (in Japanese). Asahi Shimbun. 20 September 2013.
  41. ^ a b "「2ちゃんねるビューア」に不正アクセス--個人情報が流出" [2channel viewer users' personal information leaked]. CNET Japan (in Japanese). 26 August 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2020. N.T.Technologyは8月26日、不正アクセスによって同社の提供する「2ちゃんねるビューア」の顧客情報が流出したことを発表し、謝罪した。流出した情報の範囲とその原因については「現在調査中」としているが、約3万件のクレジットカード番号や氏名、住所、電話番号などの情報が流出したと見られる。[On August 26, N.T. Technology announced that the customer information of the "2channel viewer" stored by the company was leaked due to unauthorized access and apologized. Although the range of information leaked and the cause of the leak are said to be "under investigation," about 30,000 credit card numbers, names, addresses, telephone numbers, and other information are thought to have leaked.]
  42. ^ Akimoto, Akky (17 September 2013). "Accidental leak IDs over 30,000 'anonymous' 2channel users". The Japan Times Online.
  43. ^ Tabuchi, Yoshirō (25 September 2013). "あの人が書き込みを……2ch情報流出の波紋" ["That person wrote this..."—the ripples of the 2channel leak]. PRESIDENT Online (in Japanese). Retrieved 23 May 2020. この件で1番怖いのは、匿名を盾に誰がどんなことを書き込んでいたかが明らかになってしまったことだ。2ちゃんねるが最も封印せねばならない部分が、白日の下に晒されたのだ。有名なライトノベル作家が他の作家を数百回にわたって誹謗中傷した事実が明らかになり、本人がホームページで謝罪に追い込まれた。某2ちゃんねるまとめサイトの管理人はあらし行為を謝罪、サイトの閉鎖を発表した。流出したメールアドレスからは、某政治家、某大学准教授の名前、中央省庁、マスコミ各社、商社、通信会社、国内外の有名大学まで驚くような名前が並ぶ。[The scariest thing about this matter is that it became clear who was writing what behind the shield of anonymity. What 2channel was most expected to keep secret was instead exposed in broad daylight. It was revealed that a famous light novel writer slandered other writers hundreds of times, and he was forced to apologize on his website. A certain 2channel matome site owner apologized for trolling and announced that his site would close. You can see the names of politicians, an associate professor at a university, central government agency staff, media company staff, trading company staff, telecommunications company staff, and staff of famous universities in Japan and abroad from the leaked list of emails.]
  44. ^ Sato, Yuma (27 August 2013). "「2ちゃんねる」個人情報漏えい事件、AKB関係者のアカウント流出で大騒動に!?". BIGLOBEニュース (in Japanese). Retrieved 21 May 2020. 2channel personal information leak incident: AKB staff member account leaked? What's all the fuss about!?
  45. ^ <個人情報流出余波>書き込みバレて"公開処刑" [[Personal information leak aftermath] The leak of posts is like a "public execution"]. Tokyo Sports (in Japanese). 29 August 2013. 巨大ネット掲示板「2ちゃんねる」の有料サービス会員の個人情報約7万4000件が流出した件で [About 74,000 customers of giant internet bulletin board "2channel" had their personal information exposed online.]
  46. ^ "「サーバーを確保しました」 「2ちゃんねる」に何が起きたのか 運営費がひっ迫?" [2channel: "I've secured the servers"...what happened? Is the site in financial trouble?]. ITmedia NEWS (in Japanese). 19 February 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2020. 「●」こと「2ちゃんねるビューア」で昨年8月に発覚したユーザー情報流出だ。[The user information leak that happened in August of last year had its source in "●", also known as the "2channel viewer".]
  47. ^ Shinjō, Masaaki (4 March 2002). "2ちゃんねる、専用ビューワーを使った有料サービスをスタート" [2channel launches paid service for users of dedicated viewers]. Windows Forest (in Japanese). Impress KK. Retrieved 23 May 2020. このほか有料サービスに登録すると、名前欄に“●”を使って書き込むことができるとのこと。なお、有料サービスがスタートした1日以降、一般ユーザーが名前欄に“●”を使おとしても、サーバー側で“○”に置換されて書き込まれるようになった。 [Those who subscribe to the service can also write a «●» in the name field of their posts. It should be noted that when those who are not subscribed put a «●» in the name field, the server replaces it with a «○».]
  48. ^ "5ちゃんねる(旧2ちゃんねる)の過去ログを閲覧する方法とは?" [How can I read threads in the "past log" on 5channel (formerly 2channel)?]. 誹謗中傷ドットネット (in Japanese). ATB Law Corporation (弁護士法人ATB). 1 June 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  49. ^ Sudō, Tatsuya (9 September 2013). "2ちゃんねる会員情報流出 約3万件、カード番号など" [Around 30,000 members of 2channel have had their card numbers and other information leaked]. Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2020. While anyone can read 2channel for free, only members who pay 3600 yen per month can search the archive of old threads.
  50. ^ Watkins, Jim (26 August 2013). "不正アクセスによるお客様情報流出に関するお詫びとご報告" [Apology and report regarding leak of customer information due to unauthorized access]. 2channel Viewer (in Japanese and English). Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2020. N.T.Technology, inc was a victim of a cyber attack earlier today. Some data for customers was compromised. Your data may have been compromised.
  51. ^ Koyama, Morio. "2ch埋め立てと逆SEO" [2ch "landfill" (posting up to 1000 posts to get a thread moved into the kako rogu) and reverse SEO]. 株式会社WEB広報 [Web Public Relations KK]. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  52. ^ Watkins, Jim (19 February 2014). "Let's talk with Jim-san. Part21". BBSPink. Archived from the original on 8 May 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2020. The previous management was not able to generate enough income to pay the bills for the expenses of running 2ch.
  53. ^ Nishimura, Hiroyuki (1 April 2014). "昨今の2ちゃんねるの現状に関して。" [Regarding the current status of 2channel]. 2ch.sc (in Japanese). Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  54. ^ "現2chは「違法な乗っ取り」状態──ひろゆき氏?が新サイト「2ch.sc」開設を予告" [2ch is now in a state of "illegal takeover", says Hiroyuki (?); announces opening of "2ch.sc"]. ITmedia ニュース (in Japanese). 1 April 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  55. ^ Nishimura, Hiroyuki (22 September 2015). "Q&A Session with Hiroyuki Nishimura". 4chan. Bibliotheca Anonoma. Retrieved 28 June 2020 – via Desu Archive.
  56. ^ a b Gabriela Kennedy; et al. (28 July 2016). "WIPO Domain Name Decision: D2016-1025 (2ch.net)". World Intellectual Property Organization. Retrieved 17 May 2020. The Panel finds it prudent to note that the Policy is intended to handle cases of cybersquatting. Any potential business dispute between the Parties may be more appropriately addressed through court proceedings rather than through the Policy.
  57. ^ a b "【朗報】乗っ取られた「2ちゃんねる」が西村博之氏のもとに戻る / 東京地裁で原告・西村博之氏の全面勝訴 | バズプラスニュース" [[Good news] The hijacked "2channel" should be returned to Mr. Hiroyuki Nishimura per the Tokyo District Court]. BuzzPlus News (in Japanese). 25 June 2018. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  58. ^ In re trademark registration T5843569, 無効2017-890013 (Invalidity case 2017-890013) (Japan Patent Office 26 July 2019) ("本件電子掲示板の事業が請求人(レースクイーン社)に適法に譲渡されたことを示す証拠はない [There is no evidence that the electronic BBS business was legally transferred to the plaintiff (Race Queen Inc).]").
  59. ^ Ishizuka, Fumito (2 October 2017). "「5ちゃんねる」に名称変更 ネット掲示板、権利紛争か" [Following a dispute over rights to bulletin board, name changes to "5channel"]. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (in Japanese). Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  60. ^ Office of the Solicitor General vs. James Arthur Watkins, in re: Petition for Naturalization, R-PSG-18-03091-SP, Petition by James Arthur Watkins (Pasig City Regional Trial Court Branch 166) ("[James Arthur Watkins] married Liziel O. Watkins ("Liziel"), of legal age and a Filipina, on 20 November 2001. [...] He is currently the Chairman of Race Queen Inc., Emerald Pedistal Properties Inc., and Loki Technology Incorporated."). Text—via The Manila Times.
  61. ^ Kurihara, Kiyoshi (10 October 2017). "2ちゃんねる名称変更事件に関する知財関係状況整理(栗原潔)" [Sorting out the intellectual property situation which has led to the 2channel name change incident]. Yahoo! News Japan (in Japanese). Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  62. ^ "5ちゃんねる掲示板へようこそ" [Welcome to 5channel]. 6 October 2017. Retrieved 6 October 2017. 権利関係に関する無用な紛争を生じさせず「・・・」掲示板の名称を新たに「5ちゃんねる」へと変更しました。[The name of the textboard has been changed to 5channel to help avoid future unnecessary disputes regarding our rights to operate it.]
  63. ^ "ネット地震情報震源地はやはり2ちゃんねる!" [The earthquake information epicenter is 2channel!]. ITmedia News (in Japanese). 7 November 2003. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  64. ^ Tanaka, Kazuo (2015). "インターネットにおける論文不正発覚史" [A history of academic research on the internet which wasn't officially sanctioned] (pdf). Journal of the Japan Skeptics (24): 4–9.
  65. ^ 「“2ちゃんねる”には欠陥がある!」西和彦アスキー特別顧問――“2ちゃんねる西スレッドオフ会”開催(アスキー、2001.08、ウェブアーカイブ)("2channel is flawed!" Kazuhiko Nishi, Special Advisor to ASCII - "2channel held Nishi Kick-off Party" (originally published on ASCII dated August 2001; archived on WebArchive.))
  66. ^ Robertson, Adi (21 September 2015). "The man whose site inspired 4chan is now running 4chan". The Verge. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  67. ^ Olson, Parmy (5 June 2012). We Are Anonymous: Inside the Hacker World of LulzSec, Anonymous, and the Global Cyber Insurgency. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 978-0-316-21353-0.
  68. ^ "プロキシサーバ利用でTor拒否サイトを突破する" [Using proxy servers to break through website security mechanisms that block Tor]. ラジオライフ [Radio Life] (in Japanese). SansaiBooks KK. 18 December 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2020. Tor経由では、2ちゃんねるにはアクセスできません。[2channel blocks access from those who use Tor.]
  69. ^ Goggin, Gerard; McLelland, Mark (17 February 2017). The Routledge Companion to Global Internet Histories. Taylor & Francis. p. 418. ISBN 978-1-317-60765-6.
  70. ^ a b "【悲報】2ちゃんまとめ大ピンチ!2ちゃんがdatアクセス禁止でツールが使えなくなる!" [[Sad news] 2channel has put matome sites in a big pinch! They've developed a way to forbid access to 2channel .dat files!]. 秒刊SUNDAY (in Japanese). 13 March 2015. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  71. ^ "よくある質問 | プレミアムRonin (浪人)" [FAQ | Premium service Ronin]. 5channel. Zero KK. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  72. ^ Nishimura, Hiroyuki (15 August 2007). "2ちゃんねる掲示板へようこそ" [Welcome to the 2channel forum!]. 2channel. Archived from the original on 15 August 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2020. 2ちゃんねるのデータの利用に関して、原則的に自由ですが、 2ちゃんねるのデータ自体を利用して対価を取る行為はご遠慮下さい。[As a general rule, you are free to use 2channel's data. However, please refrain from profiting from it.]
  73. ^ "2ch「ステマ」戦争 人気板が住民大移動で一気に縮小、その背景の事情と心情" [2ch's "stealth marketing" war: Popular board shrinks due to mass migration, why?]. ITmedia NEWS (in Japanese). Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  74. ^ a b "創設者の西村博之氏と現管理人が対立。騒動をきっかけに様々な「疑惑」が噴出している。" [Hiroyuki Nishimura is in conflict with [2channel's] current manager. Suspicions are coming to the surface in the chaos.]. FACTA ONLINE (in Japanese). Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  75. ^ Ichikawa, Yūkichi (9 March 2015). ""2ちゃんねる"の新APIに対応した2ちゃんビューワー「Live2ch」v1.34" [Live2ch v1.34 released with support for new 2channel API]. Windows Forest (in Japanese). Impress KK. Retrieved 22 May 2020. 今月3日以降、2ちゃんねる専用ブラウザーの開発・公開には「Jane Style」の開発元であるジェーン社などから許諾を受けたうえで新しいAPIを利用する必要が生じている。[Since the 3rd of this month, it is necessary to use the new API. Dedicated browser developers must get permission from the developer of JaneStyle to publish a 2channel dedicated browser.]
  76. ^ "開発者の皆さまへ" [To all developers]. 5channel. Retrieved 22 May 2020. 5ch.net 専用ブラウザ(以下「専用ブラウザ」)を開発、公開するには、5ch.net の所有者である Loki Technology, Inc. の許諾を得て、5ch.net が提供する API(以下「API」)を用いる必要があります。ウェブスクレイピングを用いた専用ブラウザの開発、公開は禁止されています。株式会社ジェーンは Loki Technology, Inc. との契約で 5ch.net 専用ブラウザ開発者に対し API の使用許諾を出す権限を受けていますが、これは排他的な権限ではありません。[To develop and publish a 5ch.net dedicated browser, the API we provide must be used. The development of dedicated browsers that work via parsing HTML is prohibited. Loki Technology Inc. has granted Jane KK the non-exclusive privilege of granting licenses to our API.]
  77. ^ Fisch, Michael (2009). "War by Metaphor in Densha Otoko". Mechademia. 4 (1): 131–146. doi:10.1353/mec.0.0078. ISSN 2152-6648.
  78. ^ a b c d Youssef, Sandra (2009). Geeks and Creeps in No Name Land: Triangulating Anonymity, 2channel and Densha Otoko. University of British Columbia Anthropology Department. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  79. ^ a b Katayama, Lisa (19 June 2008). "Art and ASCII: The Stories Behind All Those Brackets, Slashes, and Carets". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  80. ^ "2ちゃんねる管理人に賠償命令 掲示板での中傷放置" [2channel admin ordered to pay compensation; textboard neglected duty to delete libel]. Asahi Shimbun (in Japanese). 20 January 2006. Archived from the original on 3 February 2006. Retrieved 23 May 2020.  判決によると、同掲示板に04年3~12月、有道さんが人種差別主義者であるかのような中傷などが12件掲載されたが、管理人は有道さんの削除要請に応じなかった。 [In total, twelve slanderous messages were posted calling Arudou a white supremacist between March and December 2004. The admin ignored his request they be deleted.]
  81. ^ "2ちゃんねるガイド:基本" [2channel FAQ]. 2ch.net. 9 February 2007. Archived from the original on 9 February 2007. Retrieved 20 May 2020. また、一般人の誹謗中傷・私生活情報暴露は禁止します。[Further, to slander or expose the personal information of an ordinary member of the public is forbidden.]
  82. ^ "Looking for the Law in Online Japan's Wild West". Online Journalism Review. USC Annenberg. 2 February 2006. Retrieved 20 May 2020. In December 2004 through February 2005, I notified 2-Channel by e-mail at their designated address where you request deletions. They never answered. Nor did the defamatory posts come down. So my lawyers contacted the owner, a Mr. Nishimura, by registered snail mail, several times. Returned by the post office unopened. We did check to make sure Mr. Nishimura was residing there, of course. So we sued. And believe it or not, Mr. Nishimura never answered any court communiques, never appeared in court, never offered any acknowledgment whatsoever. That’s irresponsible on all counts.
  83. ^ Arudou, Debito (3 February 2009). "2channel: the bullies' forum". The Japan Times. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  84. ^ a b Hiyama, Hiroshi (5 March 2010). "Japan's hate-filled top web forum". Agence France-Presse. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 20 May 2020 – via The Telegraph.
  85. ^ Ashcraft, Brian (10 December 2012). "Japanese Internet Mogul Hit with Drug Accusations". Kotaku. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  86. ^ "京アニ放火、直前の「意味深」書き込みで広がる憶測 SNS、まとめブログなどが拡散するが..." [It's speculated the KyoAni arsonist wrote posts suggestive of his plans on social media. Matome sites are spreading the posts, but...]. J-CAST ニュース (in Japanese). 18 July 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  87. ^ Fuchs, Tamara; Schäfer, Fabian (6 January 2020). "Normalizing misogyny: hate speech and verbal abuse of female politicians on Japanese Twitter". Japan Forum: 1–27. doi:10.1080/09555803.2019.1687564. ISSN 0955-5803.
  88. ^ Salzberg, Chris (11 December 2007). "Japan: Flaming and the secrets we hide". Global Voices. Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  89. ^ a b McLelland, Mark J. (December 2008). "'Race' on the Japanese internet: discussing Korea and Koreans on '2-channeru'". New Media and Society. 10 (6): 811–829. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.691.4872. doi:10.1177/1461444808096246 – via University of Wollongong Library.
  90. ^ Arudou, Debito (18 January 2006). "Brief: Libel lawsuit against 2channel". Debito.org. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  91. ^ Chander, Anupam (2014). "How Law Made Silicon Valley" (PDF). Emory Law Journal. 63 (3): 639–694. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  92. ^ Jong-Koo, Yoon (9 August 2011). "Japan's right-wing groups hold rallies vs. Korean pop culture". The Dong-a Ilbo. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
  93. ^ Endō, Kaoru (29 July 2018). "ネトウヨ ユーチューブ「大量削除」の波紋 遠藤薫氏" [The repercussions of YouTube's mass banning of netto-uyoku]. iRONNA (in Japanese). Retrieved 21 May 2020 – via Sankei Shimbun. そもそも今回の「運動」は、2ちゃんねる(現5ちゃんねる)から「ネトウヨ」に対するカウンターとして始まった。2ちゃんねるが「ネトウヨ」の活動場所とみなされることが多い現状から考えると、この「運動」を不思議に思う人もいるのではないか。[In the first place, this "exercise" started as a way to counter netto-uyoku users from 2channel (5channel). Considering the current situation where 2channel is often regarded as the activity place of the netto-uyoku, there are surely some who find this "exercise" perplexing.]
  94. ^ "朝日新聞編集局員が2chで荒らし 差別表現投稿で「厳正処分」" [Asahi Shimbun editor trolls on 2channel; newspaper promises to strictly dispose of any employee who posts racist comments]. ITmedia NEWS (in Japanese). 1 April 2009. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
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  96. ^ Tetsuya, Ozaki (11 November 2004). "100: Redesigning Tokyo". REALTOKYO. Out of Tokyo. Retrieved 20 May 2020. Hiroyuki single-handedly created the program for his groundbreaking, autonomous/anonymous media when he had "time to spare" during studies in the USA.
  97. ^ Kawaguchi, Masaki (2009). "sage とは" [What is sage?]. Infoseek Dictionary Japan. Heibonsha KK. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  98. ^ サービス妨害攻撃の対策等調査 [Survey on countermeasures against denial of service attacks] (PDF). Information Technology Promotion Agency Security Center, Government of Japan. 1 December 2010. p. 29. ただし、米国政府機関など複数のサイトに被害が発生したことから、FBI等が捜査に乗り出し、把握されている被害額は約250万ドルに上るとされている。[However, due to damage to multiple sites including those of US government agencies, the FBI and others have launched an investigation and it is estimated that the amount of damage is about $2.5 million.]
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  103. ^ "ネット使用小中学生の12%「2ちゃんねる」利用「ちょっと早過ぎ」2ちゃんねらーも戸惑う" [12% of elementary and junior high school students use "2channel"; 2channel natives dismayed: "a little too early"]. J-CAST News (in Japanese). 2 February 2007. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
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  110. ^ Murakami, Kōsuke (22 April 2019). "初当選マック赤坂氏「又吉イエスさんに報告したい」" [Elected for first time, Mac Akasaka says: "I wish I could share this news with the late Matayoshi Jesus."]. Nikkan Sports (in Japanese). Retrieved 20 March 2020.
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  113. ^ "太田光、SNSで人を叩くユーザーを「表現の自由を履き違えてる」と批判 賛同の声が続々" [Hikari Ōta, critical of abusive social media users, says that they "miss the point of freedom of expression"]. Excite (in Japanese). Sirabee (NEWSY KK). Retrieved 23 May 2020. 太田光はSNSの炎上について、「こういう問題の最初が2ちゃんねるだからさ、一番悪いのは博之くんだよ」とジャブ。[Ōta responded with a jab: "Because this problem got its start on 2channel, Hiroyuki-kun is the number one worst offender," he said, regarding flame wars on social media.]
  114. ^ Ichirō, Okada (20 April 2006). "政治としてのインターネット 掲示板とブログから見えるもの" [Observations on the political impacts of bulletin boards and blogs]. Alter Magazine (in Japanese) (28). Retrieved 22 May 2020. 保守系論壇誌『諸君!』では2ちゃんねる上における愛国的言説を紹介するコーナー(「麹町電網(インターネット)測候所」)まで存在するという。[There is even a column of the conservative magazine Shokun!, Kōjimachi Denmō Sokkōjo, that shares patriotic posts from 2channel.]
  115. ^ "片山さつき氏、文春記者の刑事告訴も「ジャーナリズムではなく2ちゃんねる」" [Satsuki Katayama lodges criminal complaint against Weekly Bunshun reporter, saying "Bunshun is more like 2channel than journalism"]. The Sankei News (in Japanese). 8 February 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2020.

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