Page semi-protected

TikTok

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

TikTok
Douyin 抖音
TikTok logo.svg
Douyin logo.png
TikTok.com Screenshot.png
Screenshot of TikTok.com website.
Developer(s)ByteDance
Initial releaseSeptember 2016; 4 years ago (2016-09)
Stable release
15.5.0 / 31 March 2020
Operating systemiOS, Android
Size308.3 MB (iOS)[1]
55.21 MB (Android)[2]
Available in40 languages[3]
List of languages
Arabic, Bengali, Burmese, Cambodian, Cebuano, Czech, Dutch, English, Filipino, French, German, Greek, Gujarati, Hindi, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Kannada, Korean, Malay, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Romanian, Russian, Simplified Chinese, Spanish, Swedish, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Traditional Chinese, Turkish, Ukrainian, and Vietnamese
TypeVideo sharing
LicenseProprietary software with Terms of Use
Websitetiktok.com
douyin.com
Douyin
Chinese抖音
Literal meaning"vibrating sound"

TikTok, known in China as Douyin (Chinese: 抖音; pinyin: Dǒuyīn), is a Chinese video-sharing focused social networking service owned by Chinese company ByteDance.[4] The social media platform is used to make a variety of short-form videos, from genres like dance, comedy, and education, that have a duration from 15 seconds to one minute (three minutes for some users).[5][6] TikTok is an international version of Douyin, which was originally released in the Chinese market in September 2016.[7] Later, TikTok was launched in 2017 for iOS and Android in most markets outside of mainland China; however, it only became available worldwide after merging with another Chinese social media service, Musical.ly, on 2 August 2018.

TikTok and Douyin have almost the same user interface but no access to each other's content. Their servers are each based in the market where the respective app is available.[8] The two products are similar, but features are not identical. Douyin includes an in-video search feature that can search by people's face for more videos of them and other features such as buying, booking hotels and making geo-tagged reviews.[9] Since its launch in 2016, TikTok/Douyin rapidly gained popularity in East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, the United States, Turkey, Russia, and other parts of the world.[10][11] As of October 2020, TikTok surpassed over 2 billion mobile downloads worldwide.[12][13][14][15][16]

Vanessa Pappas is the CEO of TikTok, having assumed the position following the resignation of Kevin A. Mayer on 27 August 2020.[17][18][19] On 3 August 2020, U.S. President Donald Trump threatened to ban TikTok in the United States on 15 September if negotiations for the company to be bought by Microsoft or a different "very American" company failed.[20] On 6 August, Trump signed two executive orders banning U.S. "transactions" with TikTok and WeChat to its respective parent companies ByteDance and Tencent, set to take effect 45 days after the signing.[21] A planned ban of the app on 20 September 2020[22][23] was postponed by a week and then blocked by a federal judge.[24][25][26][27] President Biden revoked the ban in a new executive order in June 2021.[28] The app has been banned by the government of India since June 2020 along with 223[29] other Chinese apps in response to a border clash with China.[30] Pakistan banned TikTok citing "immoral" and "indecent" videos on 9 October 2020 but reversed its ban ten days later on 19 October 2020.[31][32][33] Then in March 2021, a Pakistani court ordered a new TikTok ban due to complaints over "indecent" content.[34]

Morning Consult ranked TikTok as the third fastest growing brand of 2020, after only Zoom and Peacock.[35] In May 2021, TikTok appointed Shou Zi Chew as their new CEO.[36]

History

Evolution

ByteDance Ltd., the Chinese company owning and operating TikTok

Douyin was launched by ByteDance in Beijing, China in September 2016, originally under the name A.me, before rebranding to Douyin (抖音) in December 2016.[37][38] ByteDance planned on Douyin expanding overseas. The founder of ByteDance, Zhang Yiming, stated that "China is home to only one-fifth of Internet users globally. If we don’t expand on a global scale, we are bound to lose to peers eyeing the four-fifths. So, going global is a must."[39] Douyin was developed in 200 days and within a year had 100 million users, with more than one billion videos viewed every day.[40][41] TikTok was launched in the international market in September 2017.[42] On 23 January 2018, the TikTok app ranked No. 1 among free app downloads on app stores in Thailand and other countries.[43]

TikTok has been downloaded more than 130 million times in the United States, and has reached 2 billion downloads worldwide,[44][45] according to data from mobile research firm Sensor Tower that excludes Android users in China.[46] In the United States, many celebrities including Jimmy Fallon and Tony Hawk began using the application in 2018;[47][48] other celebrities such as Jennifer Lopez, Jessica Alba, Will Smith, and Justin Bieber joined TikTok as well and many other celebrities have followed.[49]

On 3 September 2019, TikTok and the U.S. National Football League (NFL) announced a multi-year partnership.[50] The agreement occurred just two days before the NFL's 100th season kick-off at the Soldier Field, where TikTok hosted activities for fans in honor of the deal. The partnership entails the launch of an official NFL TikTok account, which is to bring about new marketing opportunities such as sponsored videos and hashtag challenges. In July 2020, TikTok, excluding Douyin, reported close to 800 million monthly active users worldwide after less than four years of existence.[12]

Musical.ly merger

On 9 November 2017, TikTok's parent company, ByteDance, spent up to U.S.$1 billion to purchase musical.ly, a startup headquartered in Shanghai with an overseas office in Santa Monica, California, U.S..[51][52] Musical.ly was a social media video platform that allowed users to create short lip-sync and comedy videos, initially released in August 2014. It was well known, especially to the younger audience. Looking forward to leveraging the U.S. digital platform's young user base, TikTok merged with musical.ly on 2 August 2018 to create a larger video community, with existing accounts and data consolidated into one app, keeping the title TikTok.[53] This ended musical.ly and made TikTok a worldwide app, excluding China, since China already has Douyin.[52][54][55]

Expansion in other markets

As of 2018, TikTok has been made available in over 150 markets, and in 75 languages.[56][57] TikTok was downloaded more than 104 million times on Apple's App store during the full first half of 2018, according to data provided to CNBC by Sensor Tower.

After merging with musical.ly in August, downloads increased and TikTok became the most downloaded app in the U.S. in October 2018, which musical.ly had done once before.[58][59] In February 2019, TikTok, together with Douyin, hit one billion downloads globally, excluding Android installs in China.[60] In 2019, media outlets cited TikTok as the 7th-most-downloaded mobile app of the decade, from 2010 to 2019.[61] It was also the most-downloaded app on Apple's App Store in 2018 and 2019, surpassing Facebook, YouTube and Instagram.[62][63] In September 2020, a deal was confirmed between ByteDance and Oracle in which the latter will serve as a partner to provide cloud hosting.[64][65] Walmart intends to invest in TikTok.[66] This deal would stall in 2021 as newly elected President Biden's Justice Department put a hold on the previous U.S. ban under President Trump.[67][68][69] In November 2020, TikTok signed a licensing deal with Sony Music.[70] In December 2020, Warner Music Group signed a licensing deal with TikTok.[71][72][73]

Douyin

As a separate app from TikTok, Douyin (抖音), officially known as Dǒuyīn duǎn shìpín (抖音短视频; lit. Douyin Short Video),[74] is primarily downloaded in China and has a slightly older audience than TikTok, as their user base ranges from children to middle-aged adults. The app uses two different types of verification, an influencer personal verification similar to that of TikTok and a business verification requiring a license and yearly fee. Business verified users could promote to a specific audience, which allows them to choose where they want their video to be seen, such as a specific physical location. Douyin also has its store, in which users can tag and advertise their products, and users can request to work with an influencer for brand deals.[75] Part of the app's popularity has been attributed to its marketing campaigns that launched several Chinese celebrities' activities to engage their fans' interest.[76]

Features and trends

The TikTok mobile app allows users to create short videos, which often feature music in the background and can be sped up, slowed down, or edited with a filter.[77] They can also add their own sound on top of the background music. To create a music video with the app, users can choose background music from a wide variety of music genres, edit with a filter and record a 15-second video with speed adjustments before uploading it to share with others on TikTok or other social platforms.[78] They can also film short lip-sync videos to popular songs.

The "For You" page on TikTok is a feed of videos that are recommended to users based on their activity on the app. Content is generated by TikTok's artificial intelligence (AI) depending on the content a user liked, interacted with, or searched. Users can also choose to add to favorites or select "not interested" on videos for their page. TikTok combines the user's enjoyed content to provide videos that they would also enjoy. Users and their content can only be featured on the "for you" page if they are 16 or over as per TikTok policy. Users under 16 will not show up under the "for you" page, the sounds page, or under any hashtags.[79]

The app's "react" feature allows users to film their reaction to a specific video, over which it is placed in a small window that is movable around the screen.[80] Its "duet" feature allows users to film a video aside another video.[81] The "duet" feature was another trademark of Musical.ly.

Videos that users do not want to post yet can be stored in their "drafts". The user is allowed to see their "drafts" and post when they find it fitting.[82] The app allows users to set their accounts as "private." When first downloading the app, the user's account is public by default. The user can change to private in their settings. Private content remains visible to TikTok, but is blocked from TikTok users who the account holder has not authorized to view their content.[83] Users can choose whether any other user, or only their "friends", may interact with them through the app via comments, messages, or "react" or "duet" videos.[80] Users also can set specific videos to either "public", "friends only", or "private" regardless if the account is private or not.[83]

Users are also allowed to report accounts depending on the account's content, either being spam or inappropriate. In TikTok's support center under "For Parents," they reassure the parents that inappropriate content for their children can be blocked and reported.[84]

When users follow other users, a "following" page is located on the left of the "for you" page. This is a page only to see the videos from the accounts a user follows.

Users can also add videos, hashtags, filters, and sounds to their "saved" section. When creating a video, they can refer to their saved section, or create a video straight from it. This section is visible only to the user on their profile allowing them to refer to any video, hashtag, filter, or sound they've previously saved.

Users can also send their friends videos, emojis, and messages with direct messaging.

TikTok has also included a feature to create a video based on the user's comments.

Influencers often use the "live" feature. This feature is only available for those who have at least 1,000 followers and are over 16 years old. If over 18, the user's followers can send virtual "gifts" that can be later exchanged for money.[85][86]

One of the newest features as of 2020 is the "Virtual Items" of "Small Gestures" feature. This is based on China's big practice of social gifting. Since this feature was added, many beauty companies and brands created a TikTok account to participate and advertise this feature. With quarantine in the United States, social gifting has grown in popularity. According to a TikTok representative, the campaign was launched as a result of the lockdown, "to build a sense of support and encouragement with the TikTok community during these tough times."[87]

TikTok announced a "family safety mode" in February 2020 for parents to be able to control their children's digital well-being. There is a screen time management option, restricted mode, and can put a limit on direct messages.[88][89]

Viral trends

A variety of trends have risen within TikTok, including memes, lip-synced songs, and comedy videos. Duets, a feature that allows users to add their own video to an existing video with the original content's audio, have sparked many of these trends.

Trends are shown on TikTok's explore page or the page with the search logo. The page enlists the trending hashtags and challenges among the app. Some include #posechallenge, #filterswitch, #dontjudgemechallenge, #homedecor, #hitormiss, #bottlecapchallenge and more. In June 2019, the company introduced the hashtag #EduTok which received 37 billion views. Following this development, the company initiated partnerships with edtech startups to create educational content on the platform.[90]

The app has spawned numerous viral trends, Internet celebrities, and music trends around the world.[91] Many stars got their start on musical.ly, which merged with TikTok on 2 August 2018. These users include Loren Gray, Baby Ariel, Kristen Hancher, Zach King, Lisa and Lena, Jacob Sartorius, and many others. Loren Gray remained the most-followed individual on TikTok until Charli D’Amelio surpassed her on 25 March 2020. Gray's was the first TikTok account to reach 40 million followers on the platform. She was surpassed with 41.3 million followers. D'Amelio was the first to ever reach 50, 60, and 70 million followers. Until now Charli D’Amelio remains the most-followed individual on the platform. Other creators rose to fame after the platform merged with musical.ly on 2 August 2018.[92]

One notable TikTok trend is the "hit or miss" meme, which begain from a snippet of iLOVEFRiDAY's song "Mia Khalifa." The song has been used in over four million TikTok videos and helped introduce the app to a larger Western audience.[93][94] TikTok also played a major part in making "Old Town Road" by Lil Nas X one of the biggest songs of 2019 and the longest running number-one song in the history of the Billboard Hot 100.[95][96][97][98][99]

TikTok has allowed many other bands to gain a wider audience, often including foreign fans. For example, despite never having toured in Asia, the band Fitz and the Tantrums developed a large following in South Korea following the widespread popularity of their song "HandClap" on the platform.[100] "Any Song" by R&B and rap artist Zico became number 1 on the Korean music charts due to the popularity of the #anysongchallenge, where users dance the choreography of "Any Song". "Any Song" was on the Billboard Hot 100 chart for 17 weeks, breaking the record for the longest time a song was number 1 on the charts.[101] The platform has received some criticism for not paying royalties to artists whose music is used on their platform.[94]

In June 2020, TikTok users and K-pop fans "claimed to have registered potentially hundreds of thousands of tickets" for President Trump's campaign rally in Tulsa through communication on TikTok,[102] contributing to "rows of empty seats"[103] at the event.

TikTok has banned Holocaust denial, but other conspiracy theories have become popular on the platform, such as Pizzagate and QAnon (two conspiracy theories popular among the U.S. alt-right) whose hashtags reached almost 80 million views and 50 million views respectively by June 2020.[104] The platform has also been used to spread misinformation about the COVID-19 pandemic, such as clips from Plandemic.[104] TikTok removed some of these videos, and has generally added links to accurate COVID-19 information on videos with tags related to the pandemic.[105]

On 10 August 2020, Emily Jacobssen wrote and sang "Ode To Remy," a song praising the protagonist from Pixar's 2007 computer-animated film named Ratatouille. The song rose to popularity when musician Daniel Mertzlufft composed a backing track to the song. In response, began creating a "crowdsourced" project called Ratatouille The Musical. Since Mertzlufft's video, many new elements including costume design, additional songs, and a playbill have been created.[106] The trend has been even been noticed by Lou Romano, who voiced Alfredo Linguini in the original film; Broadway performer Kevin Chamberlin; and Disney Channel actor Milo Manheim. On New Year's Day 2021, a full one-hour virtual presentation of Ratatouille the Musical premiered on the TodayTix; The production featured elements created via TikTok. It starred Titus Burgess as Remy, Wayne Brady as Django, Adam Lambert as Emile, Chamberlin as Gusteau, Andrew Barth Feldman as Linguini, Ashley Park as Colette, Priscilla Lopez as Mabel, Mary Testa as Skinner, and André De Shields as Ego.

Several food trends have emerged on the platform, such as Dalgona coffee.

Influencer marketing

TikTok has provided a platform for users to create content not only for fun, but also for money. As the platform has grown significantly over the past few years, it has allowed companies to advertise and rapidly reach their intended demographic through influencer marketing.[107] The platform's AI algorithm also contributes to the influencer marketing potential, as it picks out content according to the user's preference.[108] Sponsored content is not as prevalent on the platform as it is on other social media apps, but brands and influencers still can make as much as they would if not more in comparison to other platforms.[108] Influencers on the platform who earn money through engagement, such as likes and comments, are referred to as "meme machines".[107]

In 2021, The New York Times reported that viral TikTok videos by young people relating the emotional impact of books on them, tagged with the label "BookTok", significantly drove sales of literature. Publishers were increasingly using the platform as a venue for influencer marketing.[109]

User characteristics and behavior

Users

In the three years after it launched in September 2016, TikTok acquired 800 million active users.[citation needed] Its users include Zach King, Loren Gray, Baby Ariel, Lisa and Lena, Will Smith, Dwayne Johnson, Brent Rivera, Addison Rae, Jason Derulo, Jennifer Lopez, Camila Cabello, Lilly Singh, Selena Gomez, Noah Schnapp and Charli D'Amelio, the most-followed individual on the platform.

Demographics

Globally, 44% of TikTok users are female while 56% are male.[citation needed] TikTok's geographical use has shown that 43% of new users are from India.[110] TikTok tends to appeal to younger users, as 41% of its users are between the ages of 16 and 24. Among these TikTok users, 90% say they use the app daily.[111] As of July 2020, there were over 90 million monthly active users in the United States alone.[112]

Use by businesses

In October 2020, the ecommerce platform Shopify added TikTok to its portfolio of social media platforms, allowing online merchants to sell their products directly to consumers on TikTok.[113]

Some small businesses have used TikTok to advertise and to reach an audience wider than the geographical region they would normally serve. The viral response to many small business TikTok videos has been attributed to TikTok's algorithm, which shows content that viewers at large are drawn to, but which they are unlikely to actively search for (such as videos on unconventional types of businesses, like beekeeping and logging).[114]

In 2020, digital media companies such as Group Nine Media and Global used TikTok increasingly, focusing on tactics such as brokering partnerships with TikTok influencers and developing branded content campaigns.[115] Notable collaborations between larger brands and top TikTok influencers have included Chipotle's partnership with David Dobrik in May 2019[116] and Dunkin' Donuts' partnership with Charli D'Amelio in September 2020.[117]

Collab houses

Popular TikTok users have lived collectively in collab houses, predominately in the Los Angeles area.[118]

Country bans and attempted bans

China

In April 2020, TikTok officially cooperated with mainland China's Internet censorship mechanism and began to prohibit the use of overseas versions of Douyin in mainland China. Different from general blockade, TikTok adopted an IP lock zone, mainly for mainland China; Hong Kong and Macau were not affected. The direct consequence of the lock zone is that Chinese users cannot log in to TikTok using a VPN. Officials have also restricted the numbers of China Mobile, China Telecom and China Unicom. The phone numbers of the above three cannot log in to TikTok. Even so, there are a large number of cracked versions of TikTok on the Chinese Internet. The cracked version of TikTok can watch videos normally, but the phone number restriction has not been cracked and users cannot log in.

In January 2021, the Great Firewall of China's blocking measures on TikTok were further upgraded, and the monitoring of the cracked version of TikTok was increased, and measures such as node blocking and IP blocking were adopted to interfere with the normal watching of videos by mainland users: that is, users watch normally, but after a few videos, the video cannot be refreshed, and you need to re-enter the software before you can continue watching.

The official website www.tiktok.com of the overseas version of TikTok is currently blocked by the Great Firewall, and the Chinese language of the official website of the overseas version only provides Traditional Chinese, as officially used in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau, instead of Simplified Chinese.

India

TikTok was banned completely in India by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology on 29 June 2020, along with 223 other Chinese apps,[29] with a statement saying they were "prejudicial to sovereignty and integrity of India, defense of India, security of state and public order".[119] The ban was made permanent in January 2021.[120] In February 2021, TikTok announced that due to the ban it will cut more than 2,000 jobs in India.[121]

United States

On 6 August 2020, U.S. President Donald Trump signed executive order 13942[122][123] which would ban TikTok transactions in 45 days if it is not sold by ByteDance. Trump also signed a similar order against the WeChat application owned by the Chinese multinational company Tencent.[124][23]

On 14 August 2020, Trump issued order DCPD-202000608[125][126] giving ByteDance 90 days to sell or spin off its U.S. TikTok business.[127] In the order, Trump said that there is "credible evidence" that leads him to believe that ByteDance "might take action that threatens to impair the national security of the United States."[128]

TikTok considered selling the American portion of its business, and held talks with companies including Microsoft, Walmart, and Oracle.[129]

On September 18, TikTok filed a lawsuit, TikTok v. Trump. On 23 September 2020, TikTok filed a request for a preliminary injunction to prevent the app from being banned by the Trump administration.[130] U.S. judge Carl J. Nichols temporarily blocked the Trump administration order that would effectively ban TikTok from being downloaded in U.S. app stores starting midnight on 27 September 2020. Nichols allowed the app to remain available in the U.S. app stores, but declined to block the additional Commerce Department restrictions that could have a larger impact on TikTok's operations in the U.S. These restrictions were set to take place 12 November 2020.[131]

Three TikTok influencers filed a lawsuit, Marland v. Trump.[132] On October 30, Pennsylvania judge Wendy Beetlestone ruled against the Commerce Department, blocking them from restricting TikTok.[132] On November 12, the Commerce Department stated that it would obey the Pennsylvania ruling and that it would not try to enforce the restrictions against TikTok that had been scheduled for November 12.[132]

The Commerce Department appealed the original ruling in TikTok v. Trump. On December 7, Washington D.C. district court judge Carl J. Nichols issued a preliminary injunction against the Commerce Department, preventing them from imposing restrictions on TikTok.[133][134][135]

In June 2021, President Biden signed an executive order revoking the Trump administration ban on TikTok, and instead ordered the Secretary of Commerce to investigate the app to determine if it poses a threat to U.S. national security.[136]

Indonesia and Bangladesh

TikTok has been intermittently blocked in Indonesia and Bangladesh on different bases.[137][138]

Pakistan

On 11 October 2020, Pakistan became the next country to ban the social media platform after not complying with issues regarding the content on the platform brought up by their government.[139] TikTok representatives are currently speaking with Pakistani officials in hopes of building better relations and allowing the people of Pakistan to create on the platform.[139]

Controversies

Addiction concerns

Some users may find it hard to stop using TikTok.[140] In April 2018, an addiction-reduction feature was added to Douyin.[140] This encouraged users to take a break every 90 minutes.[140] Later in 2018, the feature was rolled out to the TikTok app. TikTok uses some top influencers such as Gabe Erwin, Alan Chikin Chow, James Henry, and Cosette Rinab to encourage viewers to stop using the app and take a break.[141]

Many were also concerned with users' attention spans with these videos. Users watch short 15-second clips repeatedly and studies say that this could report to a decrease in attention span. This is a concern as many of TikTok's audience are younger children, whose brains are still developing.[142]

Content concerns

Many countries showed concerns regarding the content of TikTok which is thought to be obscene, immoral, vulgar and encouraging of pornography. There have been temporary blocks and warnings issued by countries including Indonesia,[137] Bangladesh,[138] India,[143] and Pakistan[144][145] over the content concerns. In 2018, Douyin was reprimanded by Chinese media watchdogs for showing "unacceptable" content, such as videos depicting adolescent pregnancies.[146]

On 27 July 2020, Egypt sentenced five women to two years in prison over TikTok videos on charges of violating public morals. The court also imposed a fine of 300,000 Egyptian pounds (UK£14,600) on each defendant.[147]

Concerns have been voiced regarding content relating to, and the promotion of spreading hateful words and far-right extremism, such as anti-semitism, racism and xenophobia. Some videos were shown to expressly deny the existence of the Holocaust and for its viewers to take up arms and fight in the name of white supremacy and the swastika.[148] As TikTok has gained popularity among young children[149] and the popularity of extremist and hateful content is growing, calls for tighter restrictions on their flexible boundaries have been made. TikTok have since released tougher parental controls to filter out inappropriate content and to ensure they are protection and security.[150]

Slowly turning into a hub of influencer marketing, Abu Dhabi (UAE) partnered with TikTok to promote its tourism, in April 2021. Under the channel name “Visit Abu Dhabi”, the Emirate aimed to engage with influencers who would showcase only the best of it to a worldwide audience.[151] It came following the January 2021 winter campaign, initiated through a partnership between the UAE Government Media Office partnered and TikTok to promote the country's tourism.[152] However, on the other side, the content creators in the country remained restricted. Under article 28 of Cyber-Crime Law, the UAE prohibits every person from publishing media content that violates its public image or poses a threat to its state security and to its highest interests. Many are often arrested or face charges for posting any photos or videos that are not in accordance with the country's image-building strategy.[153]

Misinformation

In January 2020, Media Matters for America said that TikTok hosted misinformation related to the COVID-19 pandemic despite a recent policy against misinformation.[154] In April 2020, the government of India asked TikTok to remove users posting misinformation related to the COVID-19 pandemic.[155] There were also multiple conspiracy theories that the government is involved with the spread of the pandemic.[156] As a response to this, TikTok launched a feature to report content for misinformation.[157]

Content censorship and moderation by the platform

According to Mar Hicks, creators on TikTok feel that they have to be overly cautious about what they post, “because the rules change at any given moment, there’s no transparency,” Hicks says.[158] The sudden disappearance of tags, intentional or not, has “incredibly problematic effects and negative effects on communities that are already marginalized and erased.”[158]

The muddiness around content removal and moderation on TikTok is an ongoing frustration for the app’s users.[158] TikTok has community guidelines, but there’s no public list of specific words and phrases that are banned, and it’s not clear how much moderation is done algorithmically versus by actual people.[158]

In March 2020, internal documents leaked to The Intercept revealed that moderators had been instructed to suppress posts created by users deemed "too ugly, poor, or disabled" for the platform, and to censor political speech in livestreams, punishing those who harmed "national honor" or broadcast streams about "state organs such as police" with bans from the platform.[159][160][161]

In response to censorship concerns, TikTok's parent company hired K&L Gates, including former U.S. Congressmen Bart Gordon and Jeff Denham, to advise it on its content moderation policies.[162][163] TikTok also hired lobbying firm Monument Advocacy.[164]

In January 2021, TikTok banned Trump content deemed to be inciting violence.[165]

Human rights in China

In January 2019, the Chinese government said that it would start to hold app developers like ByteDance responsible for user content shared via apps such as Douyin,[166] and listed 100 types of content that the Chinese government would censor.[167] It was reported that certain content unfavorable to the Chinese Communist Party has already been limited for users outside of China such as content related to the 2019–20 Hong Kong protests or Tibetan independence.[168][169] TikTok has blocked videos about human rights in China, particularly those that reference Xinjiang internment camps and abuses of ethnic and religious minorities such as the Uyghurs, and disabled the accounts of users who post them.[170][171][172][173] TikTok's policies also ban content related to a specific list of foreign leaders such as Vladimir Putin, Donald Trump, Barack Obama, and Mahatma Gandhi because it can stir controversy and attacks on political views.[174] Its policies also ban content critical of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and content considered pro-Kurdish.[175] TikTok was reported to have censored users supportive of the Citizenship Amendment Act protests in India and those who promote Hindu-Muslim unity.[176] On 27 November 2019, TikTok temporarily suspended the account of 17-year-old Afghan-American user Feroza Aziz after she posted a video, disguised as a makeup tutorial, drawing attention to the internmentamps of Muslim Uyghurs in Xinjiang, China.[177] TikTok later apologized and said that her account was suspended as a result of human error, and her account has since been reinstated.[178] In July 2020, TikTok suspended the account of another user whose viral video called attention to human rights of the Uyghurs.[173]

In June 2020, The Wall Street Journal reported that some previously non-political TikTok users were airing pro-Beijing views for the explicit purpose of boosting subscribers and avoiding "shadow" bans.[179] In July 2020, the company announced it was pulling out of Hong Kong responding to the Hong Kong national security law.[180]

In June 2020, The Times of India reported that TikTok was "shadow banning" videos related to the Sino-Indian border dispute and the 2020 China–India skirmishes.[181]

In November 2020, a former TikTok executive stated to a UK parliamentary committee that TikTok censored content critical of China and particularly content related to the Uyghur genocide.[182]

ISIS propaganda

In October 2019, TikTok removed about two dozen accounts that were responsible for posting ISIS propaganda on the app.[183][184]

LGBT people

In countries where LGBT discrimination is the socio-political norm, TikTok moderators have blocked content that could be perceived as being positive towards LGBT people or LGBT rights, including same-sex couples holding hands, including in countries where homosexuality has never been illegal.[175][185] Former U.S. employees of TikTok reported to The Washington Post that final decisions to remove content were made by parent company employees in Beijing.[186]

In May 2021, Pidgeon Pagonis, an american intersex activist, reported that for the second time the intersex hashtag wasn’t working on TikTok.[158] They couldn’t click the tag on one of their own posts and trying to search for intersex pulled up a “null” page.[158] TikTok told The Verge that in both of the instances Pagonis noticed, the tag had been removed by mistake and was subsequently restored.[158] But because there was no public statement about the accidental removal, Pagonis and others were left to speculate about whether it was being intentionally censored.[158]

People use different tactics to skirt TikTok’s moderation.[158] Some lesbian women on the app jokingly refer to themselves as "le dolla bean" based on the "le$bian" spelling that’s used to avoid their videos being removed.[187][158] “It became this whole joke,” says Mar Hicks, a historian of technology, “because things that have the word lesbian in them were either getting flagged for deletion or causing the users’ accounts to get in trouble.”[158]

According to Mar Hicks, LGBTI people and people of color have found the guidelines are enforced “wildly differently” says Hicks, meaning their content will be suppressed or removed for supposed violations, but they get no response when they report abuse from other users. “Not only is it hurting their ability to speak and be seen on the app, but it’s also allowing them to get attacked and have hate speech thrown their way.”[158]

Human rights in Russia

On 3 February 2021, TikTok received a praise from Russian officials because social app's cooperation with them in deletion of "forbidden" content, mostly related to protest activity in Russia. In particular, as media censorship agency Roskomnadzor official Evgeniy Zaitsev stated that, "we need to highlight TikTok among other social media platforms because it has office in Russia and actively cooperated with us, which cannot be said about others".[188] Also, the State Duma deputy Alexander Khinshtein said that TikTok new anti-fake news policies go well with the ideology of Russian content censorship law and edition of those "should be considered a very positive signal".[189]

User privacy concerns

Privacy concerns have also been brought up regarding the app.[190][191] In its privacy policy, TikTok lists that it collects usage information, IP addresses, a user's mobile carrier, unique device identifiers, keystroke patterns, and location data, among other data.[192][193] Web developers Talal Haj Bakry and Tommy Mysk said that allowing videos and other content being shared by the app's users through HTTP puts the users' data privacy at risk.[194]

In January 2020, Check Point Research discovered a security flaw in TikTok which could have allowed hackers access to user accounts using SMS.[195] In February, Reddit CEO Steve Huffman criticised the app, calling it "spyware," and stating "I look at that app as so fundamentally parasitic, that it's always listening, the fingerprinting technology they use is truly terrifying, and I could not bring myself to install an app like that on my phone."[196][197] Responding to Huffman's comments, TikTok stated "These are baseless accusations made without a shred of evidence."[192] Wells Fargo banned the app from its devices due to privacy and security concerns.[198]

In May 2020, the Dutch Data Protection Authority announced an investigation into TikTok in relation to privacy protections for children.[199][200] In June 2020, the European Data Protection Board announced that it would assemble a task force to examine TikTok's user privacy and security practices.[201]

In August 2020, The Wall Street Journal reported that TikTok tracked Android user data, including MAC addresses and IMEIs, with a tactic in violation of Google's policies.[202][203] The report sparked calls in the U.S. Senate for the Federal Trade Commission to launch an investigation.[204]

U.S. COPPA fines

On 27 February 2019, the United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) fined ByteDance U.S.$5.7 million for collecting information from minors under the age of 13 in violation of the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act.[205] ByteDance responded by adding a kids-only mode to TikTok which blocks the upload of videos, the building of user profiles, direct messaging, and commenting on others' videos, while still allowing the viewing and recording of content.[206] In May 2020, an advocacy group filed a complaint with the FTC saying that TikTok had violated the terms of the February 2019 consent decree, which sparked subsequent Congressional calls for a renewed FTC investigation.[207][208][209][210] In July 2020, it was reported that the FTC and the United States Department of Justice had initiated investigations.[211]

UK Information Commissioner's Office investigation

In February 2019, the United Kingdom's Information Commissioner's Office launched an investigation of TikTok following the fine ByteDance received from the United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Speaking to a parliamentary committee, Information Commissioner Elizabeth Denham said that the investigation focuses on the issues of private data collection, the kind of videos collected and shared by children online, as well as the platform's open messaging system which allows any adult to message any child. She noted that the company was potentially violating the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) which requires the company to provide different services and different protections for children.[212]

Italian Data Protection Authority

On 22 January 2021, the Italian Data Protection Authority ordered the blocking of the use of the data of users whose age has not been established on the social network.[213][214] The order was issued after the death of a 10-year-old Sicilian girl, which occurred after the execution of a challenge shared by users of the platform that involved attempting to choke the user with a belt around the neck. The block is set to remain in place until 15 February, when it will be re-evaluated.[215]

Cyberbullying

As with other platforms,[216] journalists in several countries have raised privacy concerns about the app, because it is popular with children and has the potential to be used by sexual predators.[216][217][218][219]

Several users have reported endemic cyberbullying on TikTok,[220][221] including racism[222] and ableism.[223][224][225] In December 2019, following a report by German digital rights group Netzpolitik.org, TikTok admitted that it had suppressed videos by disabled users as well as LGBTQ+ users in a purported effort to limit cyberbullying.[226][159] TikTok's moderators were also told to suppress users with "abnormal body shape", "ugly facial looks", "too many wrinkles", or in "slums, rural fields" and "dilapidated housing" to prevent bullying.[227]

Microtransactions

TikTok has received criticism for enabling children to spend large sums of money purchasing coins to send to other users.[228]

Legal issues

Tencent lawsuits

Tencent's WeChat platform has been accused of blocking Douyin's videos.[229][230] In April 2018, Douyin sued Tencent and accused it of spreading false and damaging information on its WeChat platform, demanding CN¥1 million in compensation and an apology. In June 2018, Tencent filed a lawsuit against Toutiao and Douyin in a Beijing court, alleging they had repeatedly defamed Tencent with negative news and damaged its reputation, seeking a nominal sum of CN¥1 in compensation and a public apology.[231] In response, Toutiao filed a complaint the following day against Tencent for allegedly unfair competition and asking for CN¥90 million in economic losses.[232]

Data transfer class action lawsuit

In November 2019, a class action lawsuit was filed in California that alleged that TikTok transferred personally identifiable information of U.S. persons to servers located in China owned by Tencent and Alibaba.[233][234][235] The lawsuit also accused ByteDance, TikTok's parent company, of taking user content without their permission. The plaintiff of the lawsuit, college student Misty Hong, downloaded the app but said she never created an account. She realized a few months later that TikTok has created an account for her using her information (such as biometric) and made a summary of her information. The lawsuit also alleged that information was sent to Chinese tech giant Baidu.[236] In July 2020, twenty lawsuits against TikTok were merged into a single class action lawsuit in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois.[237] In February 2021, TikTok agreed to pay $92 million to settle the class action lawsuit.[238]

Voice actor lawsuit

In May 2021, Ontario voice actor Bev Standing filed a lawsuit against TikTok overuse of her voice in a filter without permission. The lawsuit was filed in the Southern District of New York. TikTok declined to comment. She believes the company used recordings made for the Chinese government-run Institute of Acoustics.[239]

Market Information Research Foundation lawsuit

In June 2021, the Netherlands-based Market Information Research Foundation (SOMI) filed a €1.4 billion lawsuit on behalf of Dutch parents against TikTok, alleging that the app gathers data on children without adequate permission.[240]

See also

References

  1. ^ "TikTok – Real Short Videos". App Store. Archived from the original on 8 June 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  2. ^ "TikTok". Play Store. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  3. ^ "TikTok - Make Your Day". iTunes. Archived from the original on 3 May 2019. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
  4. ^ Isaac, Mike (8 October 2020). "U.S. Appeals Injunction Against TikTok Ban". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 7 December 2020. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  5. ^ Schwedel, Heather (4 September 2018). "A Guide to TikTok for Anyone Who Isn't a Teen". Slate Magazine. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  6. ^ Al-Heeti, Abrar (2 December 2020). "TikTok is reportedly experimenting with 3-minute videos". CNET. Archived from the original on 7 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  7. ^ "TikTok, WeChat and the growing digital divide between the US and China". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 11 January 2021. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  8. ^ "Forget The Trade War. TikTok Is China's Most Important Export Right Now". BuzzFeed News. 16 May 2019. Archived from the original on 24 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  9. ^ Niewenhuis, Lucas (25 September 2019). "The difference between TikTok and Douyin". SupChina. Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  10. ^ "50 TikTok Stats That Will Blow Your Mind [Updated 2020]". Influencer Marketing Hub. 11 January 2019. Archived from the original on 4 June 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  11. ^ RouteBot (21 March 2020). "Top 10 Countries with the Largest Number of TikTok Users". routenote.com. Archived from the original on 20 December 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  12. ^ a b "50 TikTok Stats That Will Blow Your Mind in 2020 [UPDATED ]". Influencer Marketing Hub. 11 January 2019. Archived from the original on 4 June 2020. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  13. ^ Carman, Ashley (29 April 2020). "TikTok reaches 2 billion downloads". The Verge. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  14. ^ "2020年春季报告:抖音用户规模达5.18亿人次,女性用户占比57%" (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 22 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  15. ^ "GLOBAL SOCIAL MEDIA OVERVIEW". Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  16. ^ "Watch trending videos for you on TikTok for Free | Tiktokblade.com". Social Media Marketing & Management Dashboard. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  17. ^ "TikTok CEO Kevin Mayer quits after 4 months". Fortune (magazine). Bloomberg News. 27 August 2020. Archived from the original on 25 October 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
  18. ^ Zeitchik, Steven (18 May 2020). "In surprise move, a top Disney executive will run TikTok". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 25 June 2020. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
  19. ^ "Australian appointed interim chief executive of TikTok". www.abc.net.au. 28 August 2020. Archived from the original on 24 December 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  20. ^ Robertson, Adi (3 August 2020). "Trump threatens that TikTok will "close down" on September 15th unless an American company buys it". The Verge. Archived from the original on 13 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  21. ^ Singh, Maanvi (6 August 2020). "Trump bans US transactions with Chinese-owned TikTok and WeChat". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 26 December 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
  22. ^ "Commerce Department Prohibits WeChat and TikTok Transactions to Protect the National Security of the United States". U.S. Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on 20 September 2020. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
  23. ^ a b Arbel, Tali (6 August 2020). "Trump bans dealings with Chinese owners of TikTok, WeChat". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  24. ^ Fung, Brian. "Trump says he has approved a deal for TikTok". CNN. Archived from the original on 23 December 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  25. ^ Wells, Andrew Restuccia, John D. McKinnon and Georgia (20 September 2020). "Trump Signs Off on TikTok Deal With Oracle, Walmart". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 24 December 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020 – via www.wsj.com.
  26. ^ Swanson, Ana; McCabe, David; Griffith, Erin (19 September 2020). "Trump Approves Deal Between Oracle and TikTok". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 31 December 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  27. ^ TikTok ban: Judge rules app won't be blocked in the US, for now Archived 2 October 2020 at the Wayback Machine; CNN by way of MSN; published September 28, 2020; accessed February 7, 2021
  28. ^ McKinnon, John; Leary, Alex (9 June 2021). "Trump's TikTok, WeChat Actions Targeting China Revoked by Biden". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  29. ^ a b Sabat, Surabhi (2 September 2020). "Full List Of 224 Chinese Apps Banned In India Till Date; Including PUBG, TikTok And Shein". Republic World. Archived from the original on 11 January 2021. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  30. ^ Doval, Pankaj (30 June 2020). "TikTok, UC Browser among 59 Chinese apps blocked as threat to sovereignty". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 30 June 2020.
  31. ^ Business, Charles Riley, CNN. "Pakistan reverses TikTok ban after 10 days". CNN. Archived from the original on 4 March 2021. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  32. ^ Kastrenakes, Jacob (9 October 2020). "Pakistan bans TikTok for "immoral" and "indecent" videos". The Verge. Archived from the original on 23 November 2020. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  33. ^ "Pakistan bans TikTok for allowing 'immoral and indecent' content". Android Police. 9 October 2020. Archived from the original on 30 December 2020. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
  34. ^ Ahmad, Asif Shahzad, Jibran (11 March 2021). "Pakistan to block social media app TikTok over 'indecency' complaint". Reuters. Archived from the original on 12 March 2021. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  35. ^ "The Fastest Growing Brands of 2020". Morning Consult. Archived from the original on 27 January 2021. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  36. ^ "TikTok Names ByteDance CFO Shou Zi Chew as New CEO". NDTV Gadgets 360. Archived from the original on 1 May 2021. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
  37. ^ "The App That Launched a Thousand Memes | Sixth Tone". Sixth Tone. 20 February 2018. Archived from the original on 23 February 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  38. ^ "Is Douyin the Right Social Video Platform for Luxury Brands? | Jing Daily". Jing Daily. 11 March 2018. Archived from the original on 15 September 2019. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  39. ^ "TIKTOK'S RISE TO GLOBAL MARKETS 1". Archived from the original on 22 August 2020. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  40. ^ Graziani, Thomas (30 July 2018). "How Douyin became China's top short-video App in 500 days". WalktheChat. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  41. ^ "8 Lessons from the rise of Douyin (Tik Tok) · TechNode". TechNode. 15 June 2018. Archived from the original on 11 March 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  42. ^ "Tik Tok, a Global Music Video Platform and Social Network, Launches in Indonesia". Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  43. ^ "Tik Tok, Global Short Video Community launched in Thailand with the latest AI feature, GAGA Dance Machine The very first short video app with a new function based on AI technology". thailand.shafaqna.com. Archived from the original on 10 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  44. ^ Carman, Ashley (29 April 2020). "TikTok reaches 2 billion downloads". The Verge. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
  45. ^ Doyle, Brandon (6 October 2020). "TikTok Statistics - Everything You Need to Know [Sept 2020 Update]". Wallaroo Media. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  46. ^ Yurieff, Kaya (21 November 2018). "TikTok is the latest social network sensation". Cnn.com. Archived from the original on 4 January 2019.
  47. ^ Alexander, Julia (15 November 2018). "TikTok surges past 6M downloads in the US as celebrities join the app". The Verge. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  48. ^ Spangler, Todd (20 November 2018). "TikTok App Nears 80 Million U.S. Downloads After Phasing Out Musical.ly, Lands Jimmy Fallon as Fan". Variety. Archived from the original on 2 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  49. ^ "A-Rod & J.Lo, Reese Witherspoon and the Rest of the A-List Celebs You Should Be Following on TikTok". PEOPLE.com. Archived from the original on 28 May 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  50. ^ "The NFL joins TikTok in multi-year partnership". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 22 August 2020. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  51. ^ Lin, Liza; Winkler, Rolfe (9 November 2017). "Social-Media App Musical.ly Is Acquired for as Much as $1 Billion". wsj.com. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  52. ^ a b "Social video app Musical.ly acquired for up to $1 billion". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 5 September 2018. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
  53. ^ Lee, Dami (2 August 2018). "The popular Musical.ly app has been rebranded as TikTok". Archived from the original on 30 December 2020. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  54. ^ "Musical.ly Is Going Away: Users to Be Shifted to Bytedance's TikTok Video App". msn.com. Archived from the original on 28 March 2019. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  55. ^ Kundu, Kishalaya (2 August 2018). "Musical.ly App To Be Shut Down, Users Will Be Migrated to TikTok". Beebom. Archived from the original on 5 October 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  56. ^ "Chinese video sharing app boasts 500 mln monthly active users - Xinhua | English.news.cn". xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on 10 October 2018. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  57. ^ "Why China's Viral Video App Douyin is No Good for Luxury | Jing Daily". Jing Daily. 13 June 2018. Archived from the original on 12 December 2018. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  58. ^ "Tik Tok, a Global Music Video Platform and Social Network, Launches in Indonesia-PR Newswire APAC". en.prnasia.com. Archived from the original on 25 September 2017. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  59. ^ "How Douyin became China's top short-video App in 500 days – WalktheChat". WalktheChat. 25 February 2018. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  60. ^ "TikTok Pte. Ltd". Sensortower. Archived from the original on 24 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  61. ^ Rayome, Alison DeNisco. "Facebook was the most-downloaded app of the decade". CNET. Archived from the original on 18 December 2019. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  62. ^ Chen, Qian (18 September 2018). "The biggest trend in Chinese social media is dying, and another has already taken its place". CNBC. Archived from the original on 16 November 2018. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  63. ^ "TikTok surpassed Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat & YouTube in downloads last month". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 11 December 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  64. ^ Novet, Jordan (13 September 2020). "Oracle stock surges after it confirms deal with TikTok-owner ByteDance". CNBC. Archived from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 2 October 2020. Shares of Oracle surged Monday morning after it confirmed it has been chosen to serve as TikTok owner ByteDance’s “trusted technology provider” in the U.S.
  65. ^ Kharpal, Arjun (25 September 2020). "Here's where things stand with the messy TikTok deal". CNBC. Archived from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  66. ^ Corkery, Michael (23 September 2020). "Beyond TikTok, Walmart Looks to Transform". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 1 November 2020. Retrieved 2 October 2020. Walmart’s planned investment in TikTok is being called “transformative.”
  67. ^ "Biden Administration Pauses Trump's TikTok Ban, Backs Off Pressure To Sell App". Archived from the original on 3 May 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  68. ^ "TikTok Sale to Oracle, Walmart Is Shelved as Biden Reviews Security". Wall Street Journal. 10 February 2021. Archived from the original on 3 May 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  69. ^ "ByteDance is walking away from its TikTok deal with Oracle now that Trump isn't in office, report says". Archived from the original on 3 May 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  70. ^ "TikTok signs deal with Sony Music to expand music library". finance.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  71. ^ "Warner Music Group inks licensing deal with TikTok". Music Business Worldwide. 4 January 2021. Archived from the original on 11 January 2021. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  72. ^ "Warner Music signs with TikTok as more record companies jump on social media bandwagon". themusicnetwork.com. 7 January 2021. Archived from the original on 29 April 2021. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  73. ^ "Warner Music Group: Modernized And Ready To Play In The New Streaming World". seekingalpha.com. Archived from the original on 15 April 2021. Retrieved 15 April 2021.
  74. ^ "抖音短视频". App Store (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 3 May 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  75. ^ "A Thorough Guide to Influencing on Douyin - For Individuals and Businesses (2020)". Nanjing Marketing Group. 29 March 2020. Archived from the original on 22 August 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  76. ^ "Douyin launches partnership with Modern Sky to monetize music". Archived from the original on 10 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  77. ^ "How to Use TikTok: Tips for New Users". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Archived from the original on 14 August 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  78. ^ Matsakis, Louise (6 March 2019). "How to Use TikTok: Tips for New Users". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Archived from the original on 14 August 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  79. ^ "TikTok Restricts Users Under 16 From Being Discovered". TikTok. 31 January 2019. Archived from the original on 16 July 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  80. ^ a b "TikTok adds video reactions to its newly-merged app". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 20 November 2018. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  81. ^ "Tik Tok lets you duet with yourself, a pal, or a celebrity". The Nation. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  82. ^ Liao, Christina. "How to make and find drafts on TikTok using your iPhone or Android". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 26 April 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  83. ^ a b "It's time to pay serious attention to TikTok". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 22 August 2020. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  84. ^ "Support Center | TikTok". support.tiktok.com. Archived from the original on 24 April 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  85. ^ Delfino, Devon. "How to 'go live' on TikTok and livestream video to your followers". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 28 May 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  86. ^ "How To Go Live & Stream on TikTok". Tech Junkie. Archived from the original on 22 August 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  87. ^ "TikTok's social gifting campaign attracts beauty brands". Glossy. 7 May 2020. Archived from the original on 12 June 2020. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  88. ^ "Introducing Family Safety Mode and Screentime Management in Feed". Newsroom | TikTok. 16 August 2019. Archived from the original on 3 May 2020. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  89. ^ "TikTok gives parent remote control of child's app". BBC News. 19 February 2020. Archived from the original on 30 May 2020. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  90. ^ Mandavia, Megha. "TikTok ties up with edtech startups for content creation". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 22 August 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  91. ^ "How Does Tik Tok Outperform Tencent's Super App WeChat and Become One of China's Most Popular Apps? (Part 1)". kr-asia.com. Archived from the original on 11 July 2018. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  92. ^ "TikTok Star Charli D'Amelio Officially Leaves the Hype House". PEOPLE.com. Archived from the original on 13 May 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  93. ^ "TikTok's Renegade dance : An internet success across the United States". Blasting News. 12 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 September 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  94. ^ a b "How TikTok Gets Rich While Paying Artists Pennies". Pitchfork. 12 February 2019. Archived from the original on 26 May 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
  95. ^ Coscarelli, Joe (9 May 2019), "How Lil Nas X Took 'Old Town Road' From TikTok Meme to No. 1 | Diary of a Song", The New York Times, archived from the original on 10 November 2019, retrieved 26 November 2019
  96. ^ Koble, Nicole (28 October 2019). "TikTok is changing music as you know it". British GQ. Archived from the original on 23 November 2019. Retrieved 26 November 2019.
  97. ^ Leskin, Paige (22 August 2019). "The life and rise of Lil Nas X, the 'Old Town Road' singer who went viral on TikTok and just celebrated Amazon Prime Day with Jeff Bezos". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 14 September 2019. Retrieved 26 November 2019.
  98. ^ Spanos, Brittany (December 2019). "How Lil Nas X and 'Old Town Road' Defy Categorization". Smithsonian. Archived from the original on 19 November 2019. Retrieved 26 November 2019.
  99. ^ Kennedy, Gerrick D. (20 November 2019). "Lil Nas X makes Grammy history as the first openly gay rapper nominated in top categories". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 27 November 2019. Retrieved 26 November 2019.
  100. ^ Shaw, Lucas. "TikTok Is the New Music Kingmaker, and Labels Want to Get Paid". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on 14 April 2020. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  101. ^ "'Any Song' is a viral hit thanks to TikTok challenge: Rapper Zico's catchy song and dance have become a craze all around the world". koreajoongangdaily.joins.com. Archived from the original on 5 June 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  102. ^ "TikTok Teens and K-Pop Stans Say They Sank Trump Rally". The New York Times. 21 June 2020. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
  103. ^ "The President's Shock at the Rows of Empty Seats in Tulsa". The New York Times. 21 June 2020. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
  104. ^ a b Dellinger, A. J. (22 June 2020). "Conspiracy theories are finding a hungry audience on TikTok". Mic. Archived from the original on 8 July 2020. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  105. ^ Strapagiel, Lauren (27 May 2020). "COVID-19 Conspiracy Theorists Have Found A New Home On TikTok". BuzzFeed News. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  106. ^ Fitzpatrick, Felicia (21 November 2020). "Presenting: The Official (Fake) Ratatouille Playbill". Playbill. Archived from the original on 1 January 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  107. ^ a b Dilon, Cell (2020). "TikTok Influences on Teenagers and Young Adults Students: The Common Usages of the Application TikTok". American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences. Archived from the original on 20 November 2020. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
  108. ^ a b Haenlein, Michael; Anadol, Ertan; Farnsworth, Tyler; Hugo, Harry; Hunichen, Jess; Welte, Diana (13 October 2020). "Navigating the New Era of Influencer Marketing: How to be Successful on Instagram, TikTok, & Co". California Management Review. 63: 5–25. doi:10.1177/0008125620958166. S2CID 222347758. Archived from the original on 3 January 2021. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
  109. ^ Harris, Elizabeth A. (20 March 2021). "How Crying on TikTok Sells Books". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 21 March 2021. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  110. ^ "13 TikTok Stats for Marketers: TikTok Demographics, Statistics, & Key Data". Mediakix. 7 March 2019. Archived from the original on 4 December 2019. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
  111. ^ Meola, Andrew. "Analyzing Tik Tok user growth and usage patterns in 2020". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 25 February 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  112. ^ Sherman, Alex (24 August 2020). "TikTok reveals detailed user numbers for the first time". CNBC. Archived from the original on 1 January 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  113. ^ Bradshaw, Tim; Murphy, Hannah (27 October 2020). "TikTok moves into social ecommerce with Shopify deal". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 12 February 2021. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  114. ^ Kastrenakes, Jacob (21 September 2020). "Boring, mundane businesses have an exhilarating, viral life on TikTok". The Verge. Archived from the original on 23 March 2021. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  115. ^ Barber, Kayleigh; Joseph, Seb (23 November 2020). "'There's more opportunity': Publishers on TikTok are taking branded content into their own hands". Digiday. Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  116. ^ Ciment, Shoshy (26 April 2020). "How Chipotle became one of the highest performing brands on TikTok by dominating user challenges and partnering with influencers like David Dobrik". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 8 February 2021. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  117. ^ Guszkowski, Joe (4 October 2020). "TikTok proves potent marketing channel for some restaurants". Restaurant Business. Archived from the original on 1 November 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  118. ^ Taylor Lorenz (3 January 2020). "Hype House and the Los Angeles Tik Tok Mansion Gold Rush". New York Times. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  119. ^ "India bans TikTok and dozens more Chinese apps". BBC News. 29 June 2020. Archived from the original on 11 August 2020. Retrieved 11 August 2020.
  120. ^ Singh, Kanishka (25 January 2021). "India to impose permanent ban on 59 Chinese apps, including TikTok - Indian media". Reuters. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  121. ^ Business, Michelle Toh, CNN. "TikTok is laying off employees in India as ban becomes permanent". CNN. Archived from the original on 11 February 2021. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  122. ^ "Executive Order on Addressing the Threat Posed by TikTok". whitehouse.gov. Archived from the original on 3 March 2021. Retrieved 8 December 2020 – via National Archives.
  123. ^ "Addressing the Threat Posed by TikTok, and Taking Additional Steps To Address the National Emergency With Respect to the Information and Communications Technology and Services Supply Chain". Federal Register. 11 August 2020. Archived from the original on 9 December 2020. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  124. ^ Carvajal, Nikki. "Trump issues executive order banning TikTok from operating in 45 days if it's not sold by Chinese parent company". CNN. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  125. ^ "Order Regarding the Acquisition of Musical.ly by ByteDance Ltd". whitehouse.gov. Archived from the original on 20 January 2021. Retrieved 8 December 2020 – via National Archives.
  126. ^ "govinfo". www.govinfo.gov. Archived from the original on 3 January 2021. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  127. ^ Davis, Wendy (17 October 2020). "White House Presses To Move Forward With TikTok Ban". Archived from the original on 1 November 2020. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  128. ^ Trump, Donald J. "Order Regarding the acquisition of musical. Ly by Bytedance Ltd" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 August 2020. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  129. ^ Li, Jane. "TikTok's deal with Oracle and Walmart is in its own lame-duck period". Quartz. Archived from the original on 31 December 2020. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  130. ^ Isaac, Mike (23 September 2020). "TikTok Files for Injunction to Stop Ban of App". New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 October 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  131. ^ "U.S. Judge Halts Trump's TikTok Ban, Hours Before It Was Set To Start". NPR.org. Archived from the original on 30 December 2020. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  132. ^ a b c Wells, Georgia (26 November 2020). "TikTok Stars Proved Key in Strategy to Fight U.S. Ban". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 18 December 2020. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  133. ^ Wells, Georgia (8 December 2020). "TikTok Download Ban Is Blocked by Second Judge". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  134. ^ "U.S. Judge Halts Trump's TikTok Ban, The 2nd Court To Fully Block The Action". NPR.org. Archived from the original on 3 January 2021. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  135. ^ Peters, Jay (7 December 2020). "Second judge says Trump can't ban TikTok". The Verge. Archived from the original on 19 December 2020. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  136. ^ Kelly, Makena (9 June 2021). "Biden revokes Trump bans on TikTok and WeChat". The Verge. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  137. ^ a b "Indonesia blocks 'pornographic' Tik Tok app". DW.COM. 7 May 2018. Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  138. ^ a b "Bangladesh 'anti-porn war' bans blogs and Google books". DW.COM. 25 February 2019. Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  139. ^ a b Masood, Salman (11 October 2020). "Pakistan Bans TikTok, Citing Morals. Others Cite Politics". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 3 January 2021. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
  140. ^ a b c "Lip syncing, finger dancing – Hong Kong kids go crazy for Tik Tok". South China Morning Post. 19 May 2018. Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  141. ^ Stokel-Walker, Chris. "TikTok influencers are telling people to stop using the app". Input. Archived from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  142. ^ Su, Xiaochen (8 May 2020). "The Trouble With TikTok's Global Rise". The News Lens International Edition. Archived from the original on 12 June 2020. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  143. ^ "'It Encourages Pornography': Madras High Court Asks Government to Ban Video App TikTok". News18. 4 April 2019. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  144. ^ "Pakistan warns TikTok over 'obscene, immoral' content". The Nation. 21 July 2020. Archived from the original on 23 July 2020. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  145. ^ "Pakistan puts TikTok on 'final notice' over 'obscenity' concerns". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 22 July 2020. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  146. ^ "TikTok parent ByteDance sues Chinese news site that exposed fake news problem". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 22 August 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  147. ^ "Egypt jails women for two years over TikTok videos". The Guardian. 27 July 2020. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  148. ^ Weimann & Masri (25 May 2020). "Research Note: Spreading Hate on TikTok". Studies in Conflict & Terrorism: 1–14. doi:10.1080/1057610X.2020.1780027. Archived from the original on 24 May 2021. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  149. ^ BBC (19 February 2020). "TikTok 'family safety mode' gives parents some app control". BBC News. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  150. ^ Stokel-Walker, Chris. "TikTok will make under-16s' accounts private by default to protect them from groomers". BusinessInsider. Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  151. ^ "The Department of Culture and Tourism - Abu Dhabi Partners with TikTok for Destination Promotion". Department of Culture and Tourism. Archived from the original on 4 May 2021. Retrieved 27 April 2021.
  152. ^ "The UAE Government Media Office and TikTok bring people together to discover the UAE's hidden gems in World's Coolest Winter". Campaign Middle East. Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  153. ^ "Expat waiter arrested for adding fake scream and gunshot sound to Dubai parking lot TikTok video". Gulf News. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
  154. ^ Kaplan, Alex (28 January 2020). "TikTok is hosting videos spreading misinformation about the coronavirus, despite the platform's new anti-misinformation policy". Media Matters for America. Archived from the original on 18 May 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  155. ^ Kalra, Aditya (7 April 2020). "India asks TikTok, Facebook to remove users spreading coronavirus misinformation". Reuters. Archived from the original on 5 May 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  156. ^ Dickson, E.J. (13 May 2020). "On TikTok, COVID-19 Conspiracy Theories Flourish Amid Viral Dances". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 27 May 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  157. ^ "Our efforts towards fighting misinformation in times of COVID-19". Newsroom | TikTok. 16 August 2019. Archived from the original on 29 May 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  158. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Sanchez, Kait (4 June 2021). "TikTok says the repeat removal of the intersex hashtag was a mistake". The Verge. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  159. ^ a b Biddle, Sam; Ribeiro, Paulo Victor; Dias, Tatiana (16 March 2020). "Invisible Censorship – TikTok Told Moderators to Suppress Posts by "Ugly" People and the Poor to Attract New Users". The Intercept. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  160. ^ Hern, Alex (17 March 2020). "TikTok 'tried to filter out videos from ugly, poor or disabled users'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  161. ^ Dodds, Laurence (12 July 2020). "Inside TikTok's dystopian Chinese censorship machine". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 12 July 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  162. ^ Li, Jane (16 October 2019). "TikTok wants to prove it's not a new front in China's information war". Quartz. Archived from the original on 17 October 2019. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
  163. ^ Lee, Cyrus (16 October 2019). "TikTok hires legal experts for content moderation amid censorship concerns". ZDNet. Archived from the original on 19 October 2019. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
  164. ^ Brody, Ben; Wilson, Megan (12 November 2019). "TikTok Revamps Lobbying as Washington Targets Chinese Ownership". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 13 November 2019. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  165. ^ "TikTok banned Trump before Trump could ban TikTok". Fortune. Archived from the original on 11 January 2021. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  166. ^ "Chinese government to start blaming social apps for what their users' post". Metro. 14 January 2019. Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  167. ^ Davis, Rebecca (18 January 2019). "Farewell to Concubines: China Tightens Restrictions on Short-Form Videos". Variety. Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  168. ^ Harwell, Drew; Romm, Tony (15 September 2019). "TikTok's Beijing roots fuel censorship suspicion as it builds a huge U.S. audience". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 16 September 2019. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  169. ^ Hern, Alex (25 September 2019). "Revealed: how TikTok censors videos that do not please Beijing". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  170. ^ Cockerell, Isobel (25 September 2019). "TikTok – Yes, TikTok – Is the Latest Window Into China's Police State". Wired. Archived from the original on 2 October 2019. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  171. ^ Chan, Holmes; Grundy, Tom (27 November 2019). "'Suspension won't silence me': Teen speaks out after embedding message about Xinjiang Uyghurs in TikTok make-up vid". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 27 November 2019. Retrieved 27 November 2019.
  172. ^ Handley, Erin (28 November 2019). "TikTok parent company complicit in censorship and Xinjiang police propaganda: report". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 26 December 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  173. ^ a b Lipes, Joshua (28 July 2020). "'You Would Want Somebody to Speak up For You': TikToker Who Posted Viral Video on Uyghurs". Radio Free Asia. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  174. ^ Hern, Alex (25 September 2019). "Revealed: how TikTok censors videos that do not please Beijing". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  175. ^ a b Hern, Alex (26 September 2019). "TikTok's local moderation guidelines ban pro-LGBT content". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 26 September 2019. Retrieved 26 September 2019.
  176. ^ Christopher, Nilesh (31 January 2020). "Censorship claims emerge as TikTok gets political in India". BBC News. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  177. ^ Lee, David; Tannahill, Jordan (28 November 2019). "TikTok apologises and reinstates banned teen". BBC News. Archived from the original on 28 November 2019. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
  178. ^ "TikTok Denies Censoring A Teen Who Criticized China's Concentration Camps – They Said They Banned Her After A Joke About Osama Bin Laden Thirst". BuzzFeed News. Archived from the original on 27 November 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
  179. ^ Xiao, Eva (17 June 2020). "TikTok Users Gush About China, Hoping to Boost Views". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 19 June 2020. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  180. ^ Byford, Sam (7 July 2020). "TikTok pulls out of Hong Kong due to new security law". The Verge. Archived from the original on 7 July 2020.
  181. ^ Banerjee, Chandrima (6 June 2020). "Does TikTok censor content that's critical of China?". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 6 July 2020. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  182. ^ Shead, Sam (5 November 2020). "TikTok invites UK lawmakers to review algorithm after being probed on China censorship concerns". CNBC. Archived from the original on 24 November 2020. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  183. ^ Feuer, William (22 October 2019). "TikTok removes two dozen accounts used for ISIS propaganda". CNBC. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  184. ^ Wells, Georgia (23 October 2019). "Islamic State's TikTok Posts Include Beheading Videos". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  185. ^ Criddle, Cristina (12 February 2020). "Transgender users accuse TikTok of censorship". BBC News. Archived from the original on 13 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  186. ^ Harwell, Drew; Romm, Tony (5 November 2019). "Inside TikTok: A culture clash where U.S. views about censorship often were overridden by the Chinese bosses". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 10 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  187. ^ JaniMilaniArmani (13 February 2021). "Sorry I'll only respond to Lé Dolla Bean". r/actuallesbians. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  188. ^ "В Роскомнадзоре похвалили TikTok за удаление постов с призывами к протестам" [Roskomnadzor praised the TikTok for deletion of posts with calls for protest activity]. Interfax.ru (in Russian). 3 February 2021. Archived from the original on 3 February 2021. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  189. ^ "Хинштейн: функция для борьбы с фейками в TikTok вписывается в идеологию принятого в РФ закона" [Khinstein: function to block fake content in TikTok fits well into ideology of recently adopted law in Russia]. Парламентская газета (in Russian). 3 February 2021. Archived from the original on 3 February 2021. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  190. ^ Wong, Queenie (2 December 2019). "TikTok accused of secretly gathering user data and sending it to China". CNET. Archived from the original on 6 May 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  191. ^ Bergman, Ronen; Frenkel, Sheera; Zhong, Raymond (8 January 2020). "Major TikTok Security Flaws Found". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  192. ^ a b Mahadevan, Tara C. (27 February 2020). "TikTok Responds After Reddit CEO Calls It 'Fundamentally Parasitic'". Complex. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  193. ^ "Privacy Policy (If you are a user having your usual residence in the US)". TikTok. Archived from the original on 26 April 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  194. ^ "Army joins Navy in banning TikTok". SC Media. 3 January 2020. Archived from the original on 23 April 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  195. ^ "TikTok flaws could have allowed hackers access to user accounts through an SMS". Hindustan Times. 8 January 2020. Archived from the original on 8 January 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  196. ^ Hamilton, Isobel Asher (27 February 2020). "Reddit's CEO described TikTok as 'parasitic' and 'spyware'". Archived from the original on 26 April 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  197. ^ Matney, Lucas (27 February 2020). "Reddit CEO: TikTok is 'fundamentally parasitic'". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 24 April 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  198. ^ Levitt, Hannah (11 July 2020). "Wells Fargo Tells Workers to Remove TikTok App From Work Phones". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 11 July 2020. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  199. ^ Deutsch, Anthony (8 May 2020). "Dutch watchdog to investigate TikTok's use of children's data". Reuters. Archived from the original on 13 May 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  200. ^ Bodoni, Stephanie (8 May 2020). "TikTok Faces Dutch Privacy Probe Over Children's Data". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 13 May 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  201. ^ Yun Chee, Foo (10 June 2020). "EU watchdog sets up TikTok task force, warns on Clearview AI software". Reuters. Archived from the original on 11 June 2020. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
  202. ^ Poulsen, Kevin; McMillan, Robert (11 August 2020). "TikTok Tracked User Data Using Tactic Banned by Google". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 12 August 2020. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  203. ^ Brandom, Russell (11 August 2020). "TikTok collected device identifiers for over a year in violation of Android policies". The Verge. Archived from the original on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  204. ^ Choi, Euirim (13 August 2020). "Senators Ask FTC to Investigate TikTok Data Collection". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 14 August 2020. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  205. ^ Lieber, Chavie (28 February 2019). "TikTok is the latest social media platform accused of abusing children's privacy – now it's paying up". Vox. Archived from the original on 31 August 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  206. ^ Lee, Dami. "TikTok stops young users from uploading videos after FTC settlement". The Verge. Archived from the original on 28 February 2019. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
  207. ^ Bartz, Diane (14 May 2020). "Advocacy group says TikTok violated FTC consent decree and children's privacy rules". Reuters. Archived from the original on 14 May 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  208. ^ Spangler, Todd (14 May 2020). "TikTok Is Still Violating U.S. Child-Privacy Law, Groups Charge". Variety. Archived from the original on 27 May 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  209. ^ Clark, Dan (14 May 2020). "Advocacy Groups Ask FTC to Reinvestigate TikTok Over Alleged COPPA Violations". Corporate Counsel. Archived from the original on 4 June 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  210. ^ Miller, Maggie (28 May 2020). "Democrats call on FTC to investigate allegations of TikTok child privacy violations". The Hill. Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  211. ^ Bartz, Diane (8 July 2020). "Exclusive: U.S. probing allegations TikTok violated children's privacy - sources". Reuters. Archived from the original on 8 July 2020. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  212. ^ Hern, Alex (2 July 2019). "TikTok under investigation over child data use". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 8 July 2020. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  213. ^ "Italy takes action against Tik Tok following girl's death". San Diego Union-Tribune. 22 January 2021. Archived from the original on 29 January 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  214. ^ "Italy tells TikTok to block users after death of young girl". TODAYonline. Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  215. ^ "Italy tells TikTok to block users after death of young girl". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  216. ^ a b "Les dangers de Tik Tok pour vos enfants et comment s'en prémunir". CNET France. Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  217. ^ WSPA (20 September 2018). "Tik Tok app raises concerns for young users". WNCT. Archived from the original on 1 March 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  218. ^ Zhang, Karen. "Tik Tok, currently the world's most popular iPhone app, under fire over lack of privacy settings – Tech News – The Star Online". scmp.com. Archived from the original on 3 March 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  219. ^ Koebler, Jason; Cox, Joseph (6 December 2018). "TikTok, the App Super Popular With Kids, Has a Nudes Problem". Vice. Archived from the original on 28 February 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  220. ^ "TikTok Creators Say They Are Being Bullied And The Company Isn't Helping". BuzzFeed News. Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  221. ^ "Clock is ticking: Experts urge caution as popularity of TikTok surges". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  222. ^ "What is TikTok and is it safe?". The Week UK. Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  223. ^ Drayton, Tiffanie (13 May 2020). "Mom of child with autism pleads with TikTok to remove 'Autism Challenge' videos". The Daily Dot. Archived from the original on 10 December 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  224. ^ Moss, Haley (15 May 2020). "As an autistic person, the offensive #AutismChallenge TikTok trend reinforced my decision to stay away from the app". Insider. Archived from the original on 19 May 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  225. ^ Smith, Olivia (27 August 2020). "The Latest TikTok Trend Is Bringing Out The Worst In People". Grit Daily. Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  226. ^ Lao, David (3 December 2019). "TikTok admits to suppressing videos from some persons with disabilities, LGBTQ2 community". Global News. Archived from the original on 6 December 2019. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
  227. ^ Biddle, Sam; Ribeiro, Paulo Victor; Dias, Tatiana (16 March 2020). "Invisible Censorship: TikTok Told Moderators to Suppress Posts by "Ugly" People and the Poor to Attract New Users". The Intercept. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  228. ^ "Girl, 11, blows mum's £3500 savings lip syncing with influencer on TikTok". 2 September 2019. Archived from the original on 21 April 2021. Retrieved 21 April 2021.
  229. ^ "Tencent and Toutiao come out swinging at each other". Archived from the original on 24 May 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  230. ^ "Tencent sues Toutiao for alleged defamation, demands 1 yuan and apology". TODAYonline. Archived from the original on 11 October 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  231. ^ Jiang, Sijia (1 June 2018). "Tencent sues Toutiao for alleged defamation, demands 1 yuan and apology". Reuters. Archived from the original on 11 October 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  232. ^ Yijun, Yin (4 June 2018). "Tencent and ByteDance Take Ongoing Feud to Court". Sixth Tone. Archived from the original on 25 November 2020. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
  233. ^ "TikTok sent user data to China, US lawsuit claims". BBC News. 3 December 2019. Archived from the original on 5 December 2019. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
  234. ^ Montgomery, Blake (2 December 2019). "California Class-Action Lawsuit Accuses TikTok of Illegally Harvesting Data and Sending It to China". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 3 December 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
  235. ^ Chen, Angela (5 December 2019). "TikTok's second lawsuit in a week brings a US ban a shade closer". MIT Technology Review. Archived from the original on 22 August 2020. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
  236. ^ Narendra, Meera (4 December 2019). "#Privacy: TikTok found secretly transferring user data to China". Archived from the original on 22 August 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  237. ^ Allyn, Bobby (4 August 2020). "Class-Action Lawsuit Claims TikTok Steals Kids' Data And Sends It To China". NPR. Archived from the original on 22 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  238. ^ Allyn, Bobby (25 February 2021). "TikTok To Pay $92 Million To Settle Class-Action Suit Over 'Theft' Of Personal Data". NPR. Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  239. ^ Dunne, James (12 May 2021). "Why a Canadian actor is suing social media giant TikTok's parent company". CBC News. Archived from the original on 13 May 2021. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  240. ^ Culatto, John (2 June 2021). "Dutch parents sue TikTok for €1.4 billion". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 10 June 2021.

External links