Great bustard

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Great bustard
CITES Appendix II (CITES)[1]
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Otidiformes
Family: Otididae
Genus: Otis
O. tarda
Binomial name
Otis tarda
Range of Otis tarda

The great bustard (Otis tarda) is a bird in the bustard family, and the only living member of the genus Otis.[2] It breeds in open grasslands and farmland from northern Morocco, South and Central Europe to temperate Central and East Asia. European populations are mainly resident, but Asian populations migrate farther south in winter. Endangered as of 2023, it had been listed as a Vulnerable species on the IUCN Red List since 1996.[1]

Portugal and Spain now have about 60% of the world's great bustard population.[3] It was driven to extinction in Great Britain, when the last bird was shot in 1832. Since 1998 The Great Bustard Group have helped reintroduce it into England on Salisbury Plain, a British Army training area.[4] Here, the lack of public access and disturbance allows them the seclusion they desire as a large, ground-nesting bird.


The genus name Otis was introduced in 1758 by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae;[5] it came from the Greek name ὠτίς ōtis[6] used for this species[7] taken from Natural History by Pliny the Elder published around 77 AD which briefly mentions a bird like it, it was also given the name ωτιδος ōtidos and the Latin aves tardas[a] mentioned by the Pierre Belon in 1555 and Ulisse Aldrovandi in 1600.[9][10]

The specific epithet tarda is Latin for "slow" and "deliberate",[11] which is apt to describe the typical walking style of the species.[12] The Latin phrase avis tarda "slow bird" is the origin of the word bustard, via Old French bistarda.[13][14]

A museum display shows male-female sexual dimorphism.


Captive male great bustard, showing the characteristic long, beard-like feathers and heavy build

The adult male great bustard is amongst the heaviest living flying animals. A male is typically 90–105 cm (2 ft 11 in – 3 ft 5 in) tall, with a length of around 115 cm (3 ft 9 in) and has a 2.1–2.7 m (6 ft 11 in – 8 ft 10 in) wingspan. The male can range in weight from 5.8 to 18 kg (13 to 40 lb).[3][15] The heaviest verified specimen, collected in Manchuria, was about 21 kg (46 lb),[15][16] a world record for heaviest flying bird.[17] In a study in Spain, one male weighed as much as 19 kg (42 lb).[18] Larger specimens have been reported but remain unverified. Average male weights as reported have been fairly variable: in Russia, males weighed a median of 9.2 kg (20 lb); in Spain, males weighed a mean of 11.62 kg (25.6 lb) during breeding season and 9.65 kg (21.3 lb) during non-breeding; in Germany, males weighed a mean of 11.97 kg (26.4 lb); and the Guinness World Records has indicated that male bustards in Great Britain weighed an average of 13.5 kg (30 lb). Average weight of males is almost an exact match to that of male Kori bustards. Among all flying animals and land birds, male Andean condors (Vultur gryphus) may match or exceed the mean body masses of these male bustards but not their maximum weights. Furthermore, male swans of the two largest species (trumpeter and mute) may attain a similar average mass depending on season and region.[19][18][20][15][21][22] Among both bustards and all living birds, the upper reported mass of this species is rivaled by that of the kori bustard (Ardeotis kori), which, because of its relatively longer tarsi and tail, is both longer and taller on average and is less sexually dimorphic.[18] In terms of weight ranges reported, the great Indian bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps) also only lags slightly behind these species.[19][20][15]

Close up of face.

The great bustard is also arguably the most sexual dimorphic extant bird species, in terms of the size difference between males and females. Adult male great bustards measured in Spain weighed on average 2.48 times more than females.[23] Going on mass, the only known bird with a higher dimorphism is the green peafowl (Pavo muticus) as the males are apparently near four times as heavy as females.[19][16] The female is about a third smaller in linear dimensions, typically measuring 75 to 85 cm (2 ft 6 in to 2 ft 9 in) in height, about 90 cm (2 ft 11 in)[22] in length and 180 cm (5 ft 11 in) across the wings.[3][21] Overall, the female's weight can range from 3.1 to 8 kg (6.8 to 17.6 lb).[21] Like male weights, females weights are quite variable as reported: in Germany, females had a mean weight of 3.82 kg (8.4 lb), in Spain, females had a mean weight of 4.35 kg (9.6 lb) and in Russia, females reportedly had a median weight of 6 kg (13 lb). The latter figure indicates that eastern birds (presumably O. t. dybowskii) are considerably less sexually dimorphic in body mass than in other populations.[19][18][20] Perhaps because of this physical sexual dimorphism, there is a skewed sex ratio of about 1.5:1 female to male.

Mounted specimen of a female, with somewhat more muted tones and a more slender, smaller build than the adult male

An adult male is brown above, barred with blackish colouration, and white below, with a long grey neck and head. His breast and lower neck sides are chestnut and there is a golden wash to the back and the extent of these bright colours tending to increase as the male ages. In the breeding season, the male has long white neck bristles, which measure up to 12–15 cm (4.7–5.9 in) in length, continually growing from the third to the sixth year of life.[3] In flight, the long wings are predominantly white with brown showing along the edges of the lower primary and secondary feathers and a dark brown streak along the upper-edge of the wing. The breast and neck of the female are buff, with brown and pale colouration over the rest of the plumage rendering it well camouflaged in open habitats. Immature birds resemble the female. The eastern subspecies (O. t. dybowskii) is more extensively grey in colour in both sexes, with more extensive barring on the back.[3] The great bustard has long legs, a long neck and a heavy, barrel-chested body. It is fairly typical of the family in its overall shape and habitat preferences. Three other bustard species overlap in range with this species: the Macqueen's (Chlamydotis macqueenii), houbara (Chlamydotis undulata) and little bustards (Tetrax tetrax). However, none of these attains the plumage coloration nor approach the body sizes of this species. Thus, the great bustard is essentially unmistakable.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Great bustards in Spain in fairly typical habitat for the species

These birds' habitat is grassland or steppe defined by open, flat or somewhat rolling landscapes. They can be found on undisturbed cultivation and seem to prefer areas with wild or cultivated crops such as cereals, vineyards and fodder plants. However, during the breeding season, they actively avoid areas with regular human activity and can be disturbed by agricultural practices. Great bustards are often attracted to areas with considerable insect activity.

The breeding range of the great bustard currently stretches from Portugal to Manchuria, though previously the species bred even further east in Russian Primorsky Krai. As a result of population declines across much of the range, more than half of the global population is now found in central Spain with around 30,000 individuals. Smaller populations are in southern Russia and the Great Hungarian Plain.[24]

Adult male great bustard in habitat

Behaviour and ecology[edit]

The great bustard is gregarious, especially in winter when gatherings of several dozen birds may occur. Male and female groups do not mix outside of the breeding season. The great bustard has a stately slow walk but tends to run when disturbed rather than fly. Running speeds have not been measured but adult females have been known to outrun red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), which can reach a trotting speed of 48 km/h (30 mph).[25][26][3] Both sexes are usually silent but can engage in deep grunts when alarmed or angered. The displaying adult male may produce some booming, grunting and raucous noises. The female may utter some guttural calls at the nest and brooded young make a soft, trilling call in communication with their mothers.[citation needed]


A great bustard in flight

Some individuals in Iberian populations make short seasonal movements of 5–200 km (3.1–124.3 mi), particularly males which appear to move in response to higher summer temperatures.[27][28] European populations are sedentary or make irregular movements in response to severe winter weather.[29][30] Populations breeding along the Volga in Russia migrate around 1,000 km (620 mi) to spend the winter season in Crimea and Kherson Oblast.[31] Populations breeding in northern Mongolia migrate over 2,000 km (1,200 mi) to Shaanxi Province of China.[32]

Great bustards often gather in larger numbers at pre-migratory sites in order to move collectively to winter grounds. In the Iberian Peninsula, migrating great bustards seem to choose different periods for movements based on sex.[33][34][35][36][37] No population is known to use the same grounds for wintering and summering.[38] Great bustards are strong fliers and reach speeds of 48–98 km/h (30–61 mph) during migration.[32]


Male Bustard display
Eggs, Collection Museum Wiesbaden

The great bustard breeds in March, and a single male may mate with up to five females. Before mating, the males moult into their breeding plumage around January. Males establish dominance in their groups during winter, clashing violently by ramming into and hitting each other with their bills.[3] Like other bustards, the male great bustard displays and competes for the attention of females on what is known as a lek. In this species, the male has a flamboyant display beginning with the strutting male puffing up his throat to the size of a football. He then tilts forwards and pulls his head in so that the long whiskery chin feathers point upwards and the head is no longer visible. He next cocks his tail flat along his back, exposing the normally hidden bright white plumage then he lowers his wings, with the primary flight feathers folded but with the white secondaries fanning out.[39] The displaying males, who may walk around for several minutes at a time with feathers flared and head buried waiting for hens to arrive, have been described as a "foam-bath" because of their appearance.[18] All breeding great bustards also moult again from June to September.[citation needed]

One to three olive or tan coloured, glossy eggs (two eggs being the average) are laid by the female in May or June. The nests, which are shallow scrapes made by the female on dry, soft slopes and plains, are usually situated close to the prior lek location. Nests are situated in sparse clusters, with a study in Inner Mongolia finding nests at a minimal 9 m (30 ft) apart from each other. In the same study, nests were placed at mid-elevation on a hill, at about 190 to 230 m (620 to 750 ft). Nesting sites are typically in dense grassy vegetation about 15 to 35 cm (5.9 to 13.8 in), likely for protection against predation, with extensive exposure to sunlight.[40] Eggs weigh about 150 g (5.3 oz) and are on average 79.4 mm (3.13 in) tall by 56.8 mm (2.24 in) wide. The female incubates the eggs alone for 21 to 28 days. The chicks almost immediately leave the nest after they hatch, although they do not move very far from their mother until they are at least 1 year old. Young great bustards begin developing their adult plumage at about 2 months, and begin to develop flying skills at the same time. They practice by stretching, running, flapping, and making small hops and jumps to get airborne. By three months they are able to fly reasonable distances. If threatened, the young stand still, using their downy plumage, mainly sepia in colour with paler buffy streaks, as camouflage. Juveniles are independent by their first winter, but normally stay with their mother until the next breeding season. Males usually start to mate from 5 to 6 years of age, although may engage in breeding display behaviour at a younger age. Females usually first breed at 2 to 3 years old.[3][39]


The species is omnivorous, taking different foods in differing seasons. In northwestern Spain in August, 48.4% of the diet of adult birds was green plant material, 40.9% was invertebrates and 10.6% was seeds. In the same population during winter, seeds and green plant material constituted almost the entirety of the diet. Alfalfa is seemingly preferred in the diet of birds from Spain.[41] Other favoured plant life in the diet can include legumes, crucifers, common dandelion and grapes and the dry seeds of wheat and barley.[3] Among animal prey, insects are generally eaten and are the main food for young bustards in their first summer, though they then switch to the seasonal herbivorous preferences of adults by winter. Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Orthoptera are mainly taken, largely based on availability and abundance. Small vertebrates supplement the diet when the opportunity arises.[3][42] Great bustards sometimes eat toxic blister beetles of the genus Meloe to self-medicate.[43] increasing sexual arousal of males.[44] Some plants selected in the mating season showed in-vitro activity against laboratory models of parasites and pathogens.[45]


In winter the feeding intensity increased and then decreased through the morning in both sexes, and was lower in flocks of males than in flocks of females. This sexual difference is greater where legume availability was smaller in central Spain.[46] Males that foraged slightly less intensively than females could compensate with longer periods of foraging [47] and bigger bite size[48] that would allow them to obtain enough food relative to their absolute daily energy requirements. The size of morning foraging area is smaller in sites with more legume availability, likely because legumes are the most preferred substrate type.[46]


Great bustards typically live for around 10 years, but some have been known to live up to 15 years or more. The maximum known life span for the species was 28 years. Adult males seem to have a higher mortality rate than females due mainly to fierce intraspecies fighting with other males during the breeding season. Many males may perish in their first couple of years of maturity for this reason.[21]

Although little detailed information has been obtained of predators, over 80% of great bustards die in the first year of life and many are victims of predation. Chicks are subject to predation by the fact that they are ground-dwelling birds which are reluctant to fly. Predators of eggs and hatchlings include raptors, corvids, hedgehogs, foxes, weasels, badgers, martens, rats and wild boars (Sus scrofa). The most serious natural predators of nests are perhaps red foxes and hooded crows (Corvus cornix).[49] Chicks grow very quickly, by 6 months being nearly two-thirds of their adult size, and are predated by foxes, lynxes, gray wolves (Canis lupus), dogs, jackals and eagles.[50] Predation on adult male great bustards has been reportedly committed by white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) while golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are potential predators and eastern imperial eagles (Aquila heliaca) have been known to prey on great bustards (but not likely to include adult males).[51][52][53] Great bustards of unspecified age and sex have been found amongst Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo) prey remains in Bulgaria.[54] A possible act of predation on a great bustard was observed to be committed by a much smaller raptor, the western marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus), though it was likely that this bustard was "weak or injured" if it was taken alive.[55] The bold, conspicuous behaviour of the breeding adult male bustard may attract the same large mammalian predators that predate chicks, such as wolves and lynx, while the more inconspicuous female may sometimes be attacked by various predators. However, predation is generally fairly rare for adults because oftheir size, nimbleness and safety in numbers through social behaviour.[3][21][56][57]

Occasionally, other natural causes may contribute to mortality in the species, especially starvation in harsh winter months.[56] However, major causes of mortality in recent centuries have been largely linked to human activity, as described below.

Population distribution[edit]

Bustard juvenile

As of 2008, the global population numbered between 44,000 and 51,000 birds (Palacin & Alonso 2008), about 38,000 to 47,000 in Europe, with 30,000 or more than half in Spain. Hungary had the next largest Great Bustard population with about 1,555 in the year 2012, followed by Ukraine and Austria. Between 4,200 and 4,500 were found in east Asia.[24] In recent times, there have been steep declines throughout eastern and central Europe and in Asia, particularly in Kazakhstan and Mongolia.[citation needed]

Range (2008)
Presence Countries
Native Afghanistan, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, North Macedonia, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Syria, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan
Regionally extinct Algeria, Lithuania, Myanmar, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, Kyrgyzstan
Vagrant Albania, Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, Gibraltar, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia
Presence uncertain Lebanon, Pakistan

Sizeable populations exist in Spain (23,055 birds), Russia (8,000 birds), Turkey (800–3,000 birds), Portugal (1,435 birds) and Mongolia (1,000 birds). In Germany and Austria the populations are small (Germany 2016: 232 birds; Austria 2012: 335 birds) but steadily growing for about two decades.[58][59] Elsewhere, the populations are declining because of habitat loss throughout its range. A sizeable population also exists in Hungary (1,100–1,300 birds) where the Eastern European steppe zone ends, near Dévaványa town and also in the Hortobágy National Park, Nagykunság and Nagy-Sárrét regions. The population is down from a population of 10,000–12,000 before the Second World War.

Agrienvironment schemes as unirrigated legumes fostered a population increase of great bustards in Castilla y Leon, central Spain.[60]

Threats and conservation status[edit]

Adult great bustards.

The great bustard is classified as vulnerable at the species level. There are myriad threats faced by great bustards. Increasing human disturbance could lead to habitat loss caused by the ploughing of grasslands, intensive agriculture, afforestation, increased development of irrigation schemes, and the construction of roads, power lines, fencing and ditches. Mechanisation, chemical fertilizers and pesticides, fire and predation by dogs are serious threats for chicks and juveniles, and hunting of adults contributes to high mortality in some of their range countries. Agricultural activity is a major disturbance at nest and, in Hungary, few successful nests are found outside of protected areas.[56]

Bustards, despite their large size, are able to fly at high speed and are often mutilated or killed by overhead electricity cables, which are placed in the West Pannonia region of Eastern Austria and Western Hungary just at their flying height. The electricity companies affected have buried part of the dangerous cables, and have marked remaining aerial parts with fluorescent markers to warn off the birds. These measures have rapidly reduced bustard mortality.[56][61] Bustards are also occasionally killed by collisions with automobiles or by entanglement in wires.[56]

Wood engraving by Thomas Bewick in his A History of British Birds, 1797; he was concerned about their probable local extinction. A horseman and greyhound gallop after another bustard in the background.

The great bustard was formerly native in Great Britain and a bustard forms part of the design of the Wiltshire Coat of Arms and as supporters for the Cambridgeshire arms.[62] As early as 1797, the naturalist and wood engraver Thomas Bewick commented in his A History of British Birds that "Both this [the little bustard] and the Great Bustard are excellent eating, and would well repay the trouble of domestication; indeed, it seems surprising, that we should suffer these fine birds to be in danger of total extinction, although, if properly cultivated, they might afford as excellent a repast as our own domestic poultry, or even as the Turkey, for which we are indebted to distant countries."[63] Bewick's prediction was correct; the great bustard was hunted out of existence in Britain by the 1840s.

In 2004, a project overseeing the reintroduction to Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire using eggs taken from Saratov in Russia was undertaken by The Great Bustard Group,[64] a UK Registered Charity that aims to establish a self-sustaining population of great bustards in the UK. The reintroduced birds have laid eggs and raised chicks in Britain in 2009 and 2010. Although the great bustard was once native to Britain, great bustards are considered an alien species under English law.[65] The reintroduction of the great bustard to the UK by the Great Bustard Group is being carried out in parallel with researchers from the University of Bath who are providing insight into the habitat of native great bustard populations in Russia and Hungary. On January 19, 2011, it was announced that the Great Bustard Project had been awarded EU LIFE+ funding, reportedly to the tune of £1.8 million.[66] By 2020 the population in Wiltshire exceeded 100 birds.[67] In Hungary, where the species is the national bird, great bustards are actively protected. The Hungarian authorities are seeking to preserve the long-term future of the population by active protection measures; the area affected by the special ecological treatment had grown to 15 km2 (5.8 sq mi) by the summer of 2006.[disputed ]

Under the auspices of the Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), also known as the Bonn Convention, the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on the Conservation and Management of Middle-European Populations of the Great Bustard was concluded and came into effect on June 1, 2001. The MoU provides a framework for governments, scientists, conservation bodies and others to monitor and coordinate conservation efforts in order to protect the middle-European populations of the great bustard.


  1. ^ "proximae iis sunt quas Hispania aves tardas appellat, Graecia ωτιδος damnatas in cibis; emissa enim ossibus medulla odoris taedium extemplo sequitur." [Next to these are the birds that Spain calls tardae and Greece otides, which are condemned as an article of diet, because when the marrow is drained out of their bones a disgusting smell at once follows.][8]


  1. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2023). "Otis tarda". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2023: e.T22691900A226280431. Retrieved 12 December 2023.
  2. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (2023). "Turacos, bustards, cuckoos, mesites, sandgrouse". World Bird List. 13.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 12 December 2023.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. (1996). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 3. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. ISBN 978-84-87334-20-7.
  4. ^ "Reintroducing the great bustard to Southern England". RSPB. Retrieved 2015-12-26.
  5. ^ Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin). Vol. 1 (10th ed.). Holmiae (Stockholm): Laurentii Salvii. p. 154.
  6. ^ Jobling, James A. (2010). Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London, UK: Christopher Helm. p. 286. ISBN 978-1-4081-3326-2. OCLC 659731768.
  7. ^ Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1940). "ὠτίς". A Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library.
  8. ^ Pliny Natural History III Libri VIII-XI. The Loeb Classical Library. Translated by Rachham, H. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 1967. pp. 328–329.
  9. ^ Belon, Pierre (1555). L'histoire de la natvre des oyseavx : avec levrs descriptions, & naïfs portraicts retirez du natvrel, escrite en sept livres (in French). Paris: Gilles Corrozet. pp. 235–237.
  10. ^ Aldrovandi, Ulisse (1637) [1600]. Vlyssis Aldrovandi philosophi ac medici Bononiensis historiam naturalem in gymnasio Bononiensi profitentis, Ornithologiae (in Latin). Vol. 2. Bononiae (Bologna, Italy): Apud Nicolaum Tebaldinum. p. 85.
  11. ^ Lewis, Charlton T.; Short, Charles (1879). "tardus". A Latin Dictionary. Perseus Digital Library.
  12. ^ "Great Bustard (Otis tarda) – Information on Great Bustard". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  13. ^ Turner, William (1903) [1544]. Turner on birds: a short and succinct history of the principal birds noticed by Pliny and Aristotle first published by Doctor William Turner, 1544 (in Latin and English). Translated by Evans, A.H. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. xvi, 130–131.
  14. ^ Turner, William (1544). Avium praecipuarum, quarum apud Plinium et Aristotelem mentio est, brevis et succincta historia (in Latin). Cambridge: Ioan. Gymnicus. pp. 72–73.
  15. ^ a b c d Wood, Gerald (1983). The Guinness Book of Animal Facts and Feats. Guinness Superlatives. ISBN 978-0-85112-235-9.
  16. ^ a b Naish, Darren (6 April 2010). "The Great bustard returns – Tetrapod Zoology". Archived from the original on 23 November 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  17. ^ Bird, D. M. (1999). The Bird Almanac : The Ultimate Guide to Essential Facts and Figures of the World's Birds. Buffalo, N.Y. ISBN 1-55209-323-9. OCLC 40051530.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  18. ^ a b c d e Alonso, J.C.; Magaña, M.; Palacín, C.; Martín, C. (2010). "Correlates of male mating success in great bustard leks: the effects of age, weight, and display effort". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 64 (1): 1589–1600. doi:10.1007/s00265-010-0972-6. hdl:10261/76985. S2CID 8741416.
  19. ^ a b c d Dunning, John B. Jr., ed. (2008). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-6444-5.
  20. ^ a b c Dunning, John B. Jr., ed. (1992). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5.
  21. ^ a b c d e "What are Great Bustards?". Great Bustard Group. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
  22. ^ a b Payne-Galleway (2009). Letters to Young Shooters on the Choice and Use of a Gun. General Books LLC. ISBN 978-1-150-35645-2.
  23. ^ Alonso, J. C.; Magaña, M.; Alonso, J. A.; Palacín, C.; Martín, C, A.; Martín, B. (2009). "The Most Extreme Sexual Size Dimorphism among Birds: Allometry, Selection, and Early Juvenile Development in the Great Bustard (Otis tarda)". The Auk. 126 (3): 657–665. doi:10.1525/auk.2009.08233. hdl:10261/76983. S2CID 51741160.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  24. ^ a b great bustards Distribution and population numbers International Technisches Büro für Biologie Mag. Dr. Rainer Raab, 16 January 2018
  25. ^ "Great Bustard – Wildlife In The Westcountry". Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  26. ^ "BioKIDS – Kids' Inquiry of Diverse Species, Critter Catalog, Vulpes vulpes, red fox". 27 September 2007. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  27. ^ Alonso, J. A.; Martín, C. A.; Alonso, J. C.; Morales, M. B.; Lane, S. J. (2001). "Seasonal Movements of Male Great Bustards in Central Spain". Journal of Field Ornithology. 72 (4): 504–508. doi:10.1648/0273-8570-72.4.504. S2CID 84271738.
  28. ^ Alonso, J. C.; Palacín, C.; Alonso, J. A.; Martín, C. A. (2009). "Post-breeding migration in male great bustards: low tolerance of the heaviest Palaearctic bird to summer heat". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 63 (12): 1705–1715. doi:10.1007/s00265-009-0783-9. S2CID 33383795.
  29. ^ Streich, W. J.; Litzbarski, H.; Ludwig, B.; Ludwig, S. (2006). "What triggers facultative winter migration of Great Bustard (Otis tarda) in Central Europe?". European Journal of Wildlife Research. 52 (1): 48–53. doi:10.1007/s10344-005-0007-1. S2CID 23334564.
  30. ^ Block, B. (1996). "Wiederfunde von in Buckow ausgewilderten Großtrappen (Otis t. tarda L., 1758) Ringfundmitteilung 6/1995 der Vogelwarte Hiddensee". Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege in Brandenburg. 1/2: 76–79.
  31. ^ Watzke, H. (2001). "Der Zug von Großtrappen Otis tarda aus der Region Saratov (Russland) – erste Ergebnisse der Satellitentelemetrie im Rahmen eines Schutzprojektes". Vogelwelt. 122: 89–94.
  32. ^ a b Kessler, A. E.; Batbayar, N.; Natsagdorj, T.; Batsuur’, D.; Smith, A. T. (2013). "Satellite telemetry reveals long-distance migration in the Asian great bustard Otis tarda dybowskii". Journal of Avian Biology. 44 (4): 311–320. doi:10.1111/j.1600-048X.2013.00072.x.
  33. ^ Morales, Manuel B.; Alonso, Juan C.; Alonso, Javier A.; Martín, Enrique (2000). "Migration Patterns in Male Great Bustards (Otis tarda)" (PDF). The Auk. 117 (2): 493. doi:10.1642/0004-8038(2000)117[0493:MPIMGB]2.0.CO;2. hdl:10261/77907. ISSN 0004-8038. S2CID 20600263.
  34. ^ Alonso, Juan C.; Morales, Manuel B.; Alonso, Javier A. (2000). "Partial Migration, and Lek and Nesting Area Fidelity in Female Great Bustards". The Condor. 102 (1): 127. doi:10.1650/0010-5422(2000)102[0127:PMALAN]2.0.CO;2. hdl:10261/77120. ISSN 0010-5422. S2CID 44041490.
  35. ^ Lane, Simon J.; Alonso, Juan C.; Martín, Carlos A. (2001). "Habitat preferences of great bustardOtistardaflocks in the arable steppes of central Spain: are potentially suitable areas unoccupied?". Journal of Applied Ecology. 38 (1): 193–203. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2664.2001.00577.x. ISSN 0021-8901.
  36. ^ Palacín, Carlos; Alonso, Juan C.; Alonso, Javier A.; Martín, Carlos A.; Magaña, Marina; Martin, Beatriz (2009). "Differential Migration by Sex in the Great Bustard: Possible Consequences of an Extreme Sexual Size Dimorphism". Ethology. 115 (7): 617–626. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.2009.01647.x. ISSN 0179-1613.
  37. ^ Palacín, Carlos; Alonso, Juan C.; Alonso, Javier A.; Magaña, Marina; Martín, Carlos A. (2011). "Cultural transmission and flexibility of partial migration patterns in a long-lived bird, the great bustard Otis tarda". Journal of Avian Biology. 42 (4): 301–308. doi:10.1111/j.1600-048X.2011.05395.x. ISSN 0908-8857. S2CID 73664186.
  38. ^ "Species factsheet: Otis tarda". BirdLife International. 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  39. ^ a b "Otis tarda (great bustard)". London: Natural History Museum. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  40. ^ Wan, D; Gao, W.; Zhao, J.; Wang, H.; Cheng, J. (2002). "On nest-site selection of Otic [sic] tarda". Ying yong sheng tai xue bao [The journal of applied ecology / Zhongguo sheng tai xue xue hui, Zhongguo ke xue yuan Shenyang ying yong sheng tai yan jiu suo zhu ban]. 13 (11): 1445–1448. PMID 12625004.
  41. ^ Lane, S.J.; Alonso, J.C.; Alonso, J.A.; Naveso, M.A. (1999). "Seasonal changes in diet and diet selection of great bustards (Otis t. tarda) in north-west Spain". Journal of Zoology. 247 (2): 201–214. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1999.tb00984.x.
  42. ^ Bravo, Carolina; Ponce, Carlos; Palacín, Carlos; Carlos Alonso, Juan (2012). "Diet of young Great Bustards Otis tarda in Spain: Sexual and seasonal differences". Bird Study. 59 (2): 243–251. doi:10.1080/00063657.2012.662940. S2CID 85874066.
  43. ^ Bravo, C.; Bautista, L.M.; García-París, M.; Blanco, G.; Alonso, J.C. (2014). "Males of a Strongly Polygynous Species Consume More Poisonous Food than Females". PLOS ONE. 9 (10): e111057. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...9k1057B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111057. PMC 4206510. PMID 25337911.
  44. ^ Heneberg, P. (2016). "On Otis tarda and Marquis de Sade: what motivates male Great Bustards to consume Blister Beetles (Meloidae)?". Journal of Ornithology. 57 (4): 1123–1125. doi:10.1007/s10336-016-1369-8. S2CID 17325635.
  45. ^ Bautista, L.M.; Bolivar, P.; Gómez-Muñoz, M. T.; Martínez-Díaz, R. A.; Andrés, M. F.; Alonso, J. C.; Bravo, C.; González-Coloma, A. (2022). "Bioactivity of plants eaten by wild birds against laboratory models of parasites and pathogens" (PDF). Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 10: 1027201. doi:10.3389/fevo.2022.1027201.
  46. ^ a b Bautista, L.M.; Bravo, C.; Ponce, C.; Unzúe, D.; Alonso, J. C. (2017). "Food availability but not sex determines morning foraging area size in the Great Bustard Otis tarda, the most sexually size-dimorphic bird species". Ardeola. 64 (2): 289–303. doi:10.13157/arla.64.2.2017.ra1. hdl:10261/145769. S2CID 91068606.
  47. ^ Martínez, C. (2000). "Daily activity patterns of Great Bustards Otis tarda'" (PDF). Ardeola. 47 (1): 57–68.
  48. ^ Alonso, J. C.; Magaña, M.; Alonso, J. A.; Palacín, C.; Martín, C.; Martín, B. (2009). "The most extreme sexual size dimorphism among birds: allometry, selection, and early juvenile development in the great bustard (Otis tarda)". Auk. 126 (3): 657–665. doi:10.1525/auk.2009.08233. hdl:10261/76983. S2CID 51741160.
  49. ^ "Threats".
  50. ^ Abdulkarimi, R.; Abbasnejad, H.; Ahmadi, M. (2010). "A Note on the Breeding of the Great Bustard Otis tarda on Sootav Plain, Boukan, Northwestern Iran". Podoces. 5 (2): 104–106.
  51. ^ Love, J.A. (1983). The return of the Sea Eagle. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0 521 25513 9.
  52. ^ Sastre, P.; Ponce, C.; Palacín, C.; Martín, C. A. & Alonso, J. C. (2009). "Disturbances to great bustards (Otis tarda) in central Spain: human activities, bird responses and management implications". European Journal of Wildlife Research. 55 (4): 425–432.
  53. ^ Horváth, M.; Solti, B.; Fatér, I.; Juhász, T.; Haraszthy, L.; Szitta, T.; Bállok, Z. & Pásztory-Kovács, S. (2018). "Temporal changes in the diet composition of the Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) in Hungary". Ornis Hungarica. 26 (1): 1–26.
  54. ^ Mitev, I.; Boev, Z. (2006). "Хранителен спектър на бухала (Bubo bubo (L., 1758)) (Aves: Strigiformes) в две холоценски находища от Североизточна България" [Food spectrum of the owl (Bubo bubo (L., 1758)) (Aves: Strigiformes) in two Holocene deposits of northeastern Bulgaria]. Historia Naturalis Bulgarica (in Bulgarian). 17: 153–165.
  55. ^ Mirzanejad, H., Gholami, J., & Qashqaei, A. T. (2018). Can Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus prey on Great Bustard Otis tarda? Zoology and Ecology, 28(2), 65-68.
  56. ^ a b c d e Bankovics, Attila. "Great Bustard Work Program of Hungary" (PDF).
  57. ^ Magaña, M.; Alonso, J.C.; Martín, C.A.; Bautista, L.M.; Martín, B. (2010). "Nest‐site selection by Great Bustards Otis tarda suggests a trade‐off between concealment and visibility". Ibis. 152 (1): 77–89. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.2009.00976.x. hdl:10261/39088.
  58. ^ "2016: 232 Großtrappen in Deutschland" (in German). Förderverein Großtrappenschutz e.V. 2016. Archived from the original on 2016-04-03. Retrieved 2016-04-03.
  59. ^ "Zahl der Trappen im Nordburgenland hat sich fast vervierfacht" (in German). Retrieved 6 September 2013
  60. ^ Martín, C.A.; Martínez, C.; Bautista, L.M.; Martín, B. (2012). "Population increase of the great bustard "Otis tarda" in its main distribution area in relation to changes in farming practices" (PDF). Ardeola. 59: 31–42. doi:10.13157/arla.59.1.2012.31. hdl:10261/67377. S2CID 85775630.
  61. ^ Raab, Rainer; Schütz, Claudia; Spakovszky, Péter; Julius, Eike; Schulze, Christian H. (2011). "Underground cabling and marking of power lines: conservation measures rapidly reduced mortality of West-Pannonian Great Bustards Otis tarda". Bird Conservation International. 22 (3): 299–306. doi:10.1017/S0959270911000463. ISSN 0959-2709.
  62. ^ "Cambridgeshire County Council Arms" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 April 2012.
  63. ^ Bewick, Thomas (1847) [1804]. A History of British Birds. Volume 1: Land Birds. Newcastle: R. E. Bewick. p. 372.
  64. ^ "Home". Retrieved 8 October 2022.
  65. ^ "New bustard chicks a 'huge step'". BBC. 2 June 2009.
  66. ^ "Salisbury Plain great bustard project EU funding boost". BBC. 19 January 2011.
  67. ^ "Great British bustards". 8 June 2022.

Further reading[edit]

  • Gorman, Gerard (1996). The Birds of Hungary. London: Helm (A&C Black). ISBN 978-0-7136-4235-3.
  • Meissner, Hans Otto (1963). Unknown Europe. trans. Florence and Isabel McHugh. London and Glasgow: Blackie & Sons. pp. 125–139.

External links[edit]