Groom of the Stool
The Groom of the Stool (formally styled: "Groom of the King's Close Stool") was the most intimate of an English monarch's courtiers, responsible for assisting the king in the performance of the bodily functions of excretion and ablution.
The physical intimacy of the role naturally led to him becoming a man in whom much confidence was placed by his royal master and with whom many royal secrets were shared as a matter of course. This secret information—while it would never have been revealed, to the discredit of his honour—in turn led to him becoming feared and respected and therefore powerful within the royal court in his own right. The office developed gradually over decades and centuries into one of administration of the royal finances, and under Henry VII, the Groom of the Stool became a powerful official involved in setting national fiscal policy, under the "chamber system".
- 1 History
- 2 List of Grooms of the Stool
- 2.1 Grooms of the Stool under Henry VII
- 2.2 Grooms of the Stool under Henry VIII
- 2.3 Grooms of the Stool to Edward VI
- 2.4 Grooms of the Stool to Charles I
- 2.5 Grooms of the Stool to Henrietta Maria of France
- 2.6 Grooms of the Stool to Charles II
- 2.7 Grooms of the Stool to James II
- 2.8 Grooms of the Stool to William III
- 2.9 Grooms of the Stool to Queen Anne
- 2.10 Grooms of the Stool to Prince George
- 2.11 Grooms of the Stool to George I
- 2.12 Grooms of the Stool to George II
- 2.13 Grooms of the Stool to George III
- 2.14 Grooms of the Stool to George IV
- 2.15 Grooms of the Stool to William IV
- 2.16 Grooms of the Stool to Prince Albert
- 2.17 Grooms of the Stool to Albert Edward, Prince of Wales
- 3 See also
- 4 References
The Groom of the Stool was, in the earliest times, a male servant in the household of an English monarch who was responsible for assisting the king in the performance of the bodily functions of excretion and ablution, whilst maintaining an aura of royal decorum over the proceedings. The appellation "Groom of the Close Stool" derived from "stool", the item of furniture now called a commode used in the performance of the function (Stul being Norse and Early English for chair) and "close" because it was used in a closed and private room. It also appears as "Grom of the Stole" as the word "Groom" comes from the Old Low Franconian word "Grom".
In the Tudor era
By the Tudor age, the Groom of the Stool was a substantial figure like Hugh Denys (d.1511) who was a member of the Gloucestershire gentry, married to an aristocratic wife, and who died possessing at least four manors. The function had been transformed into that of a virtual minister of the royal treasury, being then an essential figure in the king's management of fiscal policy.
In the early years of Henry VIII's reign, the title was awarded to court companions of the king who spent time with him in the privy chamber. These were generally the sons of noblemen or important members of the gentry. In time they came to act as virtual personal secretaries to the king, carrying out a variety of administrative tasks within his private rooms. The position was an especially prized one, as it allowed one unobstructed access to the king.:42 David Starkey writes: "The Groom of the Stool had (to our eyes) the most menial tasks; his standing, though, was the highest ... Clearly then, the royal body service must have been seen as entirely honourable, without a trace of the demeaning or the humiliating." Further, "the mere word of the Gentleman of the Privy Chamber was sufficient evidence in itself of the king's will", and the Groom of the Stool bore "the indefinable charisma of the monarchy".
In 1558, the male domination of royal private quarters came to an end, and Kat Ashley was appointed First Lady of the Bedchamber by Elizabeth I of England, a position that put her "in charge of the bedchamber", a duty formerly performed by the Groom of the Stool. The office effectively came to an end when it was "neutralised" in 1559.
Re-establishment and discontinuation
The office was exclusively one serving male monarchs, so on the death of Elizabeth and the accession of James I the office was revived. The holder of the position became in the Stuart Era (17th century) the senior Lord of the Bedchamber, always a great nobleman (having become the equivalent appointment in the household of the king or prince-consort of the queen's Mistress of the Robes). The position had considerable power because of its intimate access to the king. During the reign of Charles I the term "stool" appears to have lost its original signification of chair, more particularly commode. The office fell into disuse with the accession of Queen Victoria, and made only a brief final appearance early in the reign of her successor, with the spelling having been altered to "stole", from the Latin stola, a long outer garment or robe worn by Roman ladies, and male flute players at the festival of Minerva. The Tudor historian David Starkey classes this change as classic Victorianism:
"When the Victorians came to look at this office, they spelt it s-t-o-l-e, and imagined all kinds of fictions about elaborate robes draped around the neck of the monarch at the coronation."
The office was finally discontinued following the accession of King Edward VII in 1901, to whom a Groom of the Stole had been appointed while he was Prince of Wales.
Royal ablution today
List of Grooms of the Stool
Grooms of the Stool under Henry VII
Hugh Denys performed an important function in controlling the private and secret finances of King Henry VII.
Grooms of the Stool under Henry VIII
- Sir William Compton (1509–1526):97
- Sir Henry Norris (1526–1536)
- Sir Thomas Heneage (1536–1546)
- Sir Anthony Denny (1546–1547):486
Heneage and Denny, as servants 'whom he used secretly about him', were privy to Henry VIII's most intimate confidences about Anne of Cleves. He told them he doubted her virginity, on account of 'her brests so slacke'.
Grooms of the Stool to Edward VI
- –1643: Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland
- 1643–c.1649: William Seymour, 1st Marquess of Hertford
- c.1649: Thomas Blagge:4
Grooms of the Stool to Henrietta Maria of France
Grooms of the Stool to Charles II
- 1685–1688: Henry Mordaunt, 2nd Earl of Peterborough
Grooms of the Stool to William III
Grooms of the Stool to Queen Anne
- 1702–1711: Sarah Churchill, Countess of Marlborough (later Duchess of Marlborough)
- 1711–1714: Elizabeth Seymour, Duchess of Somerset
Grooms of the Stool to Prince George
- 1683–1685: John Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley of Stratton
- 1685–1687: Robert Leke, 3rd Earl of Scarsdale
- 1697–1708: John West, 6th Baron De La Warr
- 1714–1719: Lionel Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset
- 1719–1722: Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland
- 1722–1723: Vacant
- 1723–1727: Francis Godolphin, 2nd Earl of Godolphin
- 1727–1735: Francis Godolphin, 2nd Earl of Godolphin
- 1735–1750: Henry Herbert, 9th Earl of Pembroke
- 1751–1755: Willem Anne van Keppel, 2nd Earl of Albemarle
- 1755–1760: William Nassau de Zuylestein, 4th Earl of Rochford
Grooms of the Stool to George III
- 1760–1761: John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute
- 1761–1770: Francis Hastings, 10th Earl of Huntingdon
- 1770–1775: George Hervey, 2nd Earl of Bristol
- 1775: Thomas Thynne, 3rd Viscount Weymouth
- 1775–1782: John Ashburnham, 2nd Earl of Ashburnham
- 1782–1796: Thomas Thynne, 3rd Viscount Weymouth (later Marquess of Bath)
- 1796–1804: John Ker, 3rd Duke of Roxburghe
- 1804–1812: George Finch, 9th Earl of Winchilsea
- 1812–1820: Charles Paulet, 13th Marquess of Winchester
- 1820–1830: Charles Paulet, 13th Marquess of Winchester
Grooms of the Stool to William IV
- 1830–1837: Charles Paulet, 13th Marquess of Winchester
Grooms of the Stool to Prince Albert
- 1840–1841: Lord Robert Grosvenor (later Lord Ebury)
- 1841–1846: Brownlow Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Exeter
- 1846–1859: James Hamilton, 2nd Marquess of Abercorn (later Duke of Abercorn)
- 1859–1861: John Spencer, 5th Earl Spencer
Grooms of the Stool to Albert Edward, Prince of Wales
- 1862–1866: John Spencer, 5th Earl Spencer
- 1866–1877: Vacant?
- 1877–1883: Sir William Knollys
- 1883–1901: James Hamilton, 2nd Duke of Abercorn
- For the role of the Groom of the Stool on the fiscal policy of Henry VII see: Starkey, D. The Virtuous Prince, 2009.
- Re. the "Chamber System" and "Chamber Finance" see: Grummitt, D. "Henry VII, Chamber Finance and the 'New Monarchy': some New Evidence". Journal of the Institute of Historical Research, vol.72, no.179, pp.229-243. Published online 2003.
- Henry VIII, a "reckless" collector of expensive and opulent objects, was also in the possession of a magnificent collection of stools, according to David Starkey, who would include Henry VIII's stools in his "fantasy art collection": "Central to the inventory accounts are the Close Stools, covered in silk and satins, padded with swans' down, trimmed with gilt nails, with Venetian gold fringing and elaborate systems of cisterns and pots. (See: Starkey, D. "Majesty in all its Magnificence", Daily Telegraph, 21 Dec 2004, from: www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/art/3633793/Majesty-in-all-its-magnificence.html)
- Brewer, E. Cobham. "Grom of the Stole" Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Philadelphia: Henry Altemus, 1898; Page 369.
- A Dictionary of the English Language. By Noah Webster, Chauncey Allen Goodrich, John Walker. Page 466.
- Starkey, David. The Virtuous Prince, 2004, chap. 16 discusses the important fiscal role of Hugh Denys, Groom of the Stool to Henry VII; & an article in the Independent newspaper (28/6/2004) by the same author, who states that the position effectively became neutralised on the accession of Elizabeth I
- Bruce Boehrer. "The Privy and Its Double: Scatology and Satire in Shakespeare's Theatre". in Dutton, Richard, A Companion to Shakespeare's Works: Poems, Problem Comedies, Late Plays, 2003. "The Groom of the Stool presided over the office of royal excretion that is, he had the task of cleaning the monarch's anus after a bowel movement.
- Nicholls, Mark (1999). A History of the Modern British Isles, 1529-1603: The Two Kingdoms. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-631-19334-0.
- Weir, Alison (2002). Henry VIII: The King and His Court. Random House. ISBN 978-0-345-43708-2.
- Quoted in Patterson, Orlande (1982). Slavery and Social Death: A Comparative Study. Harvard UP. p. 330.
- Sharpe, Kevin M.; Steven N. Zwicker (2003). Reading, Society and Politics in Early Modern England. Cambridge UP. p. 51.
- Brimacombe, Peter (2000). All the Queen's Men: The World of Elizabeth I. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-312-23251-1.
- Cassell's Latin Dictionary, rev by Marchant, J. & Charles, J.
- Starkey, D. "Monarchy in all its Magnificence", Daily Telegraph 21/12/2004 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/art/3633793/Majesty-in-all-its-magnificence.html
- The Groom of the Stool, among other duties, "preside[d] over the office of royal excretion." See: Bruce Boehrer, "The Privy and Its Double: Scatology and Satire in Shakespeare's Theatre," in Dutton, R. & Howard, J. A Companion to Shakespeare's Works: Poems, problem comedies, late plays, 2003. that is, he had the task of cleaning the monarch's anus after defecation.
- "David Starkey: An appointment with Dr Rude". The Independent. 2004-06-28. Retrieved 2009-07-24.
- Starkey, D., The Virtuous Prince, 2008. Discussion about Hugh Denys and his role in the chamber
- Starkey, D.
- Ives, Eric William (2004). The life and death of Anne Boleyn: 'the most happy'. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-631-23479-1.
- Strype, John, Ecclesiastical Memorials, vol. 1 part 2, Oxford (1822), 458-9, depositions of Heneage and Denny.
- Stanhope, Michael (by 1508–1552), History of Parliament Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- Clarendon, Edward Hyde (1888). William Dunn Macray, ed. The History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England: Begun in the Year 1641. Clarendon Press. p. 146.
- Evelyn, John (1907). The Life of Margaret Godolphin. Chatto and Windus.
- O'Conor, Charles (1819). Bibliotheca Ms. Stowensis. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Stowe Library, Vol. II. Seeley. p. 527.