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Coordinates: 52°26′43″N 30°59′03″E / 52.44528°N 30.98417°E / 52.44528; 30.98417
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Top: Gomel State Circus Arena (left) and Gomel State Post Office heritage building (right) Center: Rumyantsev-Paskevich Palace and statue of Nikolay Rumyantsev Bottom: Saint Peters and Pavel Orthodox Church, Gomel Nativity of Virgin Mary Church, and Gomel City Council (left to right)
Top: Gomel State Circus Arena (left) and Gomel State Post Office heritage building (right)
Center: Rumyantsev-Paskevich Palace and statue of Nikolay Rumyantsev
Bottom: Saint Peters and Pavel Orthodox Church, Gomel Nativity of Virgin Mary Church, and Gomel City Council (left to right)
Flag of Gomel
Coat of arms of Gomel
Gomel is located in Belarus
Location of Gomel in Belarus
Gomel is located in Europe
Gomel (Europe)
Coordinates: 52°26′43″N 30°59′03″E / 52.44528°N 30.98417°E / 52.44528; 30.98417
RegionGomel Region
First mentioned1142
 • ChairmanPetr Kirichenko
 • Total139.77 km2 (53.97 sq mi)
138 m (453 ft)
 • Total501,102
 • Density3,600/km2 (9,300/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK)
Postal code
246xx, 247xxx
Area code+375 232(2)
License plate3

Gomel (Russian: Гомель, IPA: [ˈɡomʲɪlʲ]) or Homyel (Belarusian: Гомель, romanizedHomieĺ,[a] IPA: [ˈɣomʲelʲ]) is a city in Belarus. It serves as the administrative centre of Gomel Region and Gomel District, though it is administratively separated from the district.[1] As of 2024, it is the second-largest city in Belarus with 501,102 inhabitants.[1]


There are at least six narratives of the origin of the city's name. The most plausible is that the name is derived from the name of the stream Homeyuk, which flowed into the river Sozh near the foot of the hill where the first settlement was founded. Names of other Belarusian cities are formed along these lines: for example, Polotsk from the river Palata, and Vitebsk from the river Vitsba.

The first appearance of the name, as "Gomy", dates from 1142.[2] Up to the 16th century, the city was mentioned as Hom', Homye, Homiy, Homey, or Homyi. These forms are tentatively explained as derivatives of an unattested *gomŭ of uncertain meaning.[3] The modern name for the city has been in use only since the 16th or 17th centuries.


Kievan Rus'[edit]

Gomel's inner fortress in the 12th century

Gomel was founded at the end of the 1st millennium AD on the lands of the Eastern Slavic tribal union of Radimichs. It lay on the banks of the Sozh River and the Homeyuk stream. Sozh's high right bank, cut through by canyons, provided a natural fortification. For some time, Gomel was the capital of the Gomel Principality, before it became part of the Principality of Chernigov. Gomel is first mentioned in the Hypatian Codex under the year of 1142 as being territory of the princes of Chernigov. For some time, Gomel was ruled by the prince of Smolensk Rostislav Mstislavich before it was re-captured by Iziaslav III Davidovich, after whose death it belonged to Sviatoslav Olgovich and then to Sviatoslav's son Oleg. Under Oleg, Gomel went to the Principality of Novhorod-Siverskyi. The next ruler was Igor Svyatoslavich – the hero of The Tale of Igor's Campaign. During this period, the town was a fortified point and the centre of a volost. In the 12th–13th centuries, the city's area was not less than 40 ha, and it had developed various crafts and was connected by trading routes with the cities of northern and southern Rus'. Archeological data have shown that the city was badly damaged during the Mongol-Tatar assault in the first half of the 13th century.

Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth[edit]

Gomel fortress in the 12th century. Art reconstruction

In 1335, the Gomel region was annexed to the Great Duchy of Lithuania by Algirdas. From 1335 to 1406, it was under the ownership of Prince Patricia Narymuntovich and his sons, from 1406 to 1419 the city was ruled by the grand duke's deputies, from 1419 to 1435 it belonged to Prince Svitrigaila, from 1446 to 1452 to Prince Vasiliy Yaroslavich, from 1452 to 1483 to the Mozhaysk prince Ivan Andreyevich, and from 1483 to 1505 to his son Semyon, who transferred it to the Grand Principality of Moscow.

During the Second Muscovite–Lithuanian War of 1500–1503, Lithuania tried to regain Gomel and other lands transferred to Moscow, but suffered defeat and lost one-third of its territory. In 1535, Lithuanian and Polish forces under Jerzy Radvila, Jan Tarnowski and Andrzej Niemirowicz re-captured the city after the surrender of Moscow's deputy, D. Shchepin-Obolensky. In the same year, the Great Duke of Lithuania Sigismund Kęstutaitis founded the Gomel Starostwo. According to the peace agreement of 1537, Gomel together with its volost remained a Lithuanian possession. In 1535–1565 Gomel is the centre of starostwo, and from 1565 onwards Gomel is in the Rechytsa Powiat of the Minsk Voivodeship.

Coat of Arms of Gomel, 1560

In 1560, the city's first coat of arms was introduced. In 1569, Gomel became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. From this moment on, the city became the arena of numerous attacks and battles between Cossacks, Russia and the Polish-Lithuania Commonwealth. In 1572, Gomel Starostwo was given to B. Sapega. At the beginning of the 1570s, Gomel was captured by the forces of Ivan the Terrible, but in 1576 it was re-captured by J. Radvila. In 1581, Gomel was again attacked by Russian troops, and in 1595–1596 it was in the hands of Severyn Nalyvaiko's Cossacks.

After the beginning of the struggle against Orthodox Christianity in Lithuania, Orthodox Nikolayevskiy Cathedral was closed on the order of Greek Catholic Eparch Josaphat Kuntsevych in 1621. In 1633 the city was besieged by the Cossacks of Bulgakov and Yermolin, in 1648 captured by the Golovatskiy's Cossack detachment, and in 1649 by Martyn Nebaba's detachment. After that, Gomel got through several sieges in 1651 but in 1654 was captured by Ivan Zolotarenko's detachment. He and his sons held the city until 1667 and then began to serve under Alexis of Russia, however, after the Truce of Andrusovo Gomel at last returned to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, where it first belonged to M. K. Radvila and then – till the annexation by the Russian Empire – to the Czartoryski family. During the Great Northern War Russian forces under Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov stood in Gomel. In 1670, Gomel received Magdeburg rights. Towards the middle of the 17th century, the city fell into crisis mainly due to the struggles mentioned above. It suffered significant damage, the population decreased severely, and many crafts disappeared.

Russian Empire[edit]

Gomel became part of the Russian Empire after the first partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1772 and was confiscated by the imperial treasury. In 1775, Empress Catherine II gave Gomel and Gomel eldership in the eternal hereditary possession of Russian military commander Pyotr Rumyantsev.

Map of Gomel in 1799

The period when Gomel was part of the Russian Empire was marked by rapid growth of the population, urban infrastructure, and industrial capacity, predominantly after the construction of railways in the late 19th century.[4][5]

The Peter and Paul Cathedral, designed by architect John Clark, was built in 1809–1819. Nikolay Rumyantsev opened the first high school, hotel courtyard, glass, tile, distilleries, weaving and spinning factories, and he built a church, a synagogue, a pharmacy, a hospice and a permanent wooden bridge across the Sozh river.

After the death of Nikolay Rumyantsev, the city came in possession of his brother Sergei Petrovich Rumyantsev. However, due to lack of money, Sergei indebted Gomel with the state treasury of the Russian Empire. Subsequently, after not being able to pay off the debt, the treasury sold the city. Gomel Palace was acquired by Prince Ivan Paskevich, and the rest of the city by Nicholas I (1838). Paskevich had an English garden made around the palace, which is still in place today. In 1856, the estate passed on to his son Fyodor Ivanovich Paskevich.

In 1852, Gomel became the county town of the former Belitsa county (renamed as Gomel county).[6] This was preceded by the construction of the St. Petersburg–Kiev highway and St. Petersburg–Sebastopol telegraph line, both of which passed through Gomel,[7] and the opening of a beet sugar factory.[8]

The construction of railways in the territory of Belarus in the late 19th century (Libau–Romny Railway in 1873 and Polesia railway in 1888) made Gomel a major railway junction and "attracted in the town many businessmen, caused the establishment of banks, firms and factories, which in turn changed the pastoral and provincial character of a bygone Gomel into a trading and mercantile one"[9]

By 1913, Gomel was a major industrial city with 104,500 inhabitants. Nearly 44% of its industrial output was metalworking, with large workshops servicing the rolling stock of Libau–Romny Railway and Polesia railway. Other significant industries were timber processing, match manufacturing, breweries and churning.[10]

Civil war and early Soviet era[edit]

Preceding the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, on 1 March 1918 the city was occupied (the Executive Committee of the Gomel Council of Workers' Deputies had left already on 21 February) by German forces.[11] In March 1918, the city became part of Chernihiv Governorate of the Ukrainian State.[11] After the overthrow of the Ukrainian State Gomel was administered by the Ukrainian People's Republic for 25 days.[11]

Districts and population of the city

On 14 January 1919, Gomel was occupied by the Red Army. In March 1919, the largest uprising against the Bolsheviks occurred in Gomel, known as the short-lived Strekopytov Revolt. Rebels seized strategic facilities and executed members of the Soviet leadership in the city. The uprising was crushed by Red Army units dispatched to Gomel.[12]

In 1919, Gomel became the centre of the Gomel Governorate in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. After the end of the hostilities, restoration of industry and transport began. In the 1920s, a number of large businesses had been created: shipyards, a factory named "Polespechat", a shoe factory named "Trud", a bakery, and the first phase of a municipal power plant. In 1926 the city was passed to the Byelorussian SSR.

By 1940, 264 industrial enterprises had been established.

World War II[edit]

During World War II, Gomel was under Nazi occupation from 19 August 1941 until 26 November 1943. The city was taken by Rokossovsky's Belorussian Front during the Gomel-Rechitsa Offensive. Eighty percent of the city was destroyed. The population of Gomel had dropped dramatically. According to the data of the registry, the population of Gomel numbered less than 15,000 inhabitants, compared to 144,000 in 1940.

Post-war period[edit]

After the war, restoration of Gomel began promptly. The majority of pre-revolutionary buildings were lost. City streets were considerably expanded, and buildings in Stalinist style were erected. In 1950, almost all of the pre-war enterprises resumed their work.

Chernobyl disaster[edit]

As a result of the disaster at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on 26 April 1986, Gomel suffered radioactive contamination. At the beginning of the 21st century, a scientific centre and practice for radiation medicine and human ecology was built in Gomel to overcome and study the consequences of the catastrophe at Chernobyl.[13]

The development of radiological dose values varies between individual villages in severely contaminated regions, depending on the surroundings and the economic orientation. In general, life is possible in these areas today, even in formerly closed-off zones, if appropriate dietary rules are observed.[further explanation needed][14]

Recent history[edit]

On 27 July 1990, the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic was drafted. Gomel became a city in the independent state of the Republic of Belarus the following year.

During the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Gomel became an important base for Russian forces.[15][16]


In 2013, the city's population numbered 515,325,[17] indicating a positive population growth and hence a reversal of the demographic crisis that began in 1993.

Historical population
1775 5,000—    
1858 13,700+174.0%
1880 23,600+72.3%
1897 36,775+55.8%
1913 104,500+184.2%
1925 81,900−21.6%
1931 109,900+34.2%
1939 139,120+26.6%
1943 15,000−89.2%
1959 168,270+1021.8%

Jewish community[edit]

After the annexation of Gomel by the Russian Empire and the creation of the Pale of Settlement, Gomel gradually became a centre of resettlement for the Jewish population of Russia. According to the 1897 census, 55% of the population of Gomel were Jews. In 1903, there was a violent pogrom against the Jewish population of the city.[20] From that moment on, a gradual decrease of the number of Jews in the city began. 40,880 Jews lived in Gomel in 1939, when they comprised 29.4% of the total population. Most Jews had left the city in anticipation of German occupation, but still between 3,000 and 4,000 Gomel Jews fell victim to the Holocaust.[21] The end of the 1980s and beginning of the 1990s saw mass emigration of Jews from Gomel, but at the same time restoration of Jewish institutions in the city by the remaining Jewish inhabitants.[22]


Gomel is situated in the southeastern part of the country, on the right bank of the river Sozh, 302 km (188 mi) south-east of Minsk, 534 km (332 mi) east of Brest, 171 km (106 mi) south of Mogilev, 237 km (147 mi) west of Bryansk and 111 km (69 mi) north of Chernihiv.

The terrain on which the city as a whole is built, is flat. On the right bank of the river, it is a gradually decreasing plain water-glacial and fluvial terrace of the Sozh river. The left bank is a low-lying alluvial plain. The highest elevation of 144 meters above sea level is found at the northern outskirts of Gomel, the lowest elevation of 115 m at the water boundary Sozh river. Novobelitskiy district, which is located on the left bank of the river (i.e., towards the south), has elevations averaging of 10–15 meters lower than the northern and central parts of the city.

On the left bank of the Sozh many kilometers of beaches can be found.


Gomel has a warm-summer humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb). Warm summers and cold winters are caused by frequent arrival of warm sea air masses from the Atlantic and the dominating western transfer. On 7 August 2010, Gomel recorded a temperature of 38.9 °C (102.0 °F), which is the highest temperature to have ever been recorded in Belarus.[23]

Climate data for Gomel (1991–2020, extremes 1927–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 10.0
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −1.8
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.2
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −6.5
Record low °C (°F) −35.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 36
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 8
Average rainy days 8 7 10 13 14 16 14 12 14 14 13 9 144
Average snowy days 18 17 10 2 0.1 0 0 0 0.03 2 10 16 75
Average relative humidity (%) 86 83 77 66 64 69 70 71 77 81 87 88 77
Mean monthly sunshine hours 43.3 72.5 143.9 201.3 272.6 293.7 297.9 269.9 194.4 119.9 47.0 32.1 1,988.5
Percent possible sunshine 19 25 37 42 54 54 54 55 45 35 17 13 41
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[24]
Source 2: NOAA,[25] Belarus Department of Hydrometeorology (percent sun 1957–1960 and 1973–2000)[26]


A trolleybus in the city centre in 2015

The public transportation system consists of over 1,000 buses and trolleybuses. Over 210 million passenger rides were registered in 2006.[27] Taxi services ($10 for a one-way intra-city ride) are available 24 hours a day. The city is an important railroad hub in the southeastern part of Belarus, as it is situated midway on the Minsk-Kyiv rail link. The strategic location of Gomel near the border with Russia and Ukraine provides a direct connection to the vast railroad networks of those countries.

A trolleybus network opened on 20 May 1962[28] and consists of 23 routes (not counting variations). On 15 December 2010, after constructing an overhead wire network in the streets of Egorenko, Sviridov and Chechersk, a new trolley line opened to the terminus "Neighborhood Klinkowski" that resulted in a change of trolleybus routes 9, 16, 17. The length of the network is about 74 km (46 mi) and the total length of trolleybus routes is 475 km (295 mi). Rolling stock consist of types ACSM-201, ACSM-321, MAZ-203T, ACSM-213. There are more than 60 bus routes totaling 670 kilometers, and a number of express routes. Rolling stock consists mainly of buses MAZ-105, MAZ-107, MAZ-103, and to a lesser extent MAZ-203, MAZ-206, and since 2014, the extra-large-capacity, low-MAZ-215. Express routes use Rodemich-A type buses. The 24 minibus lines use Ford Transit, GAZelle, Mercedes-Benz, and Peugeot vans.

Gomel Airport is located 8 km (5 mi) north-east of the city.


Central Stadium

Gomel is home to a wide range of sports facilities that have been developed and improved in recent years. These facilities, including eight stadiums and the Ice Palace, which has two ice arenas, support common activities such as hockey, track and field, and football. HK Gomel of the Belarusian Extraleague is the local pro hockey team. The Central Stadium is the home of Gomel's local football club, FC Gomel. Gomel hosts multiple international competitions in these facilities, the annual "Bells of Chernobyl" competition being one of the many.[29] In addition to sports facilities, Gomel has a multitude of Olympic Reserve Schools, which are more commonly referred to as sports schools.

Many of Gomel's sports schools prepare athletes from a young age. Numerous champions have been trained by schools such as these. For example, one school, Gomel's Olympic Reserve Number 4, has trained 97 World and European champions as well as two Olympic athletes. Gomel State College of Olympic Reserve, on the other hand, trains coaches rather than athletes. From this school, 44 graduates have participated in the Olympics, European championships, and World championships.[29] Gomel also participates in the Deaflympics and, between the years 2007–2009, has been awarded: two gold medals, one silver medal, and two bronze medals.[30]


Since 1990, Pavel Sukhoi State Technical University of Gomel and Gomel State Medical University have attracted many international students from countries around the world, including the United States, Germany, China, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Syria, Russia, Ukraine, Egypt, Iran and countries in Latin America. Gomel State Medical University provides classes in both English and Russian. Many prominent scientists work here as senior lecturers.


Throughout the eight hundred-year history of Gomel, only a few sights have been preserved. A small part of them belong to the 1700s and 1800s, the main part belongs to the 20th - 21st centuries. Most of the architectural monuments of the 20th century date back to the 1950s. Most of them are concentrated in the central part of the city.

The Ferris Wheel and the Ferris Tower, located in a park a few hundred meters from the palace complex, are popular for exploring the city. Since the topography of Gomel is relatively flat, the height of the surrounding buildings means it is easy to view the city from the wheel and tower.

Notable residents[edit]

Igor Avrunin
Leonid Geishtor
Mark Petrokovets

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Gomel is twinned with:[35]

Former twin towns[edit]

On 28 February 2022, the Polish city of Radom ended its partnership with Gomel as a reaction to the Belarusian involvement in the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[36] On March British city Aberdeen as well ended its partnership with Gomel.[37]



  1. ^ a b c "Численность населения на 1 января 2024 г. и среднегодовая численность населения за 2023 год по Республике Беларусь в разрезе областей, районов, городов, поселков городского типа". belsat.gov.by. Archived from the original on 2 April 2024. Retrieved 12 April 2024.
  2. ^ Campbell, Heather. "Homyel Belarus". www.britannica.com. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 8 May 2022.
  3. ^ Этимологический словарь славянских языков: праславянский лексический фонд, под ред. О.Н. Трубачева, вып.7 (Москва, 1980), стр.21.
  4. ^ Экономика Белорусии в Эпоху Империализма 1900-1917. Под редакцией Г. Ковалевского и др. Минск 1963, стр.413
  5. ^ Л. Виноградов Гомель. Его Прошлое и настоящее. 1142-1900 г. Москва 1900, стр.35
  6. ^ Без-Корнилович, М. О. (1855). Исторические сведения о примечательнейших местах в Белоруссии. Alfavit. p. 211. ISBN 5-87264-028-5.
  7. ^ Л. Виноградов Гомель. Его Прошлое и настоящее. 1142-1900 г. Москва 1900, стр.34
  8. ^ Без-Корнилович, М. О. (1855). Исторические сведения о примечательнейших местах в Белоруссии. Alfavit. p. 214. ISBN 5-87264-028-5.
  9. ^ Л. Виноградов Гомель. Его Прошлое и настоящее. 1142-1900 г. Москва 1900, стр.35
  10. ^ Экономика Белорусии в Эпоху Империализма 1900-1917. Под редакцией Г. Ковалевского и др. Минск 1963, стр.88
  11. ^ a b c (in Ukrainian) Contraband, strikes, Bolsheviks ... Ten months of Ukrainian government in Polissya, Ukrayinska Pravda (19 September 2018)
  12. ^ Golinkov, D. L. (1975). Krushenie antisovetskogo podpol’ia v SSSR (1917–1925gg.) (in Russian). Vol. 3rd Edition. Moscow: The Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Retrieved 7 January 2024.
  13. ^ "The Republican Research Centre for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology". Archived from the original on 1 February 2009.
  14. ^ Petro Zoriy, Herbert Dederichs, Jürgen Pillath, Burkhard Heuel-Fabianek, Peter Hill, Reinhard Lennartz: Long-Term Measurements of the Radiation Exposure of the Inhabitants of Radioactively Contaminated Regions of Belarus – The Korma Report II (1998 – 2015) Verlag Forschungszentrum Jülich 2016, ISBN 978-3-95806-181-1. PDF, 10,6 MB
  15. ^ "Videos show Russian units and missiles advancing toward Ukraine border". Axios. 2022. Retrieved 2 July 2023.
  16. ^ Knutson, Jacob (2022). "Satellite images show increased Russian military buildup near Ukraine". CNN. Retrieved 2 July 2023.
  17. ^ "Belstat.gov.by" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 April 2014. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
  18. ^ "Численность населения на 1 января 2023 г. и среднегодовая численность населения за 2022 год по Республике Беларусь в разрезе областей, районов, городов, поселков городского типа". belsat.gov.by. Archived from the original on 17 April 2023. Retrieved 10 August 2023.
  19. ^ "Cities & Towns of Belarus". 15 April 2024.
  20. ^ Berkovich, Nadja (2021). "Science against Injustice: A Literary Investigation of Vladimir Bogoraz's Silhouettes from Gomel'". East European Jewish Affairs. 51: 1–17. doi:10.1080/13501674.2021.1952023. S2CID 238861156.
  21. ^ "The murder sites of the Jews in the occupied territories of the former USSR: Gomel". Yad Vashem. 2017. Archived from the original on 8 January 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  22. ^ "Gomel history". Paul Zoglin. 16 December 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  23. ^ Masters, Jeff. "Bolivia ties its all-time heat record". Weather Underground. Dr. Jeff Masters' WunderBlog. Archived from the original on 24 November 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2010.
  24. ^ КЛИМАТ ГОМЕЛЯ (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  25. ^ "Gomel Climate Normals 1991–2020". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  26. ^ "Солнечное сияние. Обобщения III часть: Таблица 2.1. Характеристики продолжительности и суточный ход (доли часа) солнечного сияния. Продолжение" (in Russian). Department of Hydrometeorology. Archived from the original on 26 April 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
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  28. ^ Murray, Alan (2000). World Trolleybus Encyclopaedia. Yateley, Hampshire, UK: Trolleybooks. p. 74. ISBN 0-904235-18-1.
  29. ^ a b "Gomel Oblast Tourism and sport | Gomel region | Gomel". www.gomel-region.by. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  30. ^ "УО "Гомельский государственный политехнический колледж" - официальный Web-сайт". gomel.belstu.by. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  31. ^ Rudling, Per A. (2015). The rise and fall of Belarusian nationalism, 1906-1931. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 978-0-8229-7958-6. OCLC 900622615.
  32. ^ R' Eizik of Homel. Chabad.org. Accessed 20 April 2014.
  33. ^ "Dick Manning".
  34. ^ Wertsch, James V. (1988). "PSYCHOLOGY: L. S. Vygotsky's "New" Theory of Mind". The American Scholar. 57 (1): 81–89. JSTOR 41211493.
  35. ^ "Partner cities". gomel.gov.by. Gomel. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  36. ^ "Radom zerwał współpracę z rosyjskim i białoruskim miastem. Obywatele Ukrainy autobusami będą jeździć za darmo" (in Polish). Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  37. ^ Jamie Saunderson (8 March 2022). "Aberdeen ends link with Belarus twin city over support for Russian invasion". Retrieved 21 October 2023.

External links[edit]