Human coronavirus 229E

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Human coronavirus 229E
Virus classification e
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
(unranked): incertae sedis
Order: Nidovirales
Family: Coronaviridae
Genus: Alphacoronavirus
Subgenus: Duvinacovirus
Human coronavirus 229E

Human coronavirus 229E is a single-stranded, positive-sense, RNA virus species in the genus Alphacoronavirus of the subfamily Coronavirinae, in the family Coronaviridae, of the order Nidovirales. Along with Human coronavirus OC43, it is responsible for the common cold.[1][2]


HCoV-229E transmits via droplet-respiration and fomites.

Signs and symptoms[edit]

HCoV-229E is associated with a range of respiratory symptoms, ranging from the common cold to high-morbidity outcomes such as pneumonia and bronchiolitis. It is also among the Coronaviruses most frequently codetected with other respiratory viruses, particularly with Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV).[3][4][5]


HCoV-229E is one of the four human coronaviruses which include HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-HKU1 and are globally distributed.[6][7] However, the four viruses are detected in different parts of the world at different times of the year.[8][9][10]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Susanna K. P. Lau, Paul Lee, Alan K. L. Tsang, Cyril C. Y. Yip,1 Herman Tse, Rodney A. Lee, Lok-Yee So, Yu-Lung Lau, Kwok-Hung Chan, Patrick C. Y. Woo, and Kwok-Yung Yuen. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Coronavirus OC43 Reveals Evolution of Different Genotypes over Time and Recent Emergence of a Novel Genotype due to Natural Recombination. J Virology. 2011 November; 85(21): 11325–11337.
  2. ^ E. R. Gaunt,1 A. Hardie,2 E. C. J. Claas,3 P. Simmonds,1 and K. E. Templeton. Epidemiology and Clinical Presentations of the Four Human Coronaviruses 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43 Detected over 3 Years Using a Novel Multiplex Real-Time PCR Method down-pointing small open triangle. J Clin Microbiol. 2010 August; 48(8): 2940–2947.
  3. ^ Pene, F., A. Merlat, A. Vabret, F. Rozenberg, A. Buzyn, F. Dreyfus, A. Cariou, F. Freymuth, and P. Lebon. 2003. Coronavirus 229E related pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:929-932. [PubMed]
  4. ^ Vabret, A., T. Mourez, S. Gouarin, J. Petitjean, and F. Freymuth. 2003. An outbreak of coronavirus OC43 respiratory infection in Normandy, France. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36:985-989. [PubMed]
  5. ^ Woo, P. C. Y., S. K. P. Lau, H. Tsoi, Y. Huang, R. W. S. Poon, C. M. Chu, R. A. Lee, W. K. Luk, G. K. M. Wong, B. H. L. Wong, V. C. C. Cheng, B. S. F. Tang, A. K. L. Wu, R. W. H. Yung, H. Chen, Y. Guan, K. H. Chan, and K. Y. Yuen. 2005. Clinical and molecular epidemiological features of coronavirus HKU1 associated community acquired pneumonia. J. Infect. Dis. 192:1898-1907. [PubMed]
  6. ^ Fields, B. N., D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley (ed.). 1996. Fields virology, 3rd ed. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, PA.
  7. ^ van der Hoek, L., P. Krzysztof, and B. Berkhout. 2006. Human coronavirus NL63, a new respiratory virus. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 30:760-773. [PubMed]
  8. ^ Esper, F., C. Weibel, D. Ferguson, M. L. Landry, and J. S. Kahn. 2006. Coronavirus HKU1 infection in the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:775-779. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  9. ^ Gerna, G., E. Percivalle, A. Sarasini, G. Campanini, A. Piralla, F. Rovida, E. Genini, A. Marchi, and F. Baldanti. 2007. Human respiratory coronavirus HKU1 versus other coronavirus infections in Italian hospitalised patients. J. Clin. Virol. 38:244-250. [PubMed]
  10. ^ Kaye, H. S., H. B. Marsh, and W. R. Dowdle. 1971. Seroepidemiologic survey of coronavirus (strain OC 43) related infections in a children's population. Am. J. Epidemiol. 94:43-49. [PubMed]

External links[edit]