Human coronavirus 229E

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Human coronavirus 229E
Virus classification e
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Kingdom: Orthornavirae
Phylum: Pisuviricota
Class: Pisoniviricetes
Order: Nidovirales
Family: Coronaviridae
Genus: Alphacoronavirus
Subgenus: Duvinacovirus
Species:
Human coronavirus 229E

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) is a species of coronavirus which infects humans and bats.[1] It is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus which enters its host cell by binding to the APN receptor.[2] Along with Human coronavirus OC43 (a member of the Betacoronavirus genus), it is one of the viruses responsible for the common cold.[3][4] HCoV-229E is a member of the genus Alphacoronavirus and subgenus Duvinacovirus.[5][6]

Transmission[edit]

HCoV-229E transmits via droplet-respiration and fomites.

Signs and symptoms[edit]

HCoV-229E is associated with a range of respiratory symptoms, ranging from the common cold to high-morbidity outcomes such as pneumonia and bronchiolitis. However, such high morbidity outcomes are almost always seen in cases with co-infection with other respiratory pathogens; there is a single published case report to date of a 229E infection that caused acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in an otherwise healthy patient having no detectable co-infection with another pathogen.[7] HCoV-229E is also among the coronaviruses most frequently codetected with other respiratory viruses, particularly with human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV).[8][9][10]

Epidemiology[edit]

HCoV-229E is one of the seven human coronaviruses which include HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2 and are globally distributed.[11][12] However, the viruses were detected in different parts of the world at different times of the year.[13][14][15] A NCBI-study found a previous HCoV-229E infection in 42.9% – 50.0% of children of 6–12 months of age and in 65% of those 2.5–3.5 years of age.[16]

Virology[edit]

HCoV-229E is one of seven known coronaviruses to infect humans. The other six are[17]:

Research[edit]

Chloroquine, a zinc ionophore, inhibits the replication of Human coronavirus 229E in cell culture.[18]

Human HcoV-229E, and human HcoV-NL63, likely originated from bats.[19] HcoV-NL63 appears to be a recombinant between an ancestral NL63-like virus circulating in African Triaenops afer bats and a CoV 229E-like virus circulating in Hipposideros sp bats.[19] Recombinant viruses can arise when two viral genomes are present in the same host cell.

History[edit]

A researcher at the University of Chicago, Dorothy Hamre, first identified 229E in 1965.[20][21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lim, Yvonne Xinyi; Ng, Yan Ling; Tam, James P.; Liu, Ding Xiang (2016-07-25). "Human Coronaviruses: A Review of Virus–Host Interactions". Diseases. 4 (3): 26. doi:10.3390/diseases4030026. ISSN 2079-9721. PMC 5456285. PMID 28933406. See Table 1.
  2. ^ Fehr AR, Perlman S (2015). Maier HJ, Bickerton E, Britton P (eds.). "Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis". Methods in Molecular Biology. Springer. 1282: 1–23. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-2438-7_1. ISBN 978-1-4939-2438-7. PMC 4369385. PMID 25720466. See Table 1.
  3. ^ Susanna K. P. Lau, Paul Lee, Alan K. L. Tsang, Cyril C. Y. Yip,1 Herman Tse, Rodney A. Lee, Lok-Yee So, Yu-Lung Lau, Kwok-Hung Chan, Patrick C. Y. Woo, and Kwok-Yung Yuen. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Coronavirus OC43 Reveals Evolution of Different Genotypes over Time and Recent Emergence of a Novel Genotype due to Natural Recombination. J Virology. 2011 November; 85(21): 11325–11337.
  4. ^ E. R. Gaunt,1 A. Hardie,2 E. C. J. Claas,3 P. Simmonds,1 and K. E. Templeton. Epidemiology and Clinical Presentations of the Four Human Coronaviruses 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43 Detected over 3 Years Using a Novel Multiplex Real-Time PCR Method down-pointing small open triangle. J Clin Microbiol. 2010 August; 48(8): 2940–2947.
  5. ^ "Virus Taxonomy: 2018 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). October 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  6. ^ Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Huang, Yi; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung (2010-08-24). "Coronavirus Genomics and Bioinformatics Analysis". Viruses. 2 (8): 1804–1820. doi:10.3390/v2081803. ISSN 1999-4915. PMC 3185738. PMID 21994708. Figure 2. Phylogenetic analysis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (Pol) of coronaviruses with complete genome sequences available. The tree was constructed by the neighbor-joining method and rooted using Breda virus polyprotein.
  7. ^ A Rare Case of Human Coronavirus 229E Associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in a Healthy Adult. Vassilara F, Spyridaki A, Pothitos G, Deliveliotou A, Papadopoulos A. Case Rep Infect Dis. 2018 Apr 15;2018:6796839. doi: 10.1155/2018/6796839. eCollection 2018. PMID: 29850307 Free PMC Article
  8. ^ Pene, F., A. Merlat, A. Vabret, F. Rozenberg, A. Buzyn, F. Dreyfus, A. Cariou, F. Freymuth, and P. Lebon. 2003. Coronavirus 229E related pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:929–932. [PubMed]
  9. ^ Vabret, A., T. Mourez, S. Gouarin, J. Petitjean, and F. Freymuth. 2003. An outbreak of coronavirus OC43 respiratory infection in Normandy, France. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36:985–989. [PubMed]
  10. ^ Woo, P. C. Y., S. K. P. Lau, H. Tsoi, Y. Huang, R. W. S. Poon, C. M. Chu, R. A. Lee, W. K. Luk, G. K. M. Wong, B. H. L. Wong, V. C. C. Cheng, B. S. F. Tang, A. K. L. Wu, R. W. H. Yung, H. Chen, Y. Guan, K. H. Chan, and K. Y. Yuen. 2005. Clinical and molecular epidemiological features of coronavirus HKU1 associated community acquired pneumonia. J. Infect. Dis. 192:1898–1907. [PubMed]
  11. ^ Fields, B. N., D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley (ed.). 1996. Fields virology, 3rd ed. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, PA.
  12. ^ Hoek, L. van der, P. Krzysztof, and B. Berkhout. 2006. Human coronavirus NL63, a new respiratory virus. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 30:760–773. [PubMed]
  13. ^ Esper, F., C. Weibel, D. Ferguson, M. L. Landry, and J. S. Kahn. 2006. Coronavirus HKU1 infection in the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:775–779. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  14. ^ Gerna, G., E. Percivalle, A. Sarasini, G. Campanini, A. Piralla, F. Rovida, E. Genini, A. Marchi, and F. Baldanti. 2007. Human respiratory coronavirus HKU1 versus other coronavirus infections in Italian hospitalised patients. J. Clin. Virol. 38:244–250. [PubMed]
  15. ^ Kaye, H. S., H. B. Marsh, and W. R. Dowdle. 1971. Seroepidemiologic survey of coronavirus (strain OC 43) related infections in a children's population. Am. J. Epidemiol. 94:43–49. [PubMed]
  16. ^ Effects of Coronavirus Infections in Children
  17. ^ Leung, Daniel. "Coronaviruses (including SARS)". Infectious Disease Advisor. Decision Support in Medicine, LLC. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
  18. ^ de Wilde, Adriaan H.; Jochmans, Dirk; Posthuma, Clara C.; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C.; van Nieuwkoop, Stefan; Bestebroer, Theo M.; van den Hoogen, Bernadette G.; Neyts, Johan; Snijder, Eric J. (August 2014). "Screening of an FDA-Approved Compound Library Identifies Four Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Replication in Cell Culture". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 58 (8): 4875–4884. doi:10.1128/AAC.03011-14.
  19. ^ a b Tao Y, Shi M, Chommanard C, Queen K, Zhang J, Markotter W, Kuzmin IV, Holmes EC, Tong S. Surveillance of Bat Coronaviruses in Kenya Identifies Relatives of Human Coronaviruses NL63 and 229E and Their Recombination History. J Virol. 2017 Feb 14;91(5):e01953-16. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01953-16. Print 2017 Mar 1. PMID: 28077633
  20. ^ Knapp, Alex. "The Secret History Of The First Coronavirus". Forbes. Retrieved 2020-05-06.
  21. ^ Hamre, D.; Procknow, J. J. (1966-01-01). "A New Virus Isolated from the Human Respiratory Tract". Experimental Biology and Medicine. 121 (1): 190–193. doi:10.3181/00379727-121-30734. ISSN 1535-3702.

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