Viral disease

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Viral disease
Other namesviral infection
Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.jpg
Transmission electron microscope image of a Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virion
SpecialtyInfectious disease

A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses,[not verified in body] and infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells.[1]

Structural characteristics[edit]

Virions of some of the most common human viruses with their relative size. Nucleic acids are not to scale. SARS stands as for SARS as for COVID-19, variola viruses for smallpox.

Basic structural characteristics, such as genome type, virion shape and replication site, generally share the same features among virus species within the same family.[citation needed]

Pragmatic rules[edit]

Human-infecting virus families offer rules that may assist physicians and medical microbiologists/virologists.[citation needed]

As a general rule, DNA viruses replicate within the cell nucleus while RNA viruses replicate within the cytoplasm. Exceptions are known to this rule: poxviruses replicate within the cytoplasm and orthomyxoviruses and hepatitis D virus (RNA viruses) replicate within the nucleus.[citation needed]

Baltimore group[edit]

This group of analysts defined multiple categories of virus. Groups:

Clinically important virus families and species with characteristics
Family Baltimore group Important species Envelopment
Adenoviridae I[3][4] Adenovirus[3][4] N[3][4]
Herpesviridae I[3][4] Herpes simplex, type 1, Herpes simplex, type 2, Varicella-zoster virus, Epstein–Barr virus, Human cytomegalovirus, Human herpesvirus, type 8[5][6][7] Y[3][4]
Papillomaviridae I[3][8] Human papillomavirus[3][8] N[3][8]
Polyomaviridae I[3][9] BK virus, JC virus[3][9] N[3][9]
Poxviridae I[3][4] Smallpox[3][4] Y[3][4]
Parvoviridae II[3][4] Parvovirus B19[3][4] N[3][4]
Reoviridae III[10] Rotavirus,[10] Orbivirus, Coltivirus, Banna virus N[4]
Astroviridae IV[11] Human astrovirus[4] N[4]
Caliciviridae IV[10] Norwalk virus[4] N[4]
Coronaviridae IV[12] Human coronavirus 229E, Human coronavirus NL63, Human coronavirus OC43, Human coronavirus HKU1, Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus,[4] Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Y[4]
Flaviviridae IV[3][4][13] Hepatitis C virus,[3] yellow fever virus,[3] dengue virus,[3] West Nile virus,[3] TBE virus,[4] Zika virus Y[3][4]
Hepeviridae IV[14] Hepatitis E virus[4] N[4][14]
Matonaviridae IV[3][4][15] Rubella virus[3][16] Y[3][4]
Picornaviridae IV[17] coxsackievirus, hepatitis A virus, poliovirus,[4] rhinovirus N[4]
Arenaviridae V[18] Lassa virus[4][18] Y[4][18]
Bunyaviridae V[19] Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Hantaan virus[4] Y[4][19]
Filoviridae V[20] Ebola virus,[20] Marburg virus[20] Y[4]
Orthomyxoviridae V[3][21] Influenza virus[3][21] Y[3][21]
Paramyxoviridae V[22] Measles virus,[3] Mumps virus,[3] Parainfluenza virus[3][4] Y[3][22]
Pneumoviridae V [23] Respiratory syncytial virus[3] Y[3]
Rhabdoviridae V[24] Rabies virus[3][4] Y[3][4]
Unassigned[25] V[25] Hepatitis D[25] Y[25]
Retroviridae VI[3][26] HIV[3][4] Y[3][4]
Hepadnaviridae VII[3] Hepatitis B virus[3][4] Y[3][4]

Clinical characteristics[edit]

The clinical characteristics of viruses may differ substantially among species within the same family:

Type Family Transmission Diseases Treatment Prevention
Adenovirus Adenoviridae
  • droplet contact[3]
  • fecal-oral[3]
  • venereal[3]
  • direct eye contact[3]
None[3]
  • Adenovirus vaccine
  • hand washing
  • covering mouth when coughing or sneezing
  • avoiding close contact with the sick
Coxsackievirus Picornaviridae None[3]
  • hand washing
  • covering mouth when coughing/sneezing
  • avoiding contaminated food/water
  • improved sanitation
Cytomegalovirus Herpesviridae
  • hand washing
  • avoid sharing food and drinks with others
  • safe sex
Epstein–Barr virus Herpesviridae None[3]
  • avoiding close contact with the sick
Hepatitis A virus Picornaviridae Immunoglobulin (post-exposure prophylaxis)[3]
Hepatitis B virus Hepadnaviridae

Vertical and sexual[32]

Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae
  • avoiding shared needles/syringes
  • safe sex
Herpes simplex virus, type 1 Herpesviridae
  • avoiding close contact with lesions
  • safe sex
Herpes simplex virus, type 2 Herpesviridae
  • avoiding close contact with lesions[3]
  • safe sex[3]
HIV Retroviridae HAART,[3] such as protease inhibitors[34] and reverse-transcriptase inhibitors[34]
  • zidovudine (perinatally)[3]
  • blood product screening[3]
  • safe sex[3]
  • avoiding shared needles/syringes
Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) Coronaviridae
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) Coronaviridae
  • droplet contact
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) Coronaviridae
Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1) Coronaviridae
Human herpesvirus, type 8 Herpesviridae many in evaluation-stage[3]
  • avoid close contact with lesions
  • safe sex
Human papillomavirus Papillomaviridae
Influenza virus Orthomyxoviridae
  • droplet contact[3]
Measles virus Paramyxoviridae None[3]
Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV) Coronaviridae
  • close human contact
Mumps virus Paramyxoviridae None[3]
Parainfluenza virus Paramyxoviridae None[3]
  • hand washing
  • covering mouth when coughing/sneezing
Poliovirus Picornaviridae None[3]
Rabies virus Rhabdoviridae Post-exposure prophylaxis[3]
Respiratory syncytial virus Pneumoviridae (ribavirin)[3]
  • hand washing[3]
  • avoiding close contact with the sick[3]
  • palivizumab in high risk individuals[3]
  • covering mouth when coughing/sneezing
Rubella virus Togaviridae None[3]
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) Coronaviridae
  • droplet contact
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Coronaviridae
  • droplet contact
Varicella-zoster virus Herpesviridae
  • droplet contact[3]
  • direct contact

Varicella:

Zoster:

Varicella:

Zoster:

  • vaccine
  • varicella-zoster immunoglobulin

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Taylor, M.P.; Kobiler, O.; Enquist, L. W. (2012). "Alphaherpesvirus axon-to-cell spread involves limited virion transmission". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. PNAS. 106 (42): 17046–17051. doi:10.1073/pnas.1212926109. PMC 3479527. PMID 23027939.
  2. ^ Hunt, M. "Arboviruses". University of South Carolina School of Medicine.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi Fisher, Bruce; Harvey, Richard P.; Champe, Pamela C. (2007). Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Microbiology (PDF). Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews Series. Hagerstown MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 354–366. ISBN 978-0-7817-8215-9. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am Table 1 in: Dimitrov, Dimiter S. (2004). "Virus entry: molecular mechanisms and biomedical applications". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2 (2): 109–22. doi:10.1038/nrmicro817. ISSN 1740-1526. PMC 7097642. PMID 15043007.
  5. ^ Adams, MJ; Carstens EB (Jul 2012). "Ratification vote on taxonomic proposals to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2012)" (PDF). Arch. Virol. 157 (7): 1411–22. doi:10.1007/s00705-012-1299-6. PMC 7086667. PMID 22481600.
  6. ^ Whitley RJ (1996). Baron S; et al. (eds.). Herpesviruses. in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1.
  7. ^ Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Pfaller MA (2005). Medical Microbiology (5th ed.). Elsevier Mosby. ISBN 978-0-323-03303-9.
  8. ^ a b c de Villiers EM, Fauquet C, Broker TR, Bernard HU, zur Hausen H (2004). "Classification of papillomaviruses". Virology. 324 (1): 17–27. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2004.03.033. PMID 15183049.
  9. ^ a b c "Polyomavirus". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-03.
  10. ^ a b c Page 273 in: Lennette's Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections (Fourth ed.). CRC Press. 2010. ISBN 978-1420084962.
  11. ^ Murillo A, Vera-Estrella R, Barkla BJ, Méndez E, Arias CF (2015). "Identification of Host Cell Factors Associated with Astrovirus Replication in Caco-2 Cells". J. Virol. 89 (20): 10359–70. doi:10.1128/JVI.01225-15. PMC 4580174. PMID 26246569.
  12. ^ Stapleford, Kenneth A.; Miller, David J. (2010). "Role of Cellular Lipids in Positive-Sense RNA Virus Replication Complex Assembly and Function". Viruses. 2 (5): 1055–68. doi:10.3390/v2051055. ISSN 1999-4915. PMC 3187604. PMID 21994671.
  13. ^ Cook, S.; Moureau, G.; Harbach, R. E.; Mukwaya, L.; Goodger, K.; Ssenfuka, F.; Gould, E.; Holmes, E. C.; de Lamballerie, X. (2009). "Isolation of a novel species of flavivirus and a new strain of Culex flavivirus (Flaviviridae) from a natural mosquito population in Uganda". Journal of General Virology. 90 (11): 2669–78. doi:10.1099/vir.0.014183-0. ISSN 0022-1317. PMC 2885038. PMID 19656970.
  14. ^ a b "Hepeviridae". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-03.
  15. ^ Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Holmes, Edward C. (2011). "Why do RNA viruses recombine?". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 9 (8): 617–26. doi:10.1038/nrmicro2614. ISSN 1740-1526. PMC 3324781. PMID 21725337.
  16. ^ "2018.013S.R.Matonaviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 2020-05-28.
  17. ^ Tuthill, Tobias J.; Groppelli, Elisabetta; Hogle, James M.; Rowlands, David J. (2010). "Picornaviruses". Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 343: 43–89. doi:10.1007/82_2010_37. ISBN 978-3-642-13331-2. ISSN 0070-217X. PMC 3018333. PMID 20397067.
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  19. ^ a b "Bunyaviridae". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-03.
  20. ^ a b c "Filoviridae". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-03.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h "Orthomyxoviridae". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-03.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Paramyxoviridae". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-10.
  23. ^ "Pneumoviridae ~ ViralZone page". viralzone.expasy.org. Retrieved 2020-08-17.
  24. ^ a b c d "Rhabdoviridae". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-03.
  25. ^ a b c d "Deltavirus". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-03.
  26. ^ "Retroviridae". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-03.
  27. ^ a b c d "Enterovirus". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-12.
  28. ^ Repass GL, Palmer WC, Stancampiano FF (September 2014). "Hand, foot, and mouth disease: Identifying and managing an acute viral syndrome". Cleve Clin J Med. 81 (9): 537–43. doi:10.3949/ccjm.81a.13132. PMID 25183845.
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  30. ^ a b c d e f "Babies Born with CMV (Congenital CMV Infection)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. April 13, 2017. Retrieved June 17, 2017.Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  31. ^ a b c d "Picornaviridae". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-10.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g "Hepadnaviridae". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-10.
  33. ^ a b "Flaviviridae". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-10.
  34. ^ a b c d e "Human immunodeficiency virus 1". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-10.
  35. ^ a b c d "Papillomaviridae". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-10.
  36. ^ a b c "Togaviridae". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-10.

External links[edit]

Classification