Iron Gates Mesolithic

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Iron Gates Mesolithic
Lepenski Vir Head.JPG
Alternative names
  • Iron Gates culture
  • Lepenski Vir culture
Geographical rangeIron Gates, Danube Valley
Dates11,000–3500 BCE
Type siteLepenski Vir
Preceded byEpigravettian
Followed byFirst Temperate Neolithic

The Iron Gates Mesolithic is a Mesolithic archaeological culture, dating to between 11,000 and 3,500 years BCE, in the Iron Gates region of the Danube River, in modern Romania and Serbia.

Major sites within this archaeological complex include Lepenski Vir. Stages at this site dated at c. 6300–6000 BCE have been described as "the first city in Europe",[1] due to its permanency, organisation, as well as the sophistication of its architecture and construction techniques.[2][3] Lepenski Vir consists of one large settlement with around 10 satellite villages. Numerous piscine sculptures and peculiar architecture have been found at the site.


A February 2018 study published in Nature included an analysis of a large number of individuals from the Iron Gates Mesolithic dating from 9500 BC to 5000 BC. They were most closely related to Western European hunter-gatherers, but with some additional affinity toward Eastern European hunter-gatherers and Anatolian Neolithic farmers. Their most common maternal haplogroup was U5, typical of European hunter-gatherers, but they also carried haplogroups U4, K1, and a single case of H13. Their paternal haplogroups were I and R, which predominated in other European hunter-gatherers as well. Where a finer classification was possible, the R was specifically R1b1a-L754 (not belonging to subclade R1b1a1a-P297), and the I belonged to I2a-L460. [4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Pavlović, 20 August 2017, p. 20.
  2. ^ Pavlović, 23 August 2017.
  3. ^ Rusu, 2011.
  4. ^ Mathieson 2018.


  • Geoff Bailey & Penny Spikins, Mesolithic Europe, Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  • Hristivoje Pavlović, "Tajne Lepenskog Vira I - Prvi grad u Evropi", Politika (in Serbian), 20 August 2017
  • Hristivoje Pavlović, "Tajne Lepenskog Vira IV - Zapanjujuća veština obrade kamena", Politika (in Serbian) 23 August 2017.
  • Ivana Radovanović, The Iron Gates Mesolithic Ann Arbor, International Monographs in Prehistory, 1996.
  • Aurelian I. Rusu, "Lepenski Vir – Schela Cladovei culture’s chronology and its interpretation", Acta Musei, VI. 1, 2011.
  • Mathieson, Iain (February 21, 2018). "The Genomic History of Southeastern Europe". Nature. Nature Research. 555 (7695): 197–203. doi:10.1038/nature25778. PMC 6091220. PMID 29466330. Retrieved January 7, 2020.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)