Barragem de Itaipu
Location of the Dam
|Official name||Central Hidroeléctrica Itaipú Binacional
Usina Hidrelétrica Itaipu Binacional
|Location||Foz do Iguaçu
|Construction began||January 1971|
|Opening date||5 May 1984|
|Construction cost||US$19.6 billion|
|Dam and spillways|
|Type of dam||Combination gravity, buttress and embankment sections|
|Height||196 m (643 ft)|
|Length||7,919 m (25,981 ft)|
|Dam volume||12,300,000 m3 (430,000,000 cu ft)|
|Spillway capacity||62,200 m3/s (2,200,000 cu ft/s)|
|Total capacity||29 km3 (24,000,000 acre·ft)|
|Catchment area||1,350,000 km2 (520,000 sq mi)|
|Surface area||1,350 km2 (520 sq mi)|
|Maximum length||170 km (110 mi)|
|Maximum width||12 km (7.5 mi)|
|Hydraulic head||118 m (387 ft)|
|Turbines||20 × 700 MW (940,000 hp) Francis-type|
|Installed capacity||14 GW (19,000,000 hp)|
|Annual generation||89.5 TWh (322 PJ) (2015)|
The Itaipu Dam (Guarani: Presa Itaipu, Portuguese: Barragem de Itaipu, Spanish: Represa de Itaipú; Portuguese pronunciation: [itɐjˈpu], locally: [ita.iˈpu], Spanish pronunciation: [itaiˈpu]) is a hydroelectric dam on the Paraná River located on the border between Brazil and Paraguay. The construction of the dam was first contested by Argentina, but the negotiations and resolution of the dispute ended up setting the basis for Argentine-Brazilian integration later on.
The name "Itaipu" was taken from an isle that existed near the construction site. In the Guarani language, Itaipu means "the sounding stone". The Itaipu Dam's hydroelectric power plant produced the most energy of any in the world, setting a new world record in 2016, 103,098,366 megawatt hour (MWh); and had surpassed the Three Gorges Dam plant in 2016 and 2015 in energy production. Completed in 1984, it is a binational undertaking run by Brazil and Paraguay at the border between the two countries, 15 km (9.3 mi) north of the Friendship Bridge. The project ranges from Foz do Iguaçu, in Brazil, and Ciudad del Este in Paraguay, in the south to Guaíra and Salto del Guairá in the north. The installed generation capacity of the plant is 14 GW, with 20 generating units providing 700 MW each with a hydraulic design head of 118 metres (387 ft). In 2016 the plant generated a new world record. In 2016, the plant employed 3038 workers. 
Of the twenty generator units currently installed, ten generate at 50 Hz for Paraguay and ten generate at 60 Hz for Brazil. Since the output capacity of the Paraguayan generators far exceeds the load in Paraguay, most of their production is exported directly to the Brazilian side, from where two 600 kV HVDC lines, each approximately 800 kilometres (500 mi) long, carry the majority of the energy to the São Paulo/Rio de Janeiro region where the terminal equipment converts the power to 60 Hz.
- 1 History
- 2 November 2009 power failure
- 3 Wonder of the Modern World
- 4 Social and environmental impacts
- 5 Statistics
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Negotiations between Brazil and Paraguay
The concept behind the Itaipu Power Plant was the result of serious negotiations between the two countries during the 1960s. The "Ata do Iguaçu" (Iguaçu Act) was signed on July 22, 1966, by the Brazilian and Paraguayan Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Juracy Magalhães and Raúl Sapena Pastor, respectively. This was a joint declaration of the mutual interest in studying the exploitation of the hydro resources that the two countries shared in the section of the Paraná River starting from, and including, the Salto de Sete Quedas, to the Iguaçu River watershed. The Treaty that gave origin to the power plant was signed in 1973.
The terms of the treaty, which expires in 2023, have been the subject of widespread discontent in Paraguay. The government of President Lugo vowed to renegotiate the terms of the treaty with Brazil, which long remained hostile to any renegotiation.
In 2009, Brazil agreed to a fairer payment of electricity to Paraguay and also allowed Paraguay to sell excess power directly to Brazilian companies instead of solely through the Brazilian electricity monopoly.
In 1970, the consortium formed by the companies IECO (from the United States), and ELC Electroconsult S.p.A. (from Italy) won the international competition for the realization of the viability studies and for the elaboration of the construction project. Design studies began in February 1971. On April 26, 1973, Brazil and Paraguay signed the Itaipu Treaty, the legal instrument for the hydroelectric exploitation of the Paraná River by the two countries. On May 17, 1974, the Itaipu Binacional entity was created to administer the plant's construction. The construction began in January of the following year. Brazil's (and Latin America's) first electric car was introduced in late 1974; it received the name Itaipu in honor of the project.
Paraná River rerouted
On October 14, 1978, the Paraná River had its route changed, which allowed a section of the riverbed to dry so the dam could be built there.
Agreement by Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina
An important diplomatic settlement was reached with the signing of the Acordo Tripartite by Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina, on October 19, 1979. This agreement established the allowed river levels and how much they could change as a result of the various hydroelectrical undertakings in the watershed that was shared by the three countries. At that time, the three countries were ruled by military dictatorships. Argentina was concerned that, in the event of a conflict, Brazil could open the floodgates, raising the water level in the Río de la Plata and consequently flood the capital city of Buenos Aires.
Formation of the lake
The reservoir began its formation on October 13, 1982, when the dam works were completed and the side canal's gates were closed. Throughout this period, heavy rains and flooding accelerated the filling of the reservoir as the water rose 100 meters (330 feet) and reached the gates of the spillway at 10:00 on October 27.
Start of operations
On May 5, 1984, the first generation unit started running in Itaipu. The first 18 units were installed at the rate of two to three a year; the last two of these started running in the year 1991.
Capacity expansion in 2007
The last two of the 20 electric generation units started operations in September 2006 and in March 2007, thus raising the installed capacity to 14 GW and completing the power plant. This increase in capacity allows 18 generation units to run permanently while two are shut down for maintenance. Due to a clause in the treaty signed between Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina, the maximum number of generating units allowed to operate simultaneously cannot exceed 18 (see the agreement section for more information).
The rated nominal power of each generating unit (turbine and generator) is 700 MW. However, because the head (difference between reservoir level and the river level at the foot of the dam) that actually occurs is higher than the designed head (118 m), the power available exceeds 750 MW half of the time for each generator. Each turbine generates around 700 MW; by comparison, all the water from the Iguaçu Falls would have the capacity to feed only two generators.
November 2009 power failure
On November 10, 2009, transmission from the plant was completely disrupted, possibly due to a storm damaging up to three high-voltage transmission lines. Itaipu itself was not damaged. This caused massive power outages in Brazil and Paraguay, blacking out the entire country of Paraguay for 15 minutes, and plunging Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo into darkness for more than 2 hours. 50 million people were reportedly affected. The blackout hit at 22:13 local time. It affected the southeast of Brazil most severely, leaving São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo completely without electricity. Blackouts also swept through the interior of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, the interior of Bahia and parts of Pernambuco, energy officials said. By 00:30 power had been restored to most areas.
Wonder of the Modern World
Social and environmental impacts
The world's largest waterfall by volume, the Guaíra Falls, was drowned by the newly formed Itaipu reservoir. The Brazilian government liquidated the Guaíra Falls National Park, and dynamited the submerged rock face where the falls had been, facilitating safer navigation, thus eliminating the possibility of restoring the falls in the future. A few months before the reservoir was filled, 80 people died when an overcrowded bridge overlooking the falls collapsed, as tourists sought a last glimpse of the falls.
The Guaíra Falls was an effective barrier that separated freshwater species in the upper Paraná basin (with its many endemics) from species found below it, and the two are recognized as different ecoregions. After the falls disappeared, many species formerly restricted to one of these areas have been able to invade the other, causing problems typically associated with introduced species. For example, more than 30 fish species that formerly were restricted to the region below the falls have been able to invade the region above.
- The course of the seventh biggest river in the world was shifted, as were 50 million tons of earth and rock.
- The amount of concrete used to build the Itaipu Power Plant would be enough to build 210 football stadiums the size of the Estádio do Maracanã.
- The iron and steel used would allow for the construction of 380 Eiffel Towers.
- The volume of excavation of earth and rock in Itaipu is 8.5 times greater than that of the Channel Tunnel and the volume of concrete is 15 times greater.
- Around forty thousand people worked in the construction.
- Itaipu is one of the most expensive objects ever built.
Generating station and dam
- The total length of the dam is 7,235 metres (23,737 ft). The crest elevation is 225 metres (738 ft). Itaipu is actually four dams joined together — from the far left, an earth fill dam, a rock fill dam, a concrete buttress main dam, and a concrete wing dam to the right.
- The spillway has a length of 483 metres (1,585 ft).
- The maximum flow of Itaipu's fourteen segmented spillways is 62.2 thousand cubic metres per second (2.20×106 cu ft/s), into three skislope formed canals. It is equivalent to 40 times the average flow of the nearby natural Iguaçu Falls.
- The flow of two generators (700 cubic metres per second (25,000 cu ft/s) each) is roughly equivalent to the average flow of the Iguaçu Falls (1,500 cubic metres per second (53,000 cu ft/s)).
- The dam is 196 metres (643 ft) high, equivalent to a 65-story building.
- Though it is the seventh largest reservoir in size in Brazil, the Itaipu's reservoir has the best relation between electricity production and flooded area. For the 14,000 MW installed power, 1,350 square kilometres (520 sq mi) were flooded. The reservoirs for the hydroelectric power plants of Sobradinho Dam, Tucuruí Dam, Porto Primavera Dam, Balbina Dam, Serra da Mesa Dam and Furnas Dam are all larger than the one for Itaipu, but have a smaller installed generating capacity. The one with the next largest hydroelectric production, Tucuruí, has an installed capacity of 8,000 MW, while flooding 2,430 km2 (938 sq mi) of land.
- Electricity is 55% cheaper when made by the Itaipu Dam than the other types of power plants in the area.
- List of largest hydroelectric power stations
- List of largest power stations in the world
- List of conventional hydroelectric power stations
- List of dam megaprojects
- List of power stations in Brazil
- Three Gorges Dam
- List of hydroelectric power station failures
- "Itaipu production in 2016 should once again exceed 90 million MWh". Itaipu Binacional. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- "Drought curbs Itaipu hydro output". Business News Americas. 5 January 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
- Schenoni, Luis (2016). "Regional Power Transitions: Lessons from the Southern Cone". GIGA Working Papers.
- Energy, Itaipu Binacional, 2014, retrieved 4 July 2014
- Nickson, Andrew (20 February 2008). "Paraguay: Lugo versus the Colorado Machine". Open Democracy.
- "Why Brazil gave way on Itaipu dam". BBC. 26 July 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-26.
- Barrionuevo, Alexei (July 27, 2009). "Energy Deal With Brazil Gives Boost to Paraguay". New York Times. p. A10.
- International Engineering Company, Inc. (IECO) was a subsidiary of Morrison-Knudsen. See "Morrison-Knudsen Company, Inc.". Baker Library, Harvard Business School. Retrieved 2014-09-28.
- Pereira, Fabiano (April 2007). "Clássicos: Grandes Brasileiros: Gurgel Itaipu" [Classics: Brazilian Greats: Gurgel Itaipu] (in Portuguese). Quatro Rodas.
- Abreu, Diego (2009-11-11). "Apagão teve origem em função de condições meteorológicas, diz MME". Globo News.
- "Major Power Failures Hit Brazil". BBC. 2009-11-11.
- Barrionuevo, Alexei (November 11, 2009). "Brazil Looks for Answers After Huge Blackout". New York Times.
- Pope, Gregory T. (December 1995), "The seven wonders of the modern world", Popular Mechanics, pp. 48–56
- "Indian Journals". 61 (4). 2004.
- Terminski, Bogumil (2013). "Development-Induced Displacement and Resettlement: Theoretical Frameworks and Current Challenges", Indiana University,available at: http://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/dlc/handle/10535/8833?show=full
- Switkes, Glenn (2008-03-14). "Farewell, Seven Falls". Retrieved 2010-03-02.
- Júlio Júnior, Dei Tós, Agostinho, and Pavanelli (2009). A massive invasion of fish species after eliminating a natural barrier in the upper rio Paraná basin. Neotropical Ichthyology 7(4): 709—718.
- Teixeira, Cristiano (5 April 2016), Corredor Ecológico de Santa Maria, Paraná - Brasil (PDF) (in Portuguese), Asunción: ITAIPU Binacional/MI, p. 3, retrieved 2016-11-04
- "Seven Wonders of the Modern World: The Itaipu Dam". unmuseum.org.
- "Itaipu binacional — Technical data — Comparisons". Retrieved February 16, 2007.
- "Energia de Itaipu poderia suprir o planeta por 43 horas" (in Portuguese). Economia - Bonde. O seu portal. 2012-01-02. Retrieved 2012-01-04.
- "Itaipú supera récord mundial de producción de energía". Última Hora (in Spanish). Asunción. 2013-01-04. Retrieved 2013-01-04.
- "Consumo aumenta e Itaipu supera recorde de 2012".
- "Itaipu superó a represa china en producción de energía".
- "Brasil retiró casi 92 millones MWh de la producción récord de Itaipú".
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Itaipu Dam.|
- Itaipu Company Site (Portuguese) (English) (Spanish)
- Power conversion
- Power conditioning
- The Itaipu Transmission System
- Voith-Siemens Hydro Power Generation, one of the hydro turbines and generators manufacturer for this project
- Article on Brazil`s Thermoelectric Priority Program Author`s updated contact information