Ciudad del Este

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Ciudad del Este

Táva Kuarahyresẽme (Avañe'ẽ)
From the top to bottom, left to right: Skyline of the city from the Paraná River • Plaza Jesuítica Shopping • Bernardino Caballero Avenue • East National University • Night view • Holy Spirit Parish • Lake of Republic • Friendship Bridge
From the top to bottom, left to right: Skyline of the city from the Paraná River • Plaza Jesuítica Shopping • Bernardino Caballero Avenue • East National University • Night view • Holy Spirit Parish • Lake of Republic • Friendship Bridge
Flag of Ciudad del Este
Flag
Coat of arms of Ciudad del Este
Coat of arms
Ciudad del Este is located in Paraguay
Ciudad del Este
Ciudad del Este
Location of Ciudad del Este in Paraguay
Coordinates: 25°31′00″S 54°37′00″W / 25.51667°S 54.61667°W / -25.51667; -54.61667Coordinates: 25°31′00″S 54°37′00″W / 25.51667°S 54.61667°W / -25.51667; -54.61667
Country Paraguay
DepartmentBandera Departamento de Alto Paraná.png Alto Paraná
FoundedFebruary 3, 1957
Government
 • Intendente MunicipalPerla Rodríguez de Cabral
Area
 • Total104 km2 (40 sq mi)
Population
(2019)
 • Total301,815
 • Density2,900/km2 (7,500/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC-04 (AST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-03 (ADT)
Postal code
7000
Area code(s)+ (595) (61)
ClimateCfa
WebsiteOfficial website

Ciudad del Este (Spanish pronunciation: [sjuˈðað ðel ˈeste], Spanish for City of the East; also known as CDE) is the second-largest city in Paraguay and capital of the Alto Paraná Department, situated on the Paraná River. It is located 327 km from Asunción, the capital, and is adjacent to the border with Brazil, to which it is connected by the Friendship Bridge on the Paraná River. It is the largest city within the Triple Frontier region, which borders Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil and Puerto Iguazú, Argentina. In the vicinity of Ciudad del Este are the Itaipú Dam, one of the largest hydroelectric power plants in the world; and the Iguazu Falls.

Ciudad del Este is a commercial city, and is one of the largest free-trade zones in the world. Its tax-free status attracts many Brazilians and Argentines to the city.[1] It has consulates of Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, Spain, France, Germany, Italy, Slovakia, Syria, Turkey and Taiwan.[2]

The Guaraní International Airport, the second most important airport in the country, located in the neighboring city of Minga Guazú, serves Ciudad del Este. In addition, the city is the home of Club Atlético 3 de Febrero, which has the Antonio Aranda Stadium that was used for the Copa América 1999 and is the third largest stadium in Paraguayan football. The city is home to Club Atlético 3 de Febrero, whose home ground Estadio Antonio Aranda was used for the 1999 Copa América, and is Paraguay's third biggest football stadium. The city is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Ciudad del Este.

History[edit]

After the fall of Argentine President Juan Domingo Perón in the 1950s, the government of Alfredo Stroessner took the decision to vigorously promote the so-called "March to the East", seeking to reach the Atlantic Ocean, through Brazil. The main problem encountered in the exit through the Río de la Plata was the excessively expensive freight, which made the exported products commercially uncompetitive. In 1955, the Mixed Paraguayan-Brazilian Commission was set up to boost the highway to the East, and in 1956 a reconnaissance flight was made on Alto Paraná. The construction of a road route to the Paraná River bank was led by Captain Porfirio Pereira Ruiz Díaz, who supervised several army units in the building of a 200-kilometre section from Coronel Oviedo.

Ciudad del Este was founded by decree on February 3, 1957, with the name of "Puerto Flor de Lis".[3] Later it was renamed "Puerto Presidente Stroessner", in honor of the dictator Alfredo Stroessner. After the 1989 Paraguayan coup d'état, a referendum was held to decide on a new name, and Ciudad del Este was chosen.[citation needed]

Settlement in the region was hampered by dense jungle, but the city and the local economy expanded rapidly after the construction of the Friendship Bridge and the Acaray and Itaipu dams between the 1960s and 1970s. The city has attracted many immigrants and now has Chinese, Arab, Indian and Korean populations. It is the second most developed and populated city in the country.

Geography[edit]

The city, coextensive with the homonymous district, is located in south-eastern Paraguay. Part of an international tripoint known as the "Triple Frontier", Ciudad del Este lies opposite the Brazilian city of Foz do Iguaçu (state of Paraná). Separated from it by Paraná River, it is linked by the Friendship Bridge. The Argentine border is located between the neighbouring town of Presidente Franco and Puerto Iguazú (Misiones Province). Ciudad del Este, along with the towns and districts of Hernandarias, Minga Guazú and Presidente Franco, forms a metropolitan area named Gran Ciudad del Este (Greater Ciudad del Este).

The location of Ciudad del Este on the international route that connects southeastern Bolivia with Curitiba and Porto Alegre has contributed to turning this city into a smuggling post between Paraguay and Brazil and of cocaine between southern Bolivia and the large cities of São Paulo, Curitiba, Porto Alegre, and Florianapolis. Because of this, many Argentine and Brazilian tourists visiting Lake Itaipú and the Iguazú Falls, both on the Paraná River, avoid Ciudad del Este.[4]

Hydrography[edit]

The Paraná River borders the city to the east. The district is also surrounded by the Acaray River to the north, which separates it from Hernandarias District, while to the southwest it is surrounded by the Monday River that separates it from the municipality of Los Cedrales. In the city there are other streams, lakes and bridges:

  • Amambay Stream, on the Monday side, feeds the Republic Lake.
  • Acaraymí Stream, on the Acaray side, connects with the Amambay stream underground.
  • Saltito Stream, located in the southeast, serves as a boundary with the jurisdiction of Presidente Franco.
  • The Republic Lake, is the recreational site par excellence in the city.
  • The Yrendy Lake, located in the neighborhood Monday about 1,000 meters from Route 7, was designated an ecological sanctuary[when?] for its beauty and natural wealth through a municipal resolution.[5]
  • The José Costa Cavalcanti bridge over the Acaray river, popularly known as "Puente Seco" (Dry Bridge), is a junction between Mariscal López Avenue and the Itaipú Superhighway which connects the Pablo Rojas neighborhood with the Paraná Country Club of Hernandarias.
  • The Peru bridge, over the Acaray river, connects the Don Bosco neighborhood with the Itaipú neighborhood of Hernandarias.

Climate[edit]

Ciudad del Este has a humid subtropical climate under Köppen's climate classification. Summer is hot and humid, with an average of 26 °C (79 °F) in January. The high humidity usually becomes suffocating in the heat. Winter is temperate and irregular; temperatures between 0 °C (32 °F) and 30 °C (86 °F) have been recorded. The average daily temperature is 16 °C (61 °F) in July.

Ciudad del Este sees on average roughly 1,700 millimetres (67 in) of precipitation annually. In the winter of 1982, it snowed for the first time in the city, being the second snowfall registered in the country.

Climate data for Ciudad del Este, Paraguay
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 38.0
(100.4)
38.8
(101.8)
38.0
(100.4)
35.0
(95.0)
32.5
(90.5)
31.2
(88.2)
33.0
(91.4)
33.4
(92.1)
35.6
(96.1)
37.0
(98.6)
39.6
(103.3)
40.2
(104.4)
40.2
(104.4)
Average high °C (°F) 31.7
(89.1)
31.6
(88.9)
30.8
(87.4)
27.5
(81.5)
24.6
(76.3)
22.2
(72.0)
23.0
(73.4)
24.2
(75.6)
25.8
(78.4)
28.4
(83.1)
30.1
(86.2)
31.2
(88.2)
27.6
(81.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.1
(79.0)
25.8
(78.4)
24.7
(76.5)
21.5
(70.7)
18.4
(65.1)
16.3
(61.3)
16.4
(61.5)
17.6
(63.7)
19.3
(66.7)
22.1
(71.8)
24.1
(75.4)
25.6
(78.1)
21.5
(70.7)
Average low °C (°F) 21.1
(70.0)
21.3
(70.3)
20.1
(68.2)
17.2
(63.0)
13.6
(56.5)
11.4
(52.5)
11.3
(52.3)
12.3
(54.1)
13.8
(56.8)
16.6
(61.9)
18.3
(64.9)
20.1
(68.2)
16.4
(61.5)
Record low °C (°F) 10.5
(50.9)
11.6
(52.9)
7.5
(45.5)
4.6
(40.3)
−0.2
(31.6)
0.0
(32.0)
−3.0
(26.6)
−1.0
(30.2)
0.8
(33.4)
4.0
(39.2)
6.4
(43.5)
8.2
(46.8)
−3.0
(26.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 184.1
(7.25)
154.2
(6.07)
136.1
(5.36)
140.7
(5.54)
132.3
(5.21)
131.9
(5.19)
90.6
(3.57)
115.0
(4.53)
130.2
(5.13)
176.0
(6.93)
163.5
(6.44)
139.9
(5.51)
1,694.5
(66.71)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 10 9 8 7 8 8 7 8 9 10 9 9 101
Average relative humidity (%) 75 77 77 80 83 84 79 77 75 74 72 72 77
Source: NOAA[6]

Economy[edit]

Paris Shopping.

It is the second most important city in the country, after Asunción. It gathers 8% of Paraguayan Gross Domestic Product, that is, about 3.5 billion dollars. Some 244 companies are installed which operate in the Services Sector and in the Industrial Sector, among which stand out the manufacture of auto parts, the textile industry, maquilas, industries developer, and others. The agro-livestock activity in Ciudad del Este is null because it does not have rural areas, however it emerges as a regional nucleus of other adjacent urban centers that do have it, such as Hernandarias, Presidente Franco and Minga Guazú. In the city operates a large food market that has more than 800 shops where fruits, vegetables, and clothing are sold.

Ciudad del Este has repeatedly been on the list of notorious markets for infringing goods by the United States Trade Representative.[7][8] The city is the headquarters of the company that operates the nearby Itaipu Dam.[citation needed] The city's economy (and Paraguay's economy as well) relies heavily on the mood of the Brazilian economy, as 95% of Paraguay's share of the energy generated by the Itaipu Dam is sold to Brazil (for US$300 million), and that every day many Brazilians cross the border to buy less expensive products[9] (US$1.2 billion, mostly electronics). Smuggling is a major occupation in the city, with some estimates putting the value of this black market at five times the national economy. It is reported that Lebanese immigrants with links to Hezbollah are operating money laundering activities and cocaine trafficking in the city.[10]

A few decades ago Ciudad del Este has seen the development of a very attractive offer in terms of electronic and computer products, as well as consumer products, although luxury (perfumes, fine alcohols, and others). The economy of the city has diversified, led essentially by the installation of new industrial activities outside the traditional commercial focus, such as agribusiness, because in the city are located the largest agricultural companies in the country. Likewise, similar to what happens with the border cities of Paraguay, it depends to a large extent on trade with Brazil.

Tourism[edit]

Lake of Republic.

It has a first class hotel infrastructure, modern shopping centers, prestigious gastronomic establishments, casino and night entertainment centers. While shopping tourism is what most characterizes Ciudad del Este, in the area there are numerous tourist attractions of various kinds, as they constitute the most striking presentation letter of the central core in the region, like the internationally known as the Triple Frontier; there, Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina converge each other:

  • 20 km to the north, in Hernandarias is the Itaipú dam, one of the largest hydroelectric power plants in the world, and the Guaraní Earth Museum;
  • 8 km to the south, in President Franco are the Jumps of Monday, fall of water of the river of the same name;
  • 26 km to the south is the Moisés Bertoni Scientific Monument, a protected area where is the house in which the wise man carried out his research and publications;
  • 20 km to the east, on the border between Argentina and Brazil, are the majestic Iguazu Falls.

Located near the center of the city, there is founded the «Lake of Republic» which is surrounded by vegetation which takes advantage of the waters from the Amambay stream and has a recreation area with an open-air amphitheater that offers the community a public place where Enjoy artistic and cultural events. In its surroundings there are also walkways, bike paths, rest areas, playgrounds, gym and gastronomic venues par excellence.

The 3D Planet Museum is a space located within the Paris Shopping. These are 3D paintings hand painted by international artists, among which the Great Wall of China, the Iguazu Falls, the Roman Colosseum, Venice, Africa and outer space stand out. It also has a labyrinth of mirrors among the multiple attractions exhibited in rooms divided into five different areas. The shopping center has also a snow park.

El Turista Róga (Tourist's home), is a dependency of the National Secretariat of Tourism (SENATUR), located in front of the Green Park, near the center of the city. This one is specialized in orientation and reception of tourists, also has a reception room and wide information suitable to deliver brochures and explanatory leaflets in languages such as English, French, Italian, German, Korean, Portuguese and Spanish.

Demographics[edit]

Chiang Kai-shek Memorial park.

Ciudad del Este is the most populous city in the country after Asunción, with a population of 301,815 persons, being 152,393 men and 149,422 women, according to projections of the DGEEC for 2019.

It represents 36.8% of the departmental population (819,589) and 4.22% of the national population (7,152,703).

Ciudad del Este is a multicultural and diverse city. It is home to a large Asian-born population, specifically of Taiwanese, Korean, Lebanese and Iranian origin, evident in the city's mosques and pagodas. The Taiwanese government paid for the construction of the city's town hall in exchange for Paraguayan support in the United Nations, hence the Taiwanese flag that flies on the building. From the 1970s, Sunni Muslim Arabs moved to the city. This changed in the 1980s to Shia Muslim Arabs from South Lebanon.[11]

As in the rest of the country, a large part of the population dominates spanish and guarani, in addition to jopara, but in the city portuguese is also daily common for thousands of people and is mainly used in the commercial and agricultural sector. Thanks to the strong presence of Asian and Middle Eastern immigrants, languages such as arabic, chinese and korean are commonly used in the downtown area of the city both in conversation and in posters.

Population by sex and ages (2019)
Age Quantity Male Female
0 - 4 years 30.577 15.531 15.046
5 - 14 years 61.300 31.160 30.140
15 - 29 years 83.984 43.060 40.924
30 - 44 years 63.218 30.625 32.593
45 - 64 years 48.857 24.706 24.151
65 - 79 years 11.926 6.350 5.576
80+ years 1.953 960 993
Total 301.815 152.393 149.422
% 100 50,5 49,5
Demographic evolution of Ciudad del Este since 1972
Source: Census of the DGEEC. (*) Projection of the DGEEC - 2015 Edition.

Neighborhoods[edit]

Ciudad del Este is organized territorially in 30 neighborhoods. Route No. 7 "Dr. Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia" divides the city into two parts: 9 neighborhoods in the north and 21 neighborhoods in the south. The Microcentro neighborhood is the only one located in the middle of Route 7, extending minimally on the north side.

Neighborhoods of Ciudad del Este
Neighborhoods of Ciudad del Este
N.º Neighborhood Population N.º Neighborhood Population
1 Acaray 8.295 16 Área 4 3.606
2 Jardín del Este 22.377 17 Boquerón 5.062
3 San Juan 19.005 18 Área 1 3.227
4 Don Bosco 21.479 19 Área 8 1.265
5 Carolina 12.659 20 San Lucas 5.578
6 La Blanca 12.190 21 Santa Ana 8.375
7 Che La Reina 7.554 22 Villa 23 de Octubre 13.031
8 Pablo Rojas 10.896 23 San Alfredo 3.390
9 San Blas 8.880 24 San José 2.572
10 Microcentro 10.053 25 San Isidro 1.913
11 Juan Emilio O'Leary 1.608 26 Villa Fanny 3.162
12 Área 2 7.246 27 Ciudad Nueva 42.013
13 Remansito 13.355 28 Jesuitas 12.496
14 Gral. Bernardino Caballero 14.302 29 José Félix Bogado 18.110
15 Área 3 2.084 30 Monday 6.032

Urban landscape[edit]

Architecture[edit]

Although it is a relatively new city, and unlike other cities such as Asunción or Luque which stand out for their colonial mansions, similarly it does not exempt it from having buildings of classical architecture, something that can be noticed in the Plaza Jesuitas Shopping, a shopping center inspired by the typical colonial architecture of the 16th century. Esteña architecture is predominantly avant-garde, both in conventional buildings and incorporate centers.

Green areas[edit]

Ciudad del Este has diverse spaces with densely populated arboreal areas. Among the main parks include the Ex-airport Alejo García park, the Monseñor Agustín Van Aaken park, the Bernardino Caballero park, the Acosta Ñu park, the Green Park and a score of other places. Emblematic and popular sites such as the Alejo García park (Ex-airport) and Monseñor Agustín Van Aaken park offer different recreation areas such as bicycle paths, aerobic stations, skateboarding tracks and so more recreational games.

Along the Los Yerbales Avenue, parks like "Manuel Ortiz Guerrero", "José Asunción Flores", "Salto del Guairá", and "Guayaivi" are all natural spaces whose main function is to conserve regional biodiversity. On the other hand, the Linear Park is a project financed by Itaipú Binacional and is focused on the use of the first three parks mentioned above; This project is based on the remodeling of green spaces for citizens' free access. The Linear Park, of about 50 hectares, is equipped with sanitary sewer systems, water network, video surveillance system, trails, cycle paths, free access to WIFI networks, playgrounds, outdoor gym, senior area, sector for food truck and a new effluent drainage system.

Urban development plan[edit]

Given the growth of the metropolitan region at a vertigo speed, plans are being projected for the development, reconversion and urban planning with a view to converting it into a sustainable metropolis. The redesign plan of this area of the country will be concreted by architects, civil engineers and Argentine professionals, who will advise this undertaking whose purpose is to transform the outdated road structures through an integral plan viable for the future.

Transportation[edit]

Guarani International Airport, located in the suburb city of Minga Guazú, connects the city with other South American destinations.

Migration–Diplomatics[edit]

The following consulates or consulate generals for diplomatic services are located in Ciudad del Este:

  • Argentina Argentina – Consulate General: Boquerón c/Adrián Jara - Edificio China 7º piso[12]
  • Brazil Brazil – Consulate: Calle Pampliega Nr. 205 Esquina con Pai Perez[13]
  • France France – Honorary Consulate: Paraná Country Club, Hernandarias, Casilla de correo 309, 7000 Ciudad del Este[14]
  • Germany Germany – Honorary Consulate: Avenida Paraná 77, Paraná Country Club[15]
  • Mexico Mexico – Honorary Consulate: Av. Adrian Jara, edif. Banco Unión, 3º piso, Oficina 20[16]
  • Peru Peru – Honorary Consulate: Km 4 ½, Monday, B° Bernardino Caballero[17]
  • Slovakia Slovakia – Honorary Consulate: Calle Boquerón 310, Edif. Grupo Monalisa S.A.[18]
  • Syria Syria – Honorary Consulate: Avda. 11 de Septiembre 399[19]
  • Taiwan Republic of China – Consulate General: Avda. de Lago s/n Barrio Boquerón CP 131[20]
  • Turkey Turkey – Honorary Consulate: Av. Monseñor Rodríguez s/n entre Itaybaté y Rubio Ñu, Edificio Mannah 10 Piso A[21]

The city also houses several departments for legal, identification and migration matters:

  • Identifications Department – Located on the street Súper Carretera[22]
  • Supreme Court of Justice – The place is also known as the Palace of Justice. Located near the Estadio Antonio Oddone Sarubbi of the Club Atlético 3 de Febrero: Avda. Bernardino Caballero e/ Cerro León[23]
  • INTERPOL – The city has a regional office of Interpol.[24]
  • National Direction of Migration – Located at the head of the Friendship Bridge bordering Brazil: Cabecera del Puente de la Amistad, margen derecho (Ruta Internacional Nº 7 - Dr. José Gaspar Rodriguez de Francia)[25]

In media[edit]

  • Ciudad del Este was featured during a late season 8/early season 9 storyline on the television series JAG in 2003.
  • In 2005, it was a filming location for Miami Vice, a film directed by Michael Mann and based on his television series of the same name.
  • The Triple Frontier (or here referenced as the Tri-Border Area) was featured as the backdrop for the NCIS Season 2 episode "An Eye for an Eye", as NCIS Special Agents Anthony DiNozzo (Michael Weatherly) and Caitlin Todd (Sasha Alexander) traveled to this area of southern Paraguay in order to investigate a professor involved in a case in which a pair of blue eyeballs were mailed to a man who then committed suicide. A deleted scene from this episode would later be shown in the Season 8 episode, "A Man Walks into a Bar" as the team remember their dead colleague, Agent Todd.
  • The city was also mentioned in Vince Flynn's novel, Extreme Measures. A terrorist uses this city as a training area before staging a somewhat successful operation on the United States
  • The city is the setting for the 2014 graphic novel "Cuidad", written by Ande Parks and illustrated by Fernando Leon Gonzalez.
  • A mission from Ubisoft's game "Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell Blacklist" is set here.

Notable people[edit]

  • Axel Bachmann: Chess player, two-time Ibero-American chess champion (2013-2014).
  • Dallys Ferreira: International model and theater actress.
  • Lourdes Motta: Miss and International Model.
  • Mario Orrego: Musician and composer.
  • Pablo Vourliotis: Clarinetist and Orchestra Director.

Distances from Ciudad del Este[edit]

City Country Reference Distance in route (Km)
Asunción  Paraguay Capital of Paraguay 327
Encarnación  Paraguay Capital of Itapúa Department 288
Salto del Guairá  Paraguay Capital of Canindeyú Department 230
Coronel Oviedo  Paraguay Capital of Caaguazú Department 198
Pilar  Paraguay Capital of Ñeembucú Department 546
Pedro Juan Caballero  Paraguay Capital of Amambay Department 582
Concepción  Paraguay Capital of Concepción Department 578
Buenos Aires  Argentina Capital of Argentina 1.278
Córdoba  Argentina Capital of Córdoba Province 1.409
Río Cuarto  Argentina City of Córdoba Province 1.618
Santa Fe  Argentina Capital of Santa Fe Province 1.058
Rosario  Argentina City of Santa Fe Province 1.184
Corrientes  Argentina Capital of Corrientes Province 610
Brasília  Brazil Capital of Brasil 1.562
São Paulo  Brazil Capital of São Paulo State 1.069
Curitiba  Brazil Capital of Paraná State 647
Balneário Camboriú  Brazil City of Santa Catarina State 869
Montevideo  Uruguay Capital of Uruguay 1.365
Punta del Este  Uruguay City of Maldonado Department 1.470
Colonia del Sacramento  Uruguay Capital of Colonia Department 1.296

Sister cities[edit]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Schemo, Diana Jean (March 15, 1998). "In Paraguay Border Town, Almost Anything Goes" – via NYTimes.com.
  2. ^ "Consulates in Ciudad del Este, Paraguay".
  3. ^ "50 AÑOS DE HISTORIA". ultimahora.com.
  4. ^ "Ciudad del Este - Dictionary definition of Ciudad del Este - Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  5. ^ "Yrendy, santuario ecológico de CDE". ultimahora.com.
  6. ^ "Ciudad del Este Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 23, 2015.
  7. ^ Savitz, Eric. "Baidu Hits U.S. List Of "Notorious Markets" For Infringing Goods". Forbes. Retrieved 2017-03-07.
  8. ^ "2016 Notorious Markets List Spotlights Fight against Global Piracy and Counterfeiting of American Products | United States Trade Representative". ustr.gov. Retrieved 2017-03-07.
  9. ^ Schemo, Diana Jean (March 15, 1998). "In Paraguay Border Town, Almost Anything Goes". New York Times.
  10. ^ "Lebanon Is Protecting Hezbollah's Cocaine Trade in Latin America". Foreign Policy. 15 June 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
  11. ^ John Tofik Karam, (Un)covering Islam and Its Fifty-Year History in a South American Frontier Region Archived 2011-01-07 at the Wayback Machine (2011), Florida International University.
  12. ^ "Bienvenido a Consulado General en CIUDAD DEL ESTE | Consulado General en Ciudad del Este". ccest.cancilleria.gov.ar.
  13. ^ "Ciudad del Este - Consulado Brasil em Ciudad del Este". www.embaixadas.net. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  14. ^ "Consulate of France in Ciudad del Este, Paraguay". www.embassypages.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  15. ^ http://www.embassypages.com/missions/embassy24357/[permanent dead link]
  16. ^ "Consulate of Mexico in Ciudad del Este, Paraguay". www.embassypages.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  17. ^ http://www.embassypages.com/missions/embassy24371/
  18. ^ http://www.embassypages.com/missions/embassy8001/
  19. ^ http://www.embassypages.com/missions/embassy24374/
  20. ^ http://www.embassypages.com/missions/embassy8871/
  21. ^ http://www.embassypages.com/missions/embassy24378/
  22. ^ "Departamento de Identificaciones". Foursquare. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  23. ^ "Sexta Circunscripción - Alto Paraná - Poder Judicial". pj.gov.py. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  24. ^ "Libanés con doble identidad está preso en Interpol". ultimahora.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  25. ^ http://www.migraciones.gov.py/datos-de-contactos[permanent dead link]

External links[edit]