Jump to content

Jason Lee (actor)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jason Lee
Lee at the Away and Back premiere in 2015
Jason Michael Lee

(1970-04-25) April 25, 1970 (age 54)
  • Actor
  • filmmaker
  • photographer
  • professional skateboarder
Years active1980–present
(m. 1995; div. 2001)
Ceren Alkaç
(m. 2008)
PartnerBeth Riesgraf (2001–2007)
Sports career
CountryUnited States
Turned pro1988

Jason Michael Lee (born April 25, 1970) is an American actor, filmmaker, photographer, and former professional skateboarder. He is known for playing Earl Hickey in the television comedy series My Name Is Earl, for which he was nominated for Best Actor in a Musical or Comedy TV series in 2005 and 2006 by The Golden Globes, and Dave in the live-action films, Alvin and the Chipmunks (2007), Alvin and the Chipmunks: The Squeakquel (2009), Alvin and the Chipmunks: Chipwrecked (2011) and Alvin and the Chipmunks: The Road Chip (2015).

He is also known for his roles in Kevin Smith films such as Mallrats (1995), Chasing Amy (1997), Dogma (1999), Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back (2001), Jersey Girl (2004), Clerks II (2006), Cop Out (2010), and Jay and Silent Bob Reboot (2019). Lee won the Independent Spirit Award for Best Supporting Male for his performance in Chasing Amy. His other notable film roles include starring in Mumford (1999), Almost Famous (2000), Heartbreakers (2001), Big Trouble (2002), Dreamcatcher (2003) and Columbus Circle (2011). His voice acting credits include Syndrome in The Incredibles (2004), Bones in Monster House (2006) and the title character in Underdog (2007).

A former professional skateboarder, Lee is the co-founder and co-owner of Stereo Skateboards, founding the company in 1992 with fellow skateboarder Chris "Dune" Pastras.[1] Since 1992, Stereo manufactures and distributes skateboard decks, equipment and apparel, as well as producing skate videos.[1]

Early life[edit]

Lee was born in Santa Ana, California, on April 25, 1970.[2] His father, Greg Lee, was a car dealership manager and his mother, Carol Lee, a homemaker.[3][4] He has an older brother, James (b. 1968). Lee was raised in Huntington Beach and attended Ocean View High School.[5] A hyperactive and energetic child, Lee took up skateboarding after his mother bought him a skateboard with the hope that he would use it to burn off excessive energy.[citation needed] Hooked on the art of skateboarding, Lee spent the majority of his time perfecting his craft, that would eventually lead to him dropping out of Ocean View High School so he could turn pro.[citation needed]



Lee was a professional skateboarder in the late 1980s and early 1990s. In 1992, he founded Stereo Sound Agency, known as Stereo Skateboards, with fellow skater Chris "Dune" Pastras. In 2003, after it had been defunct for a few years, the pair successfully revived the company.[6][7] As of October 2013, Lee and Pastras remained on the professional "Classics" team roster.[8]

Lee was featured in the skateboarding promotional video, Video Days (1991), filmed for the skateboarding company Blind Skateboards.[9] In 2004, Lee's skateboarding was featured in Way Out East!, a film produced by Stereo Skateboards.[10][11]

In August 2012, Lee was also featured in a brief video on the skateboard website The Berrics entitled "Jason Lee decided to come to the park."[12]

In August 2012, Lee participated in the ninth annual Stand-Up for Skateparks Event, which he chaired with Tony Hawk.[13] The event is held annually by the Tony Hawk Charitable Foundation and seeks to "help create free, quality public skateparks for youth in low-income communities."[14]

In October that same year, a video was released by the Keep A Breast Foundation, featuring various skateboarding identities, including Lee, together with Pastras. The video, contributing to the Foundation's aim to prevent and raise awareness of breast cancer, promotes the "I Love Boobies" bracelet. It also features Clint Peterson (Stereo) and Giovanni Reda (WESC), who are both teammates of Lee.[15]

Lee later worked with Tony Hawk when he lent his voice and likeness to Tony Hawk's Project 8 to become a playable character.[16] Lee then voiced Coach Frank, a character created during the development of Stereo, in video game Skate 3.[17][18]

Professional skateboarder and owner of the Girl and Lakai Limited Footwear skateboard brands Mike Carroll[19] has cited Lee as one of his skating influences.[20]

Lee has been particularly cited for his 360 flips, which even the trick's inventor, Rodney Mullen, credits him with stylizing and popularizing.[21][22][23][24][25]


After taking some minor acting roles in 1992–1994 (including the music video for the Sonic Youth single "100%", a small part in Mi Vida Loca, and a bit part as a dance instructor on Chance and Things), Lee left professional skateboarding for a full-time acting career.[26] His first major film role was in Kevin Smith's Mallrats, which became a cult hit.[26][27] This started a friendship that subsequently led to appearances in many of Smith's films, including Chasing Amy, Dogma, Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back, Clerks II, Cop Out, and Jay and Silent Bob Reboot. Lee won an Independent Spirit Award for his role in Chasing Amy as Banky Edwards.

Lee at the Los Angeles Film Festival in 2006

Lee graduated to leading man roles in Heartbreakers, Stealing Harvard, and A Guy Thing.[28][29][30] He has had supporting roles in Vanilla Sky, Almost Famous, Dreamcatcher, Big Trouble, The Ballad of Jack and Rose, and Mumford, as well as a minor role in Enemy of the State. Lee also voiced Syndrome in The Incredibles and Jack-Jack Attack. He reprised the role as a "robot copy" of Syndrome in Disney Presents Pixar's The Incredibles in a Magic Kingdom Adventure.[31] Lee is also the voice of Underdog in Underdog and portrays Dave Seville in the live-action/CGI films starring Alvin and the Chipmunks.[32]

In 2005, Lee was offered the lead role in the television series My Name Is Earl.[33] According to interviews on the first-season DVD, he passed on the series twice before finally agreeing to read for the pilot. In the series he stars as Earl Hickey. Lee received two Golden Globe nominations for Best Performance by an Actor in a Television Series – Musical or Comedy in 2006 and 2007, as well as a nomination for the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Comedy Series in 2006.[34][35][36] NBC cancelled My Name is Earl after four seasons.[37]

On June 22, 2010, Memphis Beat premiered. Lee stars alongside Alfre Woodard[38] and portrays Dwight Hendricks.[38] In October 2011, it was announced the series was not renewed for a third season. He guest-starred in 2010 and 2013 episodes of Raising Hope, created by My Name is Earl creator and producer Greg Garcia.[39][40][41]

As of December 2011, Lee appeared in Up All Night,[42] but after its second season, it was officially cancelled on May 9, 2013. In June 2013, Alvin and the Chipmunks: The Road Chip (2015), a fourth and final film in the installment of the Alvin and the Chipmunks franchise, was announced by 20th Century Fox; its release date was December 18, 2015.[43]

Lee is in the Amazon Studios 49-minute pilot of Cocked, where he plays the character of Grady Paxson, one of three men who run a family company, manufacturing guns. The show premiered on January 15, 2015, and also stars Brian Dennehy, Diora Baird, Dreama Walker, and Sam Trammell.[44] On January 25, 2015, The Hallmark Channel premiered Away & Back, a Hallmark Hall of Fame film starring Lee, Maggie Elizabeth Jones and Minka Kelly.[45]


Lee began shooting photos regularly in the early 2000s, and became interested in instant photography.[46] He released his first photo book through Refueled Magazine. It consists of "184 pages of Polaroid & Fuji Instant Film photographs from 2006-2016", printed in an edition of 500 copies.[47] In 2018 he published, A Plain View, a photo book consisting of color 4×5 photographs from his exploration of rural and urban America.[48] From June to December 2019, his photographs of Oklahoma were exhibited in exhibit OK: Jason Lee Photographs in Philbrook Museum of Art.[49] These works are scheduled to be released as the book OK in 2022.[50] In December 2020, British publishing house Stanley/Barker released In the Gold Dust Rush, consisting of black and white photographs of rural America.[51] In 2021, Lee released Galveston, commissioned by the Galveston Historical Foundation.[50] He is inspired by work of New Topographics movement, notably by Henry Wessell. He photographs on film.[52]

Lee on the roof of the Beverly Laurel Hotel on June 28, 2005

Personal life[edit]

Lee married actress and photographer Carmen Llywelyn in 1995. They divorced in 2001. Llywelyn later accused Lee of alcoholism and domestic abuse[53] and claimed that his commitment to Scientology as the principal cause for their separation.[54] Llywelyn wrote that their relationship collapsed when she revealed to her talent manager and fellow Scientologist, Gay Ribisi (mother of actor Giovanni Ribisi), that she had read A Piece of Blue Sky, a book about the reality of Scientology. Two days after her conversation with Ribisi, Llywelyn received a one-paragraph "disconnection letter" from Lee and was labeled a suppressive person.[55][56]

Following his divorce from Llywelyn, Lee became engaged to actress Beth Riesgraf. Together, they have a son, Pilot Inspektor, born in 2003. Lee states their son's name was inspired by "He's Simple, He's Dumb, He's the Pilot." by rock band Grandaddy.[57]

Lee married Turkish model Ceren Alkaç in California in July 2008. A month later, Alkaç gave birth to a daughter named Casper.[57][58][59] The couple had their second child, a son named Sonny, in 2012.[60] Their third child, a daughter named Alberta 'Birdy' Lee, was born in 2017.[61]

In 2016, Lee revealed he is no longer a Scientologist.[62][63] When asked by The Guardian why he became a Scientologist he said, "Everybody wants answers, everybody wants to feel less depressed or less anxious or they want to try to understand some issue that they might have with themselves." He added: "Ultimately, it was just not for me. That's it. I wasn't really involved going back many, many years now."[64]

Lee currently resides in Los Angeles, California, with his family after living in Denton, Texas, for four years.[64] He is a 1/5th co-owner of the restaurant Barley and Board.[62][65]



Year Title Role Notes
1991 Video Days Himself Blind Skateboards
1993 A Visual Sound Himself Stereo Skateboards
1993 Mi Vida Loca Teenage Drug Customer
1994 Chance and Things Dance Instructor on the Television
1995 Mallrats Brodie Bruce
1996 Drawing Flies Donner
1996 Tincan Folklore Himself Stereo Skateboards
1997 Chasing Amy Banky Edwards Independent Spirit Award for Best Supporting Male
A Better Place Dennis Pepper
1998 Kissing a Fool Jay Murphy
American Cuisine Loren Collins
Enemy of the State Daniel Zavitz
1999 Dogma Azrael
Mumford Skip Skipperton
2000 Almost Famous Jeff Bebe Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Cast
Nominated – Blockbuster Entertainment Award for Favorite Supporting Actor – Drama/Romance
Nominated – Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture
2001 Heartbreakers Jack Withrowe
Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back Brodie Bruce /
Banky Edwards
Vanilla Sky Brian Shelby
2002 Big Trouble Puggy
Stoked: The Rise and Fall of Gator Himself Documentary
Stealing Harvard John Plummer
2003 A Guy Thing Paul Morse
Dreamcatcher Beaver Clarendon
I Love Your Work Larry Hortense
2004 Oh, What a Lovely Tea Party Himself Documentary
Jersey Girl PR Exec #1
The Incredibles Buddy Pine / Syndrome Voice
2005 Jack-Jack Attack Voice, short film
The Ballad of Jack and Rose Gray
Drop Dead Sexy Frank
2006 Clerks II Lance Dowds
Rising Son: The Legend of Christian Hosoi Himself Documentary
Monster House Bones Voice
2007 Underdog Shoeshine / Underdog Voice
The Man Who Souled the World Himself Documentary
Alvin and the Chipmunks David "Dave" Seville
2009 Alvin and the Chipmunks: The Squeakquel
2010 Cop Out Roy
2011 Noah's Ark: The New Beginning Japheth Voice
The Other Side Mortimer Flybait Voice
Columbus Circle Charlie
Alvin and the Chipmunks: Chipwrecked David "Dave" Seville
2014 Behaving Badly Father Krumins
Tell Ray
2015 Alvin and the Chipmunks: The Road Chip David "Dave" Seville Nominated – Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Supporting Actor
2017 Growing Up Smith Butch Brunner
2019 Jay and Silent Bob Reboot Brodie Bruce
2020 We Bare Bears: The Movie Charlie Voice
TBA Diamond Billy Curtis Also producer and writer


Year Title Role Notes
1997 Weapons of Mass Distraction Phillip Messenger Television film
2005–2009 My Name Is Earl Earl Hickey Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Television Series Musical or Comedy (2006–2007)
Nominated – Satellite Award for Best Actor – Television Series Musical or Comedy (2005–2006)
Nominated – Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Comedy Series
Nominated – Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series (2006–2007)
Nominated – Teen Choice Award for Choice TV Actor – Comedy (2006)
2005 Saturday Night Live Host / various roles 1 episode
2006, 2016 American Dad! Officer Bays / Sam Voice, 2 episodes
2010–2011 Memphis Beat Dwight Hendricks 20 episodes
2011–2012 Up All Night Kevin 7 episodes
2010–2013 Raising Hope Smokey Floyd 3 episodes
2013 Men at Work Donnie Episode: "Tyler the Pioneer"
2015 Cocked Grady Paxson Television film
2015 Away and Back Jack Peterson Television film
2015–2019 We Bare Bears Charlie Voice, 22 episodes
2021 The Harper House Freddie Harper Voice, 10 episodes

Video games[edit]

Year Title Role Notes
2004 The Incredibles Buddy Pine / Syndrome
2004 The Incredibles: When Danger Calls Buddy Pine / Syndrome
2006 Tony Hawk's Project 8 Himself Also motion capture
2007 Alvin and the Chipmunks David "Dave" Seville
2010 Skate 3 Coach Frank
2013 Disney Infinity Buddy Pine / Syndrome
2015 Disney Infinity 3.0
2018 Lego The Incredibles


  1. ^ a b "Stereo". Kingpin Magazine. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  2. ^ "Jason Lee Biography". biography.com. Archived from the original on June 25, 2018. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
  3. ^ "Jason Lee Biography". tvguide.com. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
  4. ^ "Jason Lee Biography". Notable Biographies.com. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  5. ^ Laura Avery (2007). "Jason Lee". Newsmakers: The People Behind Today's Headlines – 2006 Cumulation. Detroit: Thomson Gale. p. 243. ISBN 9781414418865.
  6. ^ Mike Lewis (September 14, 2010). "ANTICS LICENSES STEREO SKATEBOARDS & HI-FI WHEELS". Transworld Business. Bonnier Corporation. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
  7. ^ "Blog". Stereo Sound Agency. 2011. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
  8. ^ "Team Stereo". Stereo Sound Agency. October 2013. Archived from the original on October 15, 2013. Retrieved October 15, 2013.
  9. ^ skatexedge31 (August 8, 2012). "Blind Skateboards – Video Days full video classic". YouTube. Archived from the original (Video upload) on August 3, 2013. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
  10. ^ skately (2012). "Stereo Skateboards – Way Out East! (2004)". skately. Skately LLC. Archived from the original on July 2, 2012. Retrieved August 26, 2012.
  11. ^ Zynkero (April 6, 2010). "Jason Lee – Way Out East!" (Video upload). Archived from the original on November 2, 2021. Retrieved January 2, 2013 – via YouTube.
  12. ^ Vlady Poshyvanyuk (August 18, 2012). "The Berrics – Jason Lee decide to come to the park". The Berrics. Archived from the original (Video upload) on May 2, 2014. Retrieved January 2, 2013 – via YouTube.
  13. ^ Alina O (August 22, 2012). "JASON LEE TEAMS UP WITH TONY HAWK". Transworld Business. Bonnier Corporation. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
  14. ^ "Home". Stand Up For Skateparks. Tony Hawk Foundation. 2013. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
  15. ^ keepabreastvideo (October 3, 2012). "This Is My Pink Ribbon – Why Do You Wear Your Keep A Breast i love boobies! bracelet?". Archived from the original on November 2, 2021. Retrieved October 7, 2012 – via YouTube.
  16. ^ Christhundertrck (June 13, 2010). "Jason Lee-Awesome Stunt-Tony Hawk's Project 8" (Video upload). Google, Inc. Archived from the original on November 2, 2021. Retrieved January 2, 2013 – via YouTube.
  17. ^ Mark Sharkey (March 17, 2010). "Skate 3 Coming May 11". Gamespy. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
  18. ^ maydaydist (February 18, 2009). "Coach Frank visit stereo headquarter" (Video upload). Google, Inc. Archived from the original on November 2, 2021. Retrieved January 2, 2013 – via YouTube.
  19. ^ Blair Alley; Skin Phillips (September 4, 2012). "30TH ANNIVERSARY INTERVIEWS: MIKE CARROLL PART 1" (Video upload). Transworld Skateboarding. Bonnier Corporation. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
  20. ^ Blair Alley; Skin Phillips (September 6, 2012). "30TH ANNIVERSARY INTERVIEWS: MIKE CARROLL PART 2" (Video upload). Transworld Skateboarding. Bonnier Corporation. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
  21. ^ Badillo, Steve; Werner, Doug (2008). Skateboarding: Legendary Tricks. Tracks Publishing. p. 145. ISBN 978-1-884654-98-5. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  22. ^ Alley, Blair (January 9, 2012). "10 Most Influential Tricks Of All Time". Transworld Skateboarding. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  23. ^ Graham, Ian (April 21, 2014). "IN DEFENSE OF THE VARIAL FLIP". Jenkem Magazine. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  24. ^ "How to 360 Flip". Sidewalk Skateboarding. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  25. ^ Rodney Mullen: The Story Of The First Kickflip on YouTube
  26. ^ a b Paatsch, Leigh (March 21, 2002). "Reel Deal". Herald Sun. Melbourne, Australia. p. 38.
  27. ^ Howe, Desson (October 20, 1995). "Overcrowded Mallrats". The Washington Post. p. N44.
  28. ^ Crawford, Jeff (July 11, 2001). "Hot Heartbreakers Only Mildly Amusing". Messenger. Adelaide, Australia. p. 11.
  29. ^ Dowell, Gary (September 13, 2002). "Getting into Harvard lawless school – Ivy League requires some stolen green in likeable comedy". The Dallas Morning News. p. 1J.
  30. ^ Burr, Ty (March 21, 2003). "Bleedful Things – 'Dreamcatcher' a Jumble of Classic Stephen King Gore". The Boston Globe. p. mD1.
  31. ^ Rotten Tomatoes. "Jason Lee Biography". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster, Inc. Retrieved August 26, 2012.
  32. ^ Koltnow, Barry (January 3, 2008). "Chasing chipmunks". The Courier Mail. Brisbane, Australia. p. 34.
  33. ^ Itzkoff, Dave (January 8, 2006). "Trust Me, I'm Funnier With the Moustache". The New York Times. p. 33.
  34. ^ Nepales, Ruben V. (December 16, 2005). "Brokeback Mountain tops Golden Globe nominations". Philippine Daily Inquirer. p. 2.
  35. ^ "Golden Globes Ballot". San Francisco Chronicle. January 14, 2007. p. 24.
  36. ^ Longino, Bob (January 5, 2007). "SAG nominees have Oscar feel, diversified look". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. p. E14.
  37. ^ "'My Name Is Earl' Canceled By NBC". Parade. May 18, 2009.
  38. ^ a b Stanley, Alessandra (June 21, 2010). "Take Your Time, Crime Will Wait". The New York Times. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
  39. ^ Keveney, Bill (November 22, 2010). "'Raising Hope' creator Greg Garcia is not talking white trash". USA Today.com. Retrieved March 11, 2011.
  40. ^ Ross, Robyn (October 18, 2010). "Jason Lee to Guest Star on Raising Hope". TVGuide.com. Retrieved October 18, 2010.
  41. ^ Hughes, Jason (February 27, 2013). "'Raising Hope' Reunites 'My Name Is Earl' Cast For Tribute Episode". The Huffington Post. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
  42. ^ McGinnis, Sara (December 14, 2011). "ALVIN AND THE CHIPMUNKS: CHIPWRECKED". She Knows. SheKnows, LLC. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  43. ^ Lussier, Germain (June 11, 2013). "Fox Dates 'Frankenstein,' 'Alvin and the Chipmunks 3′ and Animated Films Through 2018". SlashFilm. /FILM. Retrieved December 7, 2013.
  44. ^ "Cocked [HD]: Amazon Video". Amazon Studios. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
  45. ^ "Media Release". Hallmark Hall of Fame Presents. 2015. Archived from the original on January 19, 2015. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
  46. ^ Williams, Matt. "Jason Lee's Photography of a Dust-Covered America". Format Magazine. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
  47. ^ "HOME". refueledmagazine.com. Archived from the original on September 20, 2016. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  48. ^ "A Plain View Splash". Jason Lee. Retrieved February 1, 2021.
  49. ^ "OK: Jason Lee Photographs". Retrieved February 1, 2021.
  50. ^ a b Dansby, Andrew (January 31, 2022). "Actor Jason Lee photographs Texas in a pandemic for the Galveston Historical Society". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
  51. ^ "In the Gold Dust Rush". STANLEY/BARKER. Retrieved February 1, 2021.
  52. ^ "How Skateboarder Turned Actor Jason Lee Started Photographing the American West". Vanity Fair. May 31, 2019. Retrieved May 11, 2022.
  53. ^ "Jason Lee's Ex-Wife Claims Scientology Ruined Her life". icelebz.com. April 5, 2010. Archived from the original on April 12, 2010. Retrieved June 12, 2024.,
  54. ^ Dawn Olsen (May 15, 2010). "Obsession With Scientology Ruined Actor Jason Lee's Marriage". technorati.com. Archived from the original on September 11, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
  55. ^ Llywelyn, Carmen (June 23, 2015). "Why I Left Scientology". Gawker. Gawker Media. Archived from the original on June 23, 2015. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
  56. ^ "Ex-Scientologist Carmen Llywelyn blasts 'cult' and her treatment after divorce with Jason Lee". independent.co.uk. June 30, 2015. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
  57. ^ a b "EXCLUSIVE: My Name Is Earl Star Jason Lee Has Baby Girl". usmagazine.com. August 22, 2008. Archived from the original on January 24, 2009. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
  58. ^ "Jason Lee Baby Name Mystery Solved! Pilot Inspektor's Sister Is..." namecandy.com. November 14, 2011. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
  59. ^ Julie Jodan (November 11, 2011). "Jason Lee & His Wife Get Married – Again!". People. Retrieved June 23, 2012.
  60. ^ Sarah Michaud; Julie Jordan (June 26, 2012). "Jason Lee Welcomes Son Sonny". people.com. Archived from the original on August 27, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
  61. ^ "Instagram photo by Ceren Alkaç Feb 5, 2017 at 4:28pm In April of 2019 the couple hae their fourth child, Edith Lee. UTC". Instagram. Archived from the original on December 26, 2021. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
  62. ^ a b Button, Sara (September 16, 2016). "Checking In With Jason Lee". The Dentonite. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
  63. ^ Bueno, Antoinette (September 20, 2016). "Jason Lee Reveals He Left the Church of Scientology". Entertainment Tonight. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  64. ^ a b Bakare, Lanre (February 1, 2021). "'I document America's strange beauty': the photography of My Name Is Earl's Jason Lee". the Guardian. Retrieved January 3, 2023.
  65. ^ "Barley and Board". discover denton. Retrieved September 1, 2022.

External links[edit]