|Birth name||John Phillip William Dankworth|
|Born||20 September 1927|
Woodford, Essex, England
|Died||6 February 2010 (aged 82)|
Marylebone, London, England
|Instrument(s)||Clarinet, alto saxophone|
Sir John Phillip William Dankworth, CBE (20 September 1927 – 6 February 2010), also known as Johnny Dankworth, was an English jazz composer, saxophonist, clarinettist and writer of film scores. With his wife, jazz singer Dame Cleo Laine, he was a music educator and also her music director.
Born in Woodford, Essex, he grew up, within a family of musicians, in Hollywood Way, Highams Park, a suburb of Chingford, and attended Selwyn Boys' (Junior) School in Highams Park and later Sir George Monoux Grammar School in Walthamstow. He had violin and piano lessons before settling eventually on the clarinet at the age of 16, after hearing a record of the Benny Goodman Quartet. Soon afterwards, inspired by Charlie Parker, he learned to play the alto saxophone.
He began his career on the British jazz scene after studying at London's Royal Academy of Music (where his jazz interests were frowned upon) and then national service in the Royal Air Force, during which he played alto sax and clarinet for RAF Music Services. In July 1947, he worked on the Queen Mary in Bobby Kevin's band, and in London with Les Ayling, later in 1947, and with Tito Burns until May 1948. He attended the Paris Jazz Festival in 1949 and played with Charlie Parker. Parker's comments about Dankworth led to the engagement of the young British jazz musician for a short tour of Sweden, with the soprano-saxophonist Sidney Bechet. In 1949, Dankworth was voted Musician of the Year.
In 1950, Dankworth formed a small group, the Dankworth Seven, as a vehicle for his writing activities as well as a showcase for several young jazz players, including himself (alto sax), Jimmy Deuchar (trumpet), Eddie Harvey (trombone), Don Rendell (tenor sax), Bill Le Sage (piano), Eric Dawson (bass) and Tony Kinsey (drums). Vocalist and percussionist Frank Holder also sang and recorded with this ensemble. After three successful years, the group was wound up, although it re-formed for several reunions over the years.
Dankworth formed his big band in 1953. Johnny Dankworth and His Orchestra had a top 10 novelty hit song in 1956 in the UK, "Experiments with Mice" based on "Three Blind Mice", which parodied a number of jazz bands and artists, including Billy May, Benny Goodman, Glenn Miller, Stan Kenton, Sauter-Finegan, and others. By now, Cleo Laine's singing was a regular feature of Dankworth's recordings and public appearances. After her divorce from George Langridge became final, in 1957, Dankworth married Cleo Laine in secret at Hampstead Registry Office in 1958. The only witnesses at the wedding were Dankworth's friend, pianist Ken Moule, and arranger David Lindup.
The band was earning plaudits from the critics and was invited to the 1959 Newport Jazz Festival, the first British group to receive an invite. The New York Times critic said of this appearance "Mr. Dankworth's group ... showed the underlying merit that made big bands successful many years ago – the swinging drive, the harmonic colour and the support in depth for soloists that is possible when a disciplined, imaginatively directed band has worked together for a long time. This English group has a flowing, unforced, rhythmic drive that has virtually disappeared from American bands". More succinctly, Gerard Lascelles of The Tatler, noted that 'The Dankworth orchestra blew magnificently'. The band performed at the Birdland jazz club in New York City, and shortly afterwards shared the stage with the Duke Ellington Orchestra for a number of concerts. Dankworth's band also performed at a jazz event at New York's Lewisohn stadium where Louis Armstrong joined them for a set.
In 1961, Dankworth's recording of Galt MacDermot's "African Waltz" reached the UK Singles Chart, peaked at No. 9, and remained in the chart for 21 weeks. American altoist Cannonball Adderley sought and received Dankworth's permission to record the arrangement and had a minor hit in the US as a result. The piece was also covered by many other groups. In 1967, drummer Ronnie Stephenson's part on "African Waltz" was adapted by the Jimi Hendrix Experience's Mitch Mitchell, to form the basis of the drum part on "Manic Depression".
Dankworth's friendship with trumpeter Clark Terry led to Terry's being a featured soloist on Dankworth's 1964 album The Zodiac Variations, together with Bob Brookmeyer, Zoot Sims, Phil Woods, Lucky Thompson and other guests. Other Dankworth recordings during this period featured many other respected jazz names. Some were full-time members of the Dankworth band at one time or another, like Tony Coe, Mike Gibbs, Peter King, Dudley Moore, George Tyndale, Daryl Runswick, John Taylor and Kenny Wheeler, while others such as Dave Holland, John McLaughlin, Tubby Hayes and Dick Morrissey were occasional participants.
Dankworth began a second career as a composer of film and television scores (often credited as "Johnny Dankworth"). Among his best-known credits are the original themes for two British TV programmes, The Avengers (used from 1961 to 1964) and Tomorrow's World. He also wrote the scores for the films Darling (1965) and Modesty Blaise and Morgan: A Suitable Case for Treatment (both 1966). He appeared in the film All Night Long (1962) with Dave Brubeck and Charles Mingus – playing himself – and played on the theme to the satirical BBC show The Frost Report in 1966.
Dankworth was commissioned to write a piece for the 1967 Farnham Festival; and produced "Tom Sawyer's Saturday"; written for full orchestra and narrator: "a sort of 'Peter and the Wolf' which could be played by most reasonably competent youth orchestras".
During this active period of recording, the Dankworth band nevertheless found time for frequent live appearances and radio shows, including tours in Britain and Europe with Nat King Cole, Sarah Vaughan and Gerry Mulligan, and concerts and radio performances with Lionel Hampton and Ella Fitzgerald.
1970s and 1980s
Dankworth's friendship with Duke Ellington continued until the latter's death in 1974. He recorded an album of symphonic arrangements of many Ellington tunes featuring another Ellingtonian trumpet soloist Barry Lee Hall. Dankworth also retained his Ellington links by performing with the Ellington Orchestra under the direction of Duke's son, Mercer Ellington. Dankworth recorded various symphonic albums with Dizzy Gillespie and the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra and others. Other jazz musicians with whom Dankworth performed include George Shearing, Toots Thielemans, Benny Goodman, Herbie Hancock, Hank Jones, Slam Stewart and Oscar Peterson.
He always had an enthusiasm for jazz education, for many years running the Allmusic summer schools at the Stables in Wavendon near Milton Keynes, a theatre that Laine and he created in January 1970 in their back garden. From 1984 to 1986, Dankworth was professor of music at Gresham College, London, giving free public lectures.
He appeared with Craig David on Later with Jools Holland on BBC Two. He set up his own record label, Qnotes, in 2003, to reissue some of his old recordings as well as new ones. They include a number with Julian Lloyd Webber, Dudley Moore and members of his family.
He remained an active composer into later life, and he wrote a jazz violin concerto for soloist Christian Garrick to play. This work had its world premiere at the Nottingham Royal Concert Hall on 3 March 2008, in partnership with the Nottingham Youth Orchestra.
In October 2009, at the end of a US tour with his wife, Dankworth was taken ill. The couple cancelled a number of UK concert dates for the following month. Dankworth did return to the concert stage for just one solo at the London Jazz Festival at the Royal Festival Hall, London, in December 2009. He played his sax from a wheelchair. He also played in John & Cleo's Christmas Show from 17 to 20 December 2009 at 'the Stables' in Wavendon.
- Experiments with Mice (Parlophone, 1956)
- 5 Steps to Dankworth (Verve, 1957)
- Itinerary of an Orchestra (Parlophone, 1960)
- England's Ambassador of Jazz (Roulette, 1960)
- Collaboration (Roulette, 1962)
- Jazz from Abroad (Roulette, 1963)
- What the Dickens (Fontana, 1963)
- The Zodiac Variations (Fontana, 1965)
- Modesty Blaise (20th Century Fox, 1966)
- John Dankworth and His Music (Fontana, 1970)
- Echoes of Harlem (Compendia, 1988)
- In a Mellow Tone: Tribute to Duke Ellington (Absolute, 2005)
- Spread a Little Happiness with Cleo Laine (Avid, 2006)
- About 42 Years Later with Danny Moss (Avid, 2007)
- Jady Aide with Alec Dankworth (Absolute, 2008)
As sideman or guest
With Alec Dankworth
- 1994 Nebuchadnezzar
- 1996 Rhythm Changes
With Cleo Laine
- 1976 Best Friends
- 1976 Born on a Friday
- 1978 Wordsongs
- 1989 Woman to Woman
- 2001 Live in Manhattan
- 2005 Once Upon a Time
- 1969 Windmill Tilter, Kenny Wheeler
- 1975 Love Is a Five Letter Word, Jimmy Witherspoon
- 1984 Metro, Rod Argent
- 1987 Crossing Over the Bridge, London Symphony Orchestra
- 1989 Jazzin' at the Pops, Al Hirt
- 2011 It Happens Quietly, Jacqui Dankworth
- 1958 We Are the Lambeth Boys
- 1960 The Criminal
- 1960 Saturday Night and Sunday Morning
- 1963 The Servant
- 1965 Darling
- 1965 Return from the Ashes
- 1965 Sands of the Kalahari
- 1966 Morgan!
- 1966 Modesty Blaise
- 1966 The Idol
- 1967 Accident
- 1967 The Last Safari (French "Le Dernier safari")
- 1967 Fathom
- 1968 Salt and Pepper
- 1968 The Other People
- 1968 The Magus
- 1970 The Last Grenade
- 1970 Perfect Friday
- 1971 10 Rillington Place
- 1975 The Kingfisher Caper
- 2000 Gangster No. 1
- 2001 Kiss Kiss (Bang Bang)
Television and radio
- 1959 The Voodoo Factor
- 1961 Survival
- 1961 The Avengers
- 1964 Rediffusion London startup theme and callsign.
- 1964 "Beefeaters"
- 1965 Tomorrow's World
- 1979 Telford's Change
- 1983 Today (BBC Radio 4)
- 1989 No Strings
- 1993 Money for Nothing (by Mike Ockrent)
- 2010 ZingZillas
- Obituary, The Times, 8 February 2010
- John Fordham (7 February 2010). "Sir John Dankworth obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- "Sir John Dankworth". The Telegraph. 7 February 2010. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
- Steve Voce (9 February 2010). "Sir John Dankworth: Saxophonist who pioneered modern jazz in Britain and became a patron of music education". The Independent. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
- Obituary, Los Angeles Times, 8 February 2010
- Colin Larkin, ed. (1992). The Guinness Encyclopedia of Popular Music (First ed.). Guinness Publishing. pp. 624/5. ISBN 0-85112-939-0.
- Whitburn, Joel (2007). Joel Whitburn's Top Pop Singles 1955-2006. Record Research. p. 216. ISBN 9780898201727.
- "Johnny Dankworth". The Official Charts Company.
- Dankworth Plans Trip to Newport, The Tatler, May 6, 1959
- Jazz at Two Festivals, The Tatler, September 2, 1959
- "John Dankworth vs White Defence League". YouTube. 23 October 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2022.
- Roberts, David (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums (19th ed.). London: Guinness World Records Limited. p. 140. ISBN 1-904994-10-5.
- Doerschuk, Andy. "Mitch Mitchell: The Hendrix Years". Drum!. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- John Dankworth at IMDb
- Programme Notes: Essex Youth Orchestra Charity concert in the Royal Festival Hall, 28 May 1972
- "John Dankworth". Quarternotes.com. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
- "No. 57855". The London Gazette (1st supplement). 31 December 2005. pp. 1–1.
-  Archived 2 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Stephen Graham, Jazz breaking news: Giant of British Jazz Sir John Dankworth Dies at 82, Jazzwise, 6 February 2010.
- "Jazz star Johnny Dankworth dies". BBC News. 7 February 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2010.
- "John Dankworth | Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- "Rediffusion". Transdiffusion.org. Archived from the original on 2 March 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "radiorewind.co.uk". Radiorewind.co.uk. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Audio Identities Radio news themes". Imagedissectors.com. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- John Dankworth discography at Discogs
- John Dankworth at IMDb
- Portraits of Sir John Philip William ("Johnny") Dankworth at the National Portrait Gallery, London
- on YouTube in performance with Julian Lloyd Webber
- Beethoven with a Bass Guitar? Fine!, John Fordham interviews Cleo Laine and John Dankworth in The Guardian, 15 November 2007