John Preston Bailey (born May 2, 1951) is a United States federal judge.
Born in Wheeling, West Virginia, Bailey received an A.B. from Dartmouth College in 1973 and a J.D. from West Virginia University College of Law in 1976. He was a law clerk to judge Charles H. Haden II of the U.S. District Court for the Northern and Southern Districts of West Virginia from 1976 to 1978. He was in private practice in Wheeling from 1978 to 2007, also serving as an assistant prosecuting attorney of Ohio County, West Virginia from 1985 to 1986, and a special assistant prosecuting attorney of Marshall County, West Virginia from 1985 to 1990.
On January 9, 2007, Bailey was nominated by President George W. Bush to a seat on the United States District Court for the Northern District of West Virginia vacated by Frederick P. Stamp, Jr.. Bailey was confirmed by the United States Senate on March 15, 2007, and received his commission on March 19, 2007. He served as chief judge of the district from 2008 through 2015.