Justicia adhatoda

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Justicia adhatoda
Justicia adhatoda 1.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Acanthaceae
Genus: Justicia
J. adhatoda
Binomial name
Justicia adhatoda
  • Adeloda serrata Raf.
  • Adhatoda pubescens Moench
  • Adhatoda vasica Nees
  • Dianthera latifolia Salisb.
  • Ecbolium adhatoda (L.) Kuntze
  • Gendarussa adhadota (L.) Steud.

Justicia adhatoda, commonly known in English as Malabar nut, adulsa, adhatoda, vasa, vasaka, [2][3] (Bengali: বাসক), (Marathi: अडुळसा), (Malayalam: ആടലോടകം), (Tamil:ஆடாதொடை), (Kannada: ಅಡುಸೋಗೆ adusoge)(Gujarati:અરડૂસી), (Hindi:अडूसा), (Telugu: వాసకం), is a medicinal plant native to Asia, widely used in traditional medicine.[4]

The plant's native range is the Indian subcontinent (Assam, Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka), Laos and Myanmar. It has been introduced elsewhere.[5]

Botanical description[edit]

Justicia adhatoda is a shrub with 10-20 lance-shaped leaves 8-9 centimeters in length by four wide. They are oppositely arranged, smooth-edged, and borne on short petioles.[citation needed] When dry they are of a dull brownish-green colour. They are bitter-tasting. When a leaf is cleared with chloral hydrate and examined microscopically the oval stomata can be seen. They are surrounded by two crescent-shaped cells at right angles to the ostiole. The epidermis bears simple one- to three-celled warty hairs, and small glandular hairs. Cystoliths occur beneath the epidermis of the underside of the blade.[6]

The trunk has many long opposite ascending branches, where the bark is yellowish in color. Flowers are usually white and the inflorescence shows large, dense, axillary spikes. Fruits are pubescent, and are with club-shaped capsules.

Chemical composition[edit]

The leaves of Justicia adhatoda contains phytochemicals such as alkaloids, tannins, saponins, phenolics and flavonoids.[7] The most important is vasicine, a quinazoline alkaloid.[4] The vasicine yield of the herbage has been measured as 0.541 to 1.1% by dry weight. Bromhexine, a serine protease inhibitor with mucolytic properties available over-the-counter in Europe, was originally derived from Justicia adhotada.[8]

Traditional medicine[edit]

This shrub has a number of traditional medicinal uses in Siddha medicine, Ayurveda, homeopathy,[9] and Unani medicine.[4]


  1. ^ "Justicia adhatoda L.". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2019-01-26.
  2. ^ "Common Names for Malabar Nut (Justicia adhatoda)". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
  3. ^ Aslam, Mohd; Rais, Sumbul; Alam, Masood; Pugazhendi, Arulazhagan (2013). "Adsorption of Hg(II) from Aqueous Solution Using Adulsa (Justicia adhatoda) Leaves Powder: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies". Journal of Chemistry. 2013: 1–11. doi:10.1155/2013/174807. ISSN 2090-9063.
  4. ^ a b c "Facts about for Malabar Nut which are not known (Justicia adhatoda)". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
  5. ^ "Justicia adhatoda L.". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2019-01-27.
  6. ^ Kumar, M., Dandapat, S., Kumar, A. and Sinha, M.P. Anti-typhoid activity of Adhatoda vasica and Vitex negundo Persian Gulf Crop Protection, 2013; 2(3): 64-75 http://corpprotection.ir/files_site/paperlist/Journal2-3-130906213336.pdf Archived 2015-05-29 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Kumar, M., Kumar, A., Dandapat, S. and Sinha, M. P. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant potency of Adhatoda vasica and Vitex negundo, The Bioscan; 8(2): 727-730, 2013 http://www.thebioscan.in/Journal%20Supplement/82Sup26%20MANOJ%20KUMAR.pdf
  8. ^ https://mrmjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40248-017-0088-1
  9. ^ "JUSTICIA ADHATODA - HOMOEOPATHIC MATERIA MEDICA - By William BOERICKE". homeoint.org. Retrieved 2019-12-15.

External links[edit]