Kamloops Indian Residential School

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Kamloops Indian Residential School
Kamloops-indian-residential-school-1930 (cropped).png
Kamloops Indian Residential School c. 1930.
Location

Coordinates50°40′47″N 120°17′43″W / 50.6796°N 120.2952°W / 50.6796; -120.2952
Information
Former nameKamloops Industrial School
TypeCanadian Indian residential school
Religious affiliation(s)Catholic
Established1893
Closed1978
AuthorityCatholic Church in Canada
OversightCrown–Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada
Principal
  • Micheal Hagan (1890-1892)
  • A.M. Carion (1893-1916)
  • James Mcguire (?-1927)
  • John Duplanil (1927-?)
  • T. Kennedy (?-1939)
  • James Fergus O'Grady (1939-?)
  • G.P. Dunlop (1958-?)
GenderCoed
Enrolment500
LanguageEnglish

The Kamloops Indian Residential School was part of the Canadian Indian residential school system. Located in Kamloops, British Columbia, it was once the largest residential school in Canada, with its enrolment peaking at 500 in the 1950s.[1][2]

The school was established in 1890 and in operation until 1969, when it was taken over by the federal government from the Catholic Church to be used as a day school residence. It closed in 1978.[3][nb 1] The school building still stands today, and is located on the Tk’emlúps te Secwépemc First Nation.[5]:14

In May 2021, the remains of 215 children buried in unmarked graves were discovered using ground-penetrating radar.[6][7][8]

History[edit]

What would become the Kamloops Indian Residential School was established in 1893, after initially opening on May 19, 1890, as the Kamloops Industrial School.[2][9] The stated aim of the school was the acculturation of Indigenous children.[2] J.D. Ross of Kamloops was awarded the $10,000 contract to erect the initial set of industrial school buildings in April 1889.[10] Three two-storey wooden structures were the first buildings on the site, consisting of separate living quarters for boys and girls, and the school's teachers, along with classrooms and a recreation area.[11]

Michel Hagan, the industrial school's first principal, resigned in 1892, at which time the government charged the Oblates of Mary Immaculate with running the school.[2] Father Alphonse-Marie Carion was named principal of the school in March 1893, following Hagan's departure.[12] In his 1896 annual report to the Department of Indian Affairs, Carion emphasized that the moral and religious training of students at the school was "the most important of all" and that school officials kept

"constantly before their mind the object which the Government has in view in carrying on the industrial-schools, which is to civilize the Indians, to make them good, useful and lawabiding members of society."[13]

He remained principal of the school until 1916.[14]:34

In 1927, John Duplanil succeeded James Mcguire[nb 2] as principal of the school, following Maguire's appointment as curate of St. Patrick's Church in Lethbridge, Alberta.[17] James Fergus O'Grady was named principal in 1939, following the departure of T. Kennedy.[15]:719 G.P. Dunlop took over as head of the school in 1958, relocating from a position at the Eugene Mission Indian School in Cranbrook, British Columbia.[18]

The school, located on the traditional territory of the Secwepemc (Secwépemcúl'ecw), continued as the Kamloops Indian Residential School until 1978. The school was taken over by the federal government in 1969. During this time it operated as a residence for students attending other area schools until it permanently closed.[4]

The school was featured in the 1962 Christmas-themed film Eyes of the Children.[19] Produced by George Robertson, the film followed 400 students as they prepared for Christmas and aired on the CBC on Christmas Day.[20] Gerald Mathieu Moran worked there while the documentary was filmed. A boy’s supervisor, he was charged in the 1990s with several dozen sex crimes committed at the Kamloops Indian Residential School. He pled guilty and spent three years in jail.[21] A former student told a TRC hearing that another instructor would come into the girls' dorm at night with a flashlight and choose a girl to assault.[21]

In the 1988 book Resistance and renewal: surviving the Indian residential school, Celia Haig-Brown argued that the school system had failed due to the resistance of the Shuswap (Secwepemc) people, since they still existed as a nation:

"Although its effects have been devastating for individuals, the Kamloops Indian Residential School was not successful in its attempts to assimilate the Native people of the Central Interior of the province."[14]:57

In 1991, a special edition of Secwepemc News offered a different perspective, reporting that the public policy which led to the 80-year operation of the school had "done its job; English is now the predominant language within the Shuswap Nation and the survival of the Shuswap language is uncertain."[22]

The building was the first location of the Secwepemc Museum, which opened in 1982.[23]

School attendance and conditions[edit]

New classroom building of Kamloops Indian Residential School circa 1950

Hundreds of children attended the school, many forcibly removed from their homes following the introduction of mandatory attendance laws in the 1920s.[2] The children who attended were not allowed to speak their native language and were whipped for using it.[24] In addition to Secwépemc children, students from communities across British Columbia attended the school, including Penticton, Hope, Mount Currie, and Lillooet, along with students from other provinces.[2][nb 3]

At one point, it was the largest Canadian residential school.[4][25] Canadian politician Leonard Marchand, a member of the Okanagan Indian Band, attended the school.[26] So did George Manuel, of the Secwépemc Nation, who said his three strongest memories of the school were: "hunger; speaking English; and being called a heathen because of my grandfather."[15]:191

In 1910, the principal said that the government did not provide enough money to properly feed the students.[27] On December 24, 1924, the girls' wing of the school was destroyed by a fire, forcing 40 students into −10 °C (14 °F) weather in only their night clothes.[28] Three years later, in 1927, a report outlining the conditions at the school concluded that the poor construction of buildings at the school led to "numerous infections, colds, bronchitis, and pneumonia" during the previous winter.[29]:55 During the 1957–1958 influenza pandemic, the Kamloops district health officer, D. M. Black, reported that half of the students at the school had been ill.[30] At the time, health officials from the University of British Columbia acknowledged the infection rate was "slightly more than normal but not a serious worry."[30]

In 2015, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada determined that the residential schools were a system of "cultural genocide". It concluded that at least 4,100 students died while attending the schools, many of them due to abuse, negligence, disease, and accidents.[1] The report concluded that it would be impossible to estimate the total number of deaths that occurred at the schools.[31]

Mandatory European folk dancing[edit]

The school operated a girls' folk dancing program beginning in the 1940s that focused on European dance styles only.[32]:479 Sister Mary Leonita initially taught Irish dancing, and later, other European folk styles including Swiss and Ukrainian dancing.[32]:479 Children in the program were prohibited from learning indigenous dances.[11]

Dancers from the program were featured at the 1960 Pacific National Exhibition.[33] In July 1964, girls from the school went to Mexico and performed in a series of festivals. Canadian embassy officials called them the "finest ambassadors ever to come from Canada".[34] The Knights of Columbus raised the funds for the trip.[35] The same year, group leader Sister Mary Leonita transferred away from the school, and the dance program was disbanded.[36]

Students who participated in the program were subjected to harsh punishment, including being hit with a shillelagh or being badly humiliated for mistakes.[32]:484

Discovery of unmarked graves[edit]

In May 2021, evidence of 215 unmarked graves was found near the school with the assistance of a ground-penetrating radar specialist.[3][25][37] There had long been accounts of unmarked graves at residential schools, but none had previously been uncovered.[1][38] Kukpi7 (Chief) Rosanne Casimir of Tk’emlúps te Secwépemc (TteS) said the finding represented "an unthinkable loss ... never documented by the school's administrators",[39] and that work was underway to determine whether the Royal British Columbia Museum holds relevant records.[25] The radar survey is ongoing, with complete preliminary findings expected by mid-June 2021.[1][7][needs update]

The work underlying the initial discovery was funded by a provincial Pathway to Healing grant and carried out by the Nation's Language and Culture Department (Shuswap: C7élksten̓s re Secwépemc ne Ck̓úl ̓ tens ell ne Xqwelténs), with advice from ceremonial Knowledge Keepers to ensure the work was done respectfully. In the press release issued by TteS announcing the discovery, Kukpi7 Casimir thanked "preliminary work" done in the early 2000s that led to the discovery.[7]

The National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation has so far released official recognition of some 51 students[40] who died at the school. Their dates of death range from 1919 until 1971.[40] The Regional Chief of the British Columbia Assembly of First Nations, Terry Teegee, said in May 2021 there were plans being made for forensic experts to exhume, identify and repatriate the remains of the children from the school.[41]

Reactions[edit]

The community memorial at the Vancouver Art Gallery as of 2021 June 6th

In a statement released by the First Nations Health Authority, CEO Richard Jock expressed sadness.

"That this situation exists is sadly not a surprise and illustrates the damaging and lasting impacts that the residential school system continues to have on First Nations people, their families and communities."[3]

Premier of British Columbia John Horgan said that he was "horrified and heartbroken" at the discovery, and that he supported further efforts to bring to "light the full extent of this loss".[1] Federal Minister of Indigenous Services Marc Miller also offered his support.[3] Prime Minister Justin Trudeau called the discovery "heartbreaking" the day of the announcement, and on May 30, ordered flags on federal buildings to be flown at half-mast until further notice. Some institutions flew the Canadian flag at half-mast for 215 hours, to mark 1 hour for each child. [42][43] Other half-mastings included flags at the BC and Manitoba legislatures as well as individual municipalities such as Ottawa, Montreal, Edmonton, Mississauga, Brampton, and Toronto, which also ordered the 3D Toronto sign dimmed for 215 hours.[43][44]

In a statement released May 31, 2021, the Office of the Chief of Tk’emlúps te Secwépemc acknowledged the gestures made by the government and federal parties, but insisted the government face accountability to all communities subjected to the enduring effects of the federally-mandated Indian Residential School system.[45]

Angela White, executive director for the Indian Residential School Survivors Society, also called on the Canadian federal government and Catholic Church to take action and responsibility towards reconciliation efforts, stating:

"Reconciliation does not mean anything if there is no action to those words ... [w]ell-wishes and prayers only go so far. If we are going to actually create positive strides forward there needs to be that ability to continue the work, like the Indian Residential School Survivors Society does, in a meaningful way."[46]

The May 31 press release also urged the "growing crowds" that had been coming to the community since the discovery was confirmed to "defer from visiting until further notice," due to the risks associated with the COVID-19 pandemic in British Columbia, which had not caused any deaths in the community up until that point.[45]

The discovery inspired a community memorial at the Vancouver Art Gallery, at which 215 pairs of children's shoes were laid out in rows.[47] Similar memorials were created across Canada, including in front of government buildings and church buildings that had been in charge of running the residential school system. At the Ontario Legislative Building, security initially ordered the shoes removed before acquiescing. The Anishinabek Nation tweeted in support of social media calls to put out teddy bears on porches on May 31, similar to what was done after the 2018 Humboldt Broncos bus crash with hockey sticks. Another popular campaign called on people to wear orange on May 31.[44]

Within days of the discovery, the University of British Columbia announced a review of an honorary degree granted to James Fergus O'Grady, a former Kamloops Indian Residential School principal, in 1986.[48] He authored a letter to parents in 1948 about the "privilege" of Christmas break, stating that any travel costs associated with students going home would have to be covered by their families and that any children who failed to return to school by January 3 would be prohibited from Christmas break the following year.[48][5]:15 In the 2007 documentary The Fallen Feather, Ernie Philip shared his experience of corporal punishment as a student at the school, stating that he "got 50 lashes on my back" from O'Grady after Philip was caught running away from the school.[5]:15[49]:21[50]

On June 2, 2021, Archbishop of Vancouver J. Michael Miller said that the Catholic Church would help to identify the deceased children.[51]

On June 4, 2021, nine United Nations human rights experts called on Canada and the Catholic Church to carry out thorough investigations, and "conduct full-fledged investigations into the circumstances and responsibilities surrounding these deaths, including forensic examinations of the remains found, and to proceed to the identification and registration of the missing children."[52]

On June 6, 2021, speaking to people gathered in St. Peter's Square, Pope Francis commented on the discovery:[53]

“.. This sad discovery increases the awareness of the sorrows and sufferings of the past ... May the political and religious authorities continue to collaborate with determination to shed light on this sad affair and to commit to a path of healing."[54][55][56]

In response to the discovery, the Government of Ontario pledged $10 million to fund a search for unmarked graves in residential schools throughout Ontario.[57]

Calls have been made by some for Canada Day festivities to be either cancelled or modified in order to promote reconciliation, out of respect for the discovery.[58] On June 10, the city of Victoria, British Columbia announced that its Canada Day festivities (which were to be a virtual event due to COVID-19 restrictions) would be cancelled, and that an alternative broadcast would be produced in collaboration with the local First Nations that will "[explore] what it means to be Canadian, in light of recent events."[58][59] Similar decisions to cancel municipality-led Canada Day festivities were made by Prince Edward County, Ontario,[60] and Air Ronge, La Ronge, and Lac La Ronge Indian Band.[61] According to a poll released on 17 June 2021 by the Innovative Research Group, 77% of Canadian respondents said they were "very familiar" or "somewhat familiar" with the reports of human remains of Kamloops Indian Residential School.[62]

On June 22, 2021, Chinese government demanded an investigation for the human rights violations against the Indigenous people in Canada at the UN Human Rights Council, which was supported by Belarus, Iran, North Korea, Syria, Russia and Venezuela. Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau responded that, "In Canada, we had a Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Where's China's Truth and Reconciliation Commission? China is not recognizing there is even a problem. That is a pretty fundamental difference."[63][64]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The year the school closed is inconsistently reported with some indicating 1977 and other indicating 1978 as the final year of operation. The National Student Memorial, maintained by the National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation, lists the year the school closed as 1978.[4]
  2. ^ Surname erroneously spelled in publication as 'Maguire'. Volume 1 of the Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada uses Mcguire as spelling and identifies first name as James.[15]:420 The same surname spelling appears in the 1927 Annual Report of the Department of Indian Affairs.[16]
  3. ^ The Indian Residential School History & Dialogue Centre's entry for the Kamloops school includes a more extensive list of student's home communities.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Austen, Ian (28 May 2021). "'Horrible History': Mass Grave of Indigenous Children Reported in Canada". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Favrholdt, Ken. "Kamloops History: The dark and difficult legacy of the Kamloops Indian Residential School". Kamloops This Week. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d "Remains of 215 children found buried at former B.C. residential school, First Nation says". CBC News. 28 May 2021. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  4. ^ a b c "Kamloops (St. Louis)". National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  5. ^ a b c Project of the Heart: Illuminating the hidden history of Indian Residential Schools in BC (PDF). The BC Teachers’ Federation: Educating for truth and reconciliation. 2015. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  6. ^ "Indigenous Groups in Canada Call for Nationwide Search After Recent Discovery of Mass Grave at Kamloops Indian Residential School | June 1, 2021". The Daily NewsBrief. 1 June 2021. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  7. ^ a b c "05-May-27-2021-TteS-MEDIA-RELEASE.pdf" (PDF) (Press release). Kamloops: Office of the Chief, Tk’emlúps te Secwépemc. 27 May 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  8. ^ "Canada mourns as remains of 215 children found at indigenous school". BBC. BBC. May 29/21. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  9. ^ a b "Kamloops (BC)". Indian Residential School History & Dialogue Centre. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  10. ^ "One for Kamloops". Inland Senteniel. 13 April 1889. p. A04. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  11. ^ a b Thomas, Leona (June 1990). "KIRS - First school built 1890". Secwepemc News. Kamloops, British Columbia: Shuswap Nation. p. 22.
  12. ^ "Our Inland Empire: Mining, Agriculture and Other News Culled and Condensed". Vancouver Daily World. 8 March 1983. p. 5. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  13. ^ Carion, A.M. (1896). "Kamloops Industrial School, Kamloops, B.C., 1st August 1896". Dominion of Canada Annual Report of the Department of Indian Affairs for the Year Ended 30th June 1896. Department of Indian Affairs: 604–608. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  14. ^ a b Haig-Brown, Celia (2006). Resistance and renewal : surviving the Indian Residential School. Vancouver, B.C.: Arsenal Pulp Press. ISBN 0889781893. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  15. ^ a b c Canada's Residential Schools:The History, Part 1 - Origins to 1939 (PDF). Montreal: Truth and Conciliation Commission of Canada. 2015. ISBN 978-0773546509. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  16. ^ "Statement of Indian Residential Schools in the Dominion for the Fiscal Year ended March 31, 1927". Dominion of Canada Annual Report of the Department of Indian Affairs for the Year Ended March 31, 1927. Department of Indian Affairs: 89–96. 1927. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  17. ^ "New Principal at Kamloops Indian School". The Province. Vancouver. 25 December 1927. p. 7. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  18. ^ "B.C. News Roundup: Kootenays". The Province. Vancouver. 6 August 1958. p. 26. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  19. ^ "'The Eyes of Children' - Christmas at a residential school". CBC. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  20. ^ "Indian school subject of 'special'". The Ottawa Citizen. 22 December 1962. p. 45. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  21. ^ a b 'I learned how to hate': What it was like to attend Kamloops Indian Residential School: 'Imagine yourself being a kid being taken away from your family, being thrown into a place where you don’t know anybody … it’s like going to prison'. Tristin Hopper. National Post, Jun 07, 2021.
  22. ^ "Storytellers-the Keepers of Shuswap Culture". Secwepemc News. Kamloops, British Columbia: Shuswap Nation. March 1991. p. 19.
  23. ^ Secwépemc, Tk’emlúps te. "Secwpemc Museum & Heritage Park". Tk’emlúps te Secwépemc. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  24. ^ Fournier, Suzanne (21 March 1990). "Native tongue to be revived in credit course". The Province. Vancouver. p. 13.
  25. ^ a b c "Remains of 215 children found at former Kamloops residential school". Globe & Mail. 28 May 2021. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  26. ^ Williams, Bryce (20 June 1968). "Kamloops: 23-Year Fulton Empire Shaky?". The Vancouver Sun. p. 6.
  27. ^ Kamloops Residential School. National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation, University of Manitoba
  28. ^ "Kamloops Indian School Burned". Victoria Daily Times. 24 December 1924. p. 1. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  29. ^ Canada's Residential Schools:Missing Children and Unmarked Burials (PDF). Montreal: Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. 2015. ISBN 978-0-7735-4658-5. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  30. ^ a b "City Free of Mass Flu Cases". The Province. Vancouver. 30 September 1957. p. 19.
  31. ^ CNN, Paula Newton. "'Unthinkable' discovery in Canada as remains of 215 children found buried near residential school". CNN. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  32. ^ a b c Canada's Residential Schools: The History, Part 2 - 1939 to 2000 (PDF). Montreal: Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. 2015. ISBN 978-0-7735-4652-3.
  33. ^ "Dancers Invited". The Vancouver Sun. 25 May 1960. p. 8.
  34. ^ Silver, Bill (15 February 1995). "A Look at the Past - From the files of the Nechako Chronicle". Omineca Express. p. 12.
  35. ^ "Dance Team Gets $9,630". The Vancouver Sun. 20 July 1964. p. 6.
  36. ^ "Dance Group to Disband". The Province. Vancouver. 15 September 1964. p. 1. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  37. ^ "This radar technology helped find the burial site of 215 children in Kamloops, B.C. — could it find others?". thestar.com. 1 June 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  38. ^ "05-May-27-2021-TteS-MEDIA-RELEASE.pdf" (PDF) (Press release). Kamloops: Office of the Chief, Tk’emlúps te Secwépemc. 27 May 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2021. “We had a knowing in our community that we were able to verify. To our knowledge, these missing children are undocumented deaths,” stated Kukpi7 Rosanne Casimir. “Some were as young as three years old. We sought out a way to confirm that knowing out of deepest respect and love for those lost children and their families, understanding that Tk’emlúps te Secwépemc is the final resting place of these children.”
  39. ^ "Indigenous people in Canada grapple with 'unthinkable loss'". Al Jazeera. 29 May 2021.
  40. ^ a b https://memorial.nctr.ca/?p=1452
  41. ^ Meissner, Dirk (29 May 2021). "Work underway for forensic experts to identify, repatriate children's remains from B.C. residential school". The Canadian Press. CBC.
  42. ^ "Remains of 215 Children Found at Former Indigenous School Site in Canada". Voice of America. Reuters. 28 May 2021. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  43. ^ a b "Flags on federal buildings lowered in memory of Kamloops residential school victims". CBC News. 30 May 2021. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  44. ^ a b Yun, Tom; Agecoutay, Creeson; Jones, Alexandra Mae (30 May 2021). "Tiny shoes and lowered flags: Memorials spread for 215 First Nations children found buried in mass grave in B.C." CTV News. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  45. ^ a b "Statement from the Office of the Chief, Kukpi7 Rosanne Casimir" (PDF) (Press release). Kamloops: Tk̓emlúps te Secwépemc. 31 May 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 June 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  46. ^ Dickson, Courtney (28 May 2021). "Residential school survivors society calls for action following discovery of children's remains". CBC. CBC.
  47. ^ "Vancouver memorial growing to honour 215 children buried at residential school site". Victoria News. Canadian Press. 29 May 2021. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  48. ^ a b Kurjata, Andrew (31 May 2021). "UBC reviewing honours given to Catholic bishop and former Kamloops residential school principal". CBC News. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  49. ^ Bezeau, Randy N. (2007). "The Fallen Feather: Indian Industrial Residential Schools and Canadian Confederation" (PDF). Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  50. ^ https://www.worldcat.org/title/fallen-feather-indian-industrial-residential-schools-and-canadian-confederation/oclc/238893544
  51. ^ "Catholic Archbishop says church will help identify the remains of 215 children found near old Kamloops residential school".
  52. ^ "Canada PM slams church amid call for probe into Indigenous deaths". Al Jazeera. 5 June 2021.
  53. ^ D'emilio, Frances (6 June 2021). "Pope voices sorrow over Canadian deaths, doesn't apologize". CP24.
  54. ^ "Pope Francis stops short of apology over deaths in ex-Catholic school in Canada". the Guardian. 6 June 2021.
  55. ^ "Pope Francis expresses sorrow over residential school deaths but doesn't apologize". Global News.
  56. ^ "Pope calls for reconciliation, healing over Canada school discovery". Reuters. 6 June 2021.
  57. ^ Carter, Adam (15 June 2021). "Ontario pledging $10M to identify and commemorate residential school burial sites". CBC News. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  58. ^ a b "One Canadian city has cancelled Canada Day: Should Toronto follow suit?". CTV News Toronto. 16 June 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  59. ^ "Victoria scraps online Canada Day event after remains found at Kamloops residential school". Global News. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  60. ^ "Prince Edward County to celebrate Canada Day differently this year". Global News. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  61. ^ Leroux, Chad (18 June 2021). "Northern Sask. communities cancel Canada Day celebrations". CTV News Saskatoon. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  62. ^ "The news from Kamloops shook this country. Will it change anything?". CBC News. 23 June 2021. Archived from the original on 26 June 2021.
  63. ^ Taylor, Adam (22 June 2021). "China calls for Canada human rights inquiry, preempting demand for investigation into abuse of Uyghurs". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 22 June 2021.
  64. ^ Ljunggren, David; Nebehay, Stephanie (22 June 2021). "Canada's Trudeau angrily questions China seeking probe of indigenous children's remains". Reuters. Archived from the original on 22 June 2021.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 50°40′47″N 120°17′42″W / 50.67972°N 120.29500°W / 50.67972; -120.29500