Kingdom of Illyria

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Kingdom of Illyria
Königreich Illyrien (de)
Ilirsko kraljestvo (sl)
Regno d'Illiria (it)
Kraljevina Ilirija (hr)
1816–1849
Flag of Illyria
Flag
Coat of arms of Illyria
Coat of arms
Kingdom of Illyria within the Austrian Empire (1822-1849)
Kingdom of Illyria within the Austrian Empire (1822-1849)
StatusCrown land of Austria
CapitalLjubljana
Common languagesItalian, Slovene,
Croatian, German
Religion
Roman Catholic
GovernmentMonarchy
King 
• 1816–1835
Francis I
• 1835–1848
Ferdinand I
• 1848–1849
Francis Joseph I
Statthalter 
Historical eraModern history
3 August 1816
8 December 1849
CurrencyThaler
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Illyrian Provinces
Duchy of Carniola
Duchy of Carinthia
Austrian Littoral
Today part ofAustria
Croatia
Italy
Slovenia

The Kingdom of Illyria was a crown land of the Austrian Empire from 1816 to 1849,[1] the successor state of the Napoleonic Illyrian Provinces, reconquered by Austria in the War of the Sixth Coalition and restored according to the Final Act of the Vienna Congress. Its administrative centre was in Ljubljana (officially German: Laibach)

Upon the Revolutions of 1848, the kingdom was dissolved and split into the Austrian crown lands of Carniola, Carinthia and the Austrian Littoral.

Geography[edit]

The French Illyrian Provinces had comprised Carniola and western ("Upper") Carinthia as well as the Adriatic territories of Gorizia and Gradisca, Trieste and the Istrian peninsula. They had also included the Dalmatian coast and the lands of the Kingdom of Croatia south of the Sava River. Parts of the territories on the Adriatic Sea had been annexed by the Habsburg Monarchy from Venice in the 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio. Upon the dissolution of the Provinces, the Austrian government split-off Dalmatia and merged the eastern ("Lower") part of Carinthia into what was to become the Kingdom of Illyria.

The territory of the kingdom included the modern Austrian state of Carinthia and the western and central part of present-day Slovenia, i.e. Carniola with the capital Ljubljana, the Slovenian Littoral (Goriška and Slovenian Istria), and Slovenian Carinthia. It also included some territories in north-western Croatia (present-day Istria County and the Kvarner Gulf islands of Krk, Cres and Lošinj) and north-eastern Italy (eastern parts of the Friuli–Venezia Giulia region, i.e. the former Provinces of Trieste and Gorizia and some small parts of Udine around Tarvisio in the north east and Cervignano del Friuli in the south east). In 1822, Civil Croatia between the right bank of the Sava and Rijeka was again merged into the Habsburg Kingdom of Croatia.

History[edit]

The Kingdom of Illyria was formed to counter the territorial pretenses of the Kingdom of Hungary and the influences of the Russian Empire, but it lost on its significance with the Hungarian annexation of Civil Croatia and Rijeka.[1] The legal and administrative reforms made by the former French authorities deeply transformed the administrative structures of these territories, so the Austrian Imperial authorities thought it better to group most of them as a separate administrative entity, enabling a slow incorporation into the Austrian legal, judicial and administrative system.

The Kingdom of Illyria was officially established on 3 August 1816.[2] It initially also included Croatian territory that was part of the Napoleonic Croatie civile. However, in the early 1820s the pre-Napoleonic Croatian kingdom was re-established, which also included the territories which had formed part of the Kingdom of Illyria (the city of Rijeka/Fiume with eastern Istria and the province of Karlovac).

Map of the enlarged Kingdom of Illyria, entitled Zemljovid Slovenske dežele in pokrajin ("Map of Slovene Lands and Provinces")

In the Spring of Nations in 1848, Slovenes advanced a proposal to include Lower Styria in the Kingdom of Illyria, so most of the Slovene Lands would be united in a single administrative entity and the idea of a United Slovenia would thus be achieved. Peter Kozler designed a map of such an enlarged Kingdom of Illyria, which would later become an important national symbol in the Slovenian national consciousness. The proposal was, however, rejected by the Habsburg Emperor. The Kingdom of Illyria was gradually mentioned less and less and for the last time officially appeared in 1849 as a crown land in the March Constitution of Austria.[1]

Administration[edit]

From 1822 to 1848 it was administered by the Imperial-Royal Government in Ljubljana (Laibach) for the Kreise (provinces) of Ljubljana, Novo Mesto (Neustadt), Postojna (Adelsberg), Villach (Beljak) and Klagenfurt (Celovec) and the Imperial-Royal Government for Littoral in Trieste for the Kreise of Istria (Istrien), Gorizia (Görz) and the imperial city of Trieste.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Vidic, Marko, ed. (2000). "Ilirsko kraljestvo" [Kingdom of Illyria]. Ilustrirana zgodovina Slovencev [The Illustrated History of the Slovenes]. Mladinska knjiga. p. 213. ISBN 86-11-15664-1.
  2. ^ "3. avgust" [3 August]. Delo.si (in Slovenian). 2 August 2006.

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 46°03′N 14°30′E / 46.050°N 14.500°E / 46.050; 14.500